By Prof. Henry Francis B. Espiritu, New Age Islam
28 August 2020
I. The Failure of Hyper-Rationalist Philosophy to Satisfy and Quench the Famished Hearts of Spiritual Seekers
Theistic philosophers of varied creedal convictions have composed numerous dissertations disproving atheism and agnosticism by means of sound philosophical analyses and logical proofs. However, owing to the overly cerebral and analytically complicated way in which their treatises were written, they failed miserably in touching the discerning hearts of spiritually thirsty souls who are seeking for innate certainty in their pilgrimage of faith. Indeed, there is a grave spiritual peril in employing philosophy as the basis of refuting atheism and agnosticism. A philosophical argument used to prove God’s existence can be logically controverted and counter-arguments can be likewise deployed to deny the existence of the Supreme Being. Therefore, using philosophy to prove or disprove the existence of a Supreme Being is not only desperately tentative and spiritually counterproductive, but also outright barren.
A Punjabi Sufi saint of medieval India, Hazrat Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakar (circa, A.D., 1173-1266) complained regarding the uncertainty of philosophical reasoning (as a way of ascertaining the existence of Absolute Truth) in his very emotional prayer to God. He cried deep within his spirit: “Oh my soul, philosophy is weariness to the heart—arguments fly here and there and like arrows, counter-arguments fly in different directions piercing my head heavy with scholarly suppositions. I searched the Beloved at the gate of philosophy, I seek my Friend in the winding paths of logic... but alas, the arrows of logical pros-and-cons have killed me. Oh my Beloved, I seek refuge in You from the confusions and scruples of my restless mind. Grant me grace to reach Thy vision. It is Thy Face alone that suffices my parched and barren heart.” (See, Amir Munir Suhrawardy, Baba Farid ka Munajat [Baba Farid’s Supplications]. Pakpattan, Pakistan: Khanqah Kitabkhanah, n.d.; p. 38.).
II. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s Utter Distrust of Human Philosophy’s Claim to Know the Absolute Truth
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (circa, A.D., 1836-1908)—another Punjabi mystic and theologian considered by followers of Ahmadiyyah-Lahori sect of Islam as a great Mujaddid (Renewer) of Islam—echoed Hazrat Baba Farid’s complaint regarding the uncertainty of a faith that is solely based on human philosophy. Philosophy cannot be an indubitable basis of our faith in God because it is based on the suppositions of the human mind (See Izalah-i Auham, quoted by Dr. Basharat Ahmad, The Great Muslim Reformer of the Present Age: Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Hayward, California: Lahore Ahmadiyya Publications, 2001; pp. 31-32.). The human mind alone, if unaided by God’s mercy (Rahmat) and self-revelation (Ilhaam), cannot fathom the great mysteries of life, the universe and existence. Philosophy, despite its claim to certainty and universality, is nothing but a bewildering array of contradicting views and theories that often change according to times and climes (See at length, Dr. Basharat Ahmad, op. cit., specifically the sections, “Emergence of Dialecticians’’ and “The Appearance of the Mujaddid of the Times”; pp. 16-23.).
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad insists that the only way by which humankind can arrive at the absolute conviction of God’s existence is by reflecting on the self-revelation of God in the Holy Book (Al Qur-an) as explained and exemplified by the Holy Prophet Muhammad. The reflective reading of God’s self-revelation as found in the Holy Qur-an and the reverential devotion accorded to the Sunnah (Holy Tradition) of the Prophet of Islam, are for Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad the potent arsenals in refuting the menace of atheism and agnosticism in the heart of humanity (See, Naseer A. Faruqui, Ahmadiyyat in the Service of Islam. Newark, California: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore, 1983; pp. 82-85. Compare also Dr. Basharat Ahmad, op.cit., specifically Chapter II, “The Basis of the Holy Imam’s Dialectics [‘Ilm Al-Kalam]”; pp. 25-49.).
Philosophy (even if such a philosophy is “theistic”)—as an incomplete vehicle in ascertaining the existence of God—can only bring the person to a logical and mental assent of the possibility of Divine Existence. By deductive as well as inductive reasoning, one is compelled to assent verbally and mentally that indeed God exists. Theistic philosophy often uses naturalistic arguments in proving the reality of God’s existence—but this contemplative reflection of nature is not enough.
One will accept in a cerebral manner the fact of God’s existence but despite this mental assent, one’s heart will still be void of absolute certainty (Haqq-Wa-Yaqeen) of God’s reality. The heart can never be serene and tranquil until it reaches certainty of faith (Tahqiq-Ul-Iman). Certainty of one’s faith in God can be only attained by taking hold of the truth of Revelation as found in the Holy Qur-an, since the Holy Book is God’s self-revelation of His Person to His creatures. Believing in the truths as found in the self-revelation of God to humankind is the only way for humans to achieve spiritual firmness and calmness of the heart (sukun-e-dil).
III. Divine Revelation as found in the Holy Quran-an and the Exