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The Verses of Jihad in Quran: Meaning, Reason of Revelation, Context and Background - Part 11

By Badruddoja Razvi Misbahi, New Age Islam

(Translated from Urdu by Newageislam.com)

11 January 2022

Explaining verses 3:151 and 48:20 out of 26 Verses Presented by Wasim Rizvi in Supreme Court

Main Points Discussed In Part 11

1.           The Quranic commentators [Mufassirin] argue about whether Allah Almighty’s promise (of instilling fear in the hearts of disbelievers) is limited to the day of Uhud or is universal.

2.           Most commentators hold the opinion that this divine promise is specific to the day of Uhud.

3.           All the commentators agree that verse 3:151 exclusively refers to the disbelievers who spilt the blood of Muslims with tremendous cruelty on the day of Uhud.

4.           As all commentators have agreed, the verse (3:151) definitely does not refer to current disbelievers and polytheists in our country or around the world.

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Allah says in the Quran:

(1)      “We will cast dread into the hearts of those who disbelieve because they have set up partners with Allah, to which He has revealed no evidence. Their abode is Hell, and what an evil abode of injustice!” (3:151)

(2)      “Allah has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] and has hastened for you this [victory] and withheld the hands of people from you - that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path.” (48:20)

In the first verse of this part of the article, Allah Almighty says that the Muslims should not be concerned about the momentary victory and success of the disbelievers and polytheists since He will soon place fear and awe in their hearts, prompting them to abandon the battlefield.

Those who are familiar with the Ghazawat history know that in the battle of Uhud, the Muslims initially triumphed over the infidels and polytheists of Makkah and were advancing with triumphant glory, but their victory was turned into defeat due to the archers' negligence and abandonment of the front. As a result, one hundred eight or seventy-four companions [Sahaba] from the Ansar and Muhajireen were martyred. The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) sustained injuries himself. His lowest tooth had been sacrificed. His bottom lip was swollen and bleeding. Amr ibn Qamiyyah threw a rock at the Prophet, breaking two links of his helmet and causing him to fall into one of the secret pits dug by the enemies. Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Talha backed him up to stand. Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah used his teeth to rip out both links of the Prophet's helmet one by one, losing two of his teeth in the process. The situation was such that Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed's (who did not convert to Islam at the time) invasion threw the Islamic army into disorder and reorganised the infidels and polytheists.

Abu Sufyan (who had not yet converted to Islam) and his associates were wandering in the battlefield looking for the bodies of the Holy Prophet, Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar. Abu Sufyan climbed the hilltop and asked the Muslims where Abu Kabasha, Ibn Qohafa, and Ibn Al-Khattab were, but no one responded. All were dead, Abu Sufyan thought since if they were alive, they would respond. Hazrat Umar who couldn't bear the silence any longer said, “O the adversary of God! You are a liar because we're all here”. The conversation between the two then went on for a while. Then, when the Muslims were vanquished and their bodies were strewn across the battlefield of Uhud, the Kuffar fled the battlefield with no apparent threats. The reason why the disbelievers fled from the battlefield is that Allah Almighty suddenly instilled such fear and awe in the hearts of the disbelievers and polytheists that their footsteps became detached from the battlefield and they made their way to Makkah. As Allah says: ““We will cast dread into the hearts of those who disbelieve...” (3:151)

The Quranic commentators [Mufassirin] argue about whether Allah Almighty’s promise (of instilling fear in the hearts of disbelievers) is limited to the day of Uhud or is universal.

Most commentators hold the opinion that this divine promise is specific to the day of Uhud because the earlier verses were only revealed in relation to the fight of Uhud. Then the commentators who believe in such a commentary expressed the state of infusing Muslim horror in polytheists' thoughts. There are two reasons for this. The first is that when the disbelievers prevailed over and defeated the Muslims, Allah implanted fear and glory in their thoughts, enabling them to run away from there without being threatened.

Abu Sufyan mounted the hilltop and asked, “Where are Ibn Abi Kabshah (the Holy Prophet), Ibn Abi Qohafa, Ibn Al-Khattab?” as previously stated. Hazrat Umar replied to Abu Sufyan, making him tremble, and Abu Sufyan did not dare to descend from the mountain and move farther towards the Muslims, instead, fleeing to Mecca, saying, “We will return here again next year.”

The second reason is that on their trip to Makkah, the disbelievers and polytheists stopped at a location along the path and discussed the possibility of launching a decisive attack upon their return. They were outraged that they had abandoned the Muslims despite their win. The reason for this was that the disbelievers were going to assault and uproot the Muslims, but Allah, praise be to Him, instilled fear in their minds, and they returned to Makkah instead of attacking.

This divine promise, according to some commentators, was more generic than specific to the day of Uhud. Despite the fact that this event occurred on the Day of Uhud, these commentators think that Allah Almighty instilled fear in the hearts of disbelievers and polytheists until they were defeated, and Islam triumphed over all religions. Thanks to Allah Almighty's fulfilment of this promise, Muslims governed several parts of the world for centuries, with Islam being triumphant over all religions.

Scholars and commentators have debated whether Allah Almighty will create terror in the hearts of all disbelievers, or simply in the hearts of disbelievers and polytheists battling Muslims on the Day of Uhud, based on this verse (3:151). Some scholars argue that this verse is interpreted according to its apparent meaning and that it relates to general disbelievers and polytheists. On the contrary, all the commentators [Mufassirin] agree that it exclusively refers to the disbelievers who spilt the blood of Muslims with tremendous cruelty on the day of Uhud. [See Imam Razi, Tafsir-e-Kabir under the verse 3:151)

As all commentators have agreed, the verse “We will put dread into the hearts of those who disbelieve...” (3:151) definitely does not refer to current disbelievers and polytheists in our country or around the world.

