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Debating Islam ( 29 Apr 2021, NewAgeIslam.Com)

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The Verses of Jihad in The Quran - Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background - Part 6

By Badruddoja Razvi Misbahi, New Age Islam

29 April 2021

(Translated by New Age Islam)

Explaining Three Verses (9:23, 5:51, 5:57) Out of 26 Verses Presented by Wasim Rizvi in Supreme Court

Main Points Discussed in Part 6

1.    The Prohibited Act in three verses (9:23, 5:51, 5:57) is Muwalat

2.    Muwalat is Forbidden but Mu’amalat Is Permissible

3.    Muwalat and Mu’amalat are two different things and thus not concomitant with each other

4.    An excerpt from Fatawa Razviyya speaks of impermissibility of Muwalat and permissibility of Mu’amalat

5.    These three verses do not forbid peaceful coexistence 

(5) “O you who have believed, do not take your fathers or your brothers as allies if they have preferred disbelief over belief. And whoever does so among you - then it is those who are the wrongdoers.” (9:23)

(6) “O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They are [in fact] allies of one another. And whoever is an ally to them among you - then indeed, he is [one] of them. Indeed, Allah guides not the wrongdoing people.” (5:51)

(7) “O you who have believed, take not those who have taken your religion in ridicule and amusement among the ones who were given the Scripture before you nor the disbelievers as allies. And fear Allah, if you should [truly] be believers.” (5:57)

Wasim Rizvi presented these verses too in his petition and claimed that these verses incite hatred and violence in the country. (May Allah safeguard us from such misinformation!)

Since the prohibited act (manhi ‘anhu) mentioned in these three verses is common, we have included these verses together in this part to avoid the repetition of the answer.  In these verses, Allah Almighty has prohibited the believers from establishing muwalaat (friendship) with Jews, Christians, infidels, polytheists and apostates and expressed His displeasure and anger at those who do so with them.  

Before dealing with this subject, we want to make it clear to the anti-Islamic elements that Islam is a natural religion that has not come to play with the life of human beings. Instead, Islam has come into existence to make human life progressive, successful and elevate them to the high rank of perfection. Therefore, Wasim Rizvi and anti-Islamic elements should know that these verses forbid exhibiting muwalaat (friendship in matters of religion) to the Jews, Christians, Infidels, polytheists and apostates but they don’t forbid muamalat with them, that is, they don’t forbid dealing with them nicely, such as, buying, selling, doing transactions, establishing peaceful coexistence and sitting together. These verses don’t forbid developing worldly affairs with them as long as they are not harmful to one another. Therefore, those who accuse the Quran of inciting hatred and violence must understand well that Muwalaat and Mu’amalat are two different things. They are not concomitant with each other. It may be that you do mu’amalat (worldly affairs) with someone throughout your life, such as doing the transaction, buying and selling, but you don’t have even a nominal friendship and relationship with them. It also may be that you have established friendship, affection and inclination to someone, but you have never made any transaction and coexistence with them. It has become clear from this difference that neither friendship is indispensable for mu’amalat nor muwalaat or friendship for mu’amalat. There is a huge difference between mu’amalat and mu’amalat. Allah Almighty, in the afore-mentioned verses, has forbidden muwalat with Jews, Christians, infidels, polytheists and apostates but He Almighty has not forbidden the believers from establishing mua’amalat, transaction and peaceful coexistence, with them.

The reason for forbidding muwalat is that it might be that the Muslims lose their faith by developing excessive friendship and keeping them in their hearts and falling in love with them. In such a case, they might give them their religious and national secrets and turn away from Islam as Wasim Rizvi is a living example of that. It is the result of deep affection and muwalat towards the anti-Islamic elements that he rebelled against Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him). He has accused the three caliphs and become apostate to sit in the lap of anti-Islamic elements and speaking in their favour.

It should be known to the world that Islam does not forbid promoting national unity and social harmony, spending life peacefully with the brothers of the homeland, meeting one another’s worldly needs, interacting with them nicely, doing business or social welfare work with them. If Islam forbids, it forbids muwalat. This is not only about Islam. Even the laws of several countries don’t allow friendship with a foreigner to the extent of revealing national secrets. They don’t allow the citizens to develop a relationship with any foreigner or enemy to such an extent that they disclose the military and other secret activities to him and put the lives of the citizens at risk. If anyone violates such a national law, he is prosecuted under the provisions of treason and then punished to become a lesson and admonition for others.