By the second part of this verse, “...because they have set up partners with Allah, to which He has revealed no evidence...” (3:151), Allah Almighty has stated the reason for instilling fear in the hearts of the disbelievers and polytheists.

Allah Almighty has made man the best of all creatures. The intellect and nature do not believe it is proper for a man to worship someone or something other than himself. Allah Almighty created all the strength and magnificence in man's nature. Regardless, if he worships lower-ranking creatures and considers them as his sustainer, providers, and rulers, it is as though he, as a king, has adopted the enslavement of worthless things. Associating someone else in God's worship is the greatest injustice and, without a doubt, the most serious offence, and when the crime is severe, the penalty must be harsh, as God Almighty declares at the end of this verse.

2.       “Allah has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] and has hastened for you this [victory] and withheld the hands of people from you - that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path..” (48:20)

In this verse of Surah Al-Fatah, Allah Almighty promised Muslims a large amount of booty and He has even delivered them numerous spoils of war in a hurry. This alludes to the war spoils that the Muslims received as a result of the conquest of Khyber, which Allah Almighty states in Surah al-Fatah verse 19: "And much war booty which they shall seize." Allah is Exalted in Might and Wisdom forever." (40:19)

The Arabic phrase "Maghaanim Katheera" in verse 40:20 refers to the spoils that Allah has set aside for the Muslims at specific times until the Day of Resurrection.

And, according to a portion of the Quranic verse, “...withheld the hands of people from you,” who are the individuals whose hands Allah has kept from reaching the Muslims, protecting their lives, property, and honour?

There are two points of view in it. The first is that it relates to the people of Khayber and their allies Banu Asad and Banu Ghatfan, with a total number of seventy thousand people in Khyber alone. Less than a month after the Prophet (peace be upon him) came from Hudaybiyyah, a report of the march of the Jews of Khyber arrived. They had joined the Banu Ghatfan tribe's 4,000 men, promising that once Madinah was conquered, they would always give the Banu Ghatfan half of the Khyber’s produce. However, Allah Almighty instilled fear in their hearts, and as a result, they broke their mutual pact.

The second view is that it relates to the hands of the people of Makkah. (For more on verse 40:20, read Tafseer Ruh al-Bayaan and Tafsir-e-Abi Saud.) Both sides agreed not to take military action against each other for ten years under the terms of the Hudaybiyyah peace pact. The Muslims benefited from this, as it provided them with an opportunity to take action against the Jews. The Jews of Khyber were quickly discouraged by the prospect of losing support from the people of Makkah and were defeated by the Muslims. The route was paved, and it became evident that the peace pact of Hudaybiyyah was not a defeat for the Muslims, but rather a forerunner to tremendous successes.

The portion of verse 40:20 that says, “...that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path” denotes that after returning from Hudaybiyyah, Allah Almighty gave the Muslims the victory of Khayber and that He gave them many spoils and protected them from the reach of the enemy.

There is a sign for the believers in this. This sign alerted the Muslims to the fact that the provisions of the Hudaybiyyah Peace Treaty ostensibly pointed to the weakness of the Muslims but were actually a prelude to great victories behind the scenes. The conquest of Khayber, as well as the conquest of Makkah, is an example of this. Muslims were allowed to enter the Haram, and both Arabs and non-Arabs were brought under the jurisdiction of Islam. In this way, the Muslims recognised the authenticity of the Holy Prophet’s (peace be upon him) pledge to his companions [Sahaba] while returning from Hudaybiyyah, that this Hudaybiyyah agreement was a clear triumph for them, and that this marked the way to trust and rely on Allah in all situations.

(Continuing)

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Maulana Badruddoja Razvi Misbahi, Principal of Madrasa Arabia Ashrafia Zia-ul-Uloom Khairabad, District Mau, UP (India) is a Sufi-minded, well-mannered, classical Islamic scholar, an expert teacher, an excellent writer, a good poet and orator. He has authored numerous books, some of which are as follows: 1) Fazilat-e-Ramazan, 2) Zad-ul-Haramain, 3) Mukhzin-e-Tib, 4) Tauzeehat-e-Ahsan, the commentary on  the well-known logical book “Mulla Hasan” 5) Muhazarat fi Halle Qutbi Tasawwurat, 6) Tahzib al-Faraid commentary on “Sharh al-Aqaid”, 7) Atayib al-Tahani fi Halle Mukhtasar al-Ma’ani, 8) Commentary on Sahih Muslim

 

Other Parts of the Articles:   

The Verses of Jihad: Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 1

The Verses of Jihad: Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 2

The Verses of Jihad: Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 3

The Verses of Jihad- Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 4

The Verses of Jihad in The Quran - Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background - Part 5

The Verses of Jihad in The Quran - Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background - Part 6

The Verses of Jihad in Quran: Meaning, Reason of Revelation, Context and Background - Part 7

The Verses of Jihad in Quran: Meaning, Reason of Revelation, Context and Background - Part 8

The Verses of Jihad in Quran: Meaning, Reason of Revelation, Context and Background - Part 9

The Verses of Jihad in Quran: Meaning, Reason of Revelation, Context and Background - Part 10

URL:   https://www.newageislam.com/debating-islam/jihad-quran-revelation-context-background-part-11/d/126131


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