Now we will present some proofs for what we have discussed above. When the initial verses of Surah Mumtahina were revealed, for example, “O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies” (60:1). The believers exceeded the limits in enmity with the infidel relatives. Then Allah Almighty revealed the verse, “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes - from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.” (60:8)

The author of Tafsir-e-Abi Saud has written under the commentary of this verse (60:8) that “Allah does not forbid you from being righteous and acting justly towards those who have not inflicted oppression and aggression upon you and who have not expelled you from your homes” (Tafsir-e-Abi Saud, vol.8, p.238)

Similarly, the author of Tafsir-e-Madarik writes commenting on this verse (60:8) that “you should respect those who have not oppressed you and you should treat them with kindness, benevolence and justice in both action and words” (Tafsir-e-Madarik, vol.3, p.248). After this verse, Allah Almighty says to differentiate between two types of infidels and polytheists, “Allah only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion - [forbids] that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers.” (60:9)

Now we will quote some excerpts from the book “Fatawa Razviyyah” authored by Imam Ahmad Raza, as his research is final and the most authentic for us. In response to the question “what is the meaning of Birr and Mu’amalat in the verses of Surah Mumtahina?” Ala Hazrat Imam Ahmad Raza says,

“It has become clear from this research that the verse “la yanhakum...i.e. Allah does not forbid you from being righteous .....” refers to what is the middle path (awsat) because the highest (A’ala) category of Muwalat (such as Rukun, Widaad, Ittehad, Inqiyaad and Tabattul) is forbidden even with those who are Mu’ahidin (the people with whom there is a treaty of peace) and the lower category of muwalat (such as mu’amalat and mudarat) is permissible even with those who are ghair-mu’ahidin (i.e. those with who there is no peace-treaty). The verse (60:8) was revealed to differentiate [two groups of people]. It has also become clear that in the verse (60:9) “innama yanhakum i.e. Allah only forbids you from those who fight you.........” the phrase “La tuwalluhum” refers to the same ‘relationship and kindness’ (Birr and Sila) so that the difference between two parties can become clear.

“It is mentioned in Tafsir-e-Ma'alim and Tafsir-e-Kabir, (translation) “Then Allah mentioned those people with whom good relationship (sila) is not permissible, as He Almighty says, “Allah only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion - [forbids] that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers.” (60:9) (Fatawa Razviyya, vol.14, p.469, published Markaz-e-Ahle Sunnat Barkate Raza Purbandar Gujrat)

We will now briefly describe the cause of revelation of the Quranic verses mentioned at the beginning of this part. Addressing all the believers in verse 23 of Surah At-Tawbah, it was said that one should not do muwalat with infidels and polytheists. This verse was revealed about the migrants (muhajirin). When the conditions in Makkah became very bad, the Companions were commanded to emigrate. Some people asked why a person could leave his parents, brothers and sisters, relatives, land, property and home. Thereafter this verse was revealed, as Tafsir-e-Abi Saud mentions the same thing. (Tafsir Abi Saud, vol.4, p.54)

When this verse was revealed, the Companions carried out the command of Allah and His Messenger so strictly that when their relatives came to them, they would not pay any attention to them, nor would they stay with them, nor would they spend anything on them. There is another statement that this verse was revealed about those who returned to Mecca after apostasy.

In verse 51 of Surah Al-Maidah, the believers were commanded not to do muwalat (friendship and companionship) with the Jews and Christians. This was revealed to forbid helping them and asking them for help and having heartfelt relations with them. This was specifically revealed during the disputation of Hazrat Ibadah b. Samit, the Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Abdullah b. Ubayy, the leader of the hypocrites. However, the ruling of this verse is general as explained in the books of Tafsir.

Verse 57 of Surah Al-Maidah was revealed about Rufa’ah bin Zayd and Suwaid bin Harith who first showed their Islam and then showed hypocrisy (munafaqat). Some Muslims were fond of developing relationship and friendship despite their hypocrisy. Therefore this was revealed, as the same thing is mentioned in Tafsir-e-Madarik (vol. 2, p.290).



Maulana Badruddoja Razvi Misbahi, Principal of Madrasa Arabia Ashrafia Zia-ul-Uloom Khairabad, District Mau, UP (India) is a Sufi-minded, well-mannered, classical Islamic scholar, an expert teacher, an excellent writer, a good poet and orator. He has authored numerous books, some of which are as follows: 1) Fazilat-e-Ramazan, 2) Zad-ul-Haramain, 3) Mukhzin-e-Tib, 4) Tauzeehat-e-Ahsan, the commentary on  the well-known logical book “Mulla Hasan” 5) Muhazarat fi Halle Qutbi Tasawwurat, 6) Tahzib al-Faraid commentary on “Sharh al-Aqaid”, 7) Atayib al-Tahani fi Halle Mukhtasar al-Ma’ani, 8) Commentary on Sahih Muslim

Other Parts of the Articles:   

The Verses of Jihad: Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 1

The Verses of Jihad: Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 2

The Verses of Jihad: Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 3

The Verses of Jihad- Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 4

The Verses of Jihad in The Quran - Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background - Part 5


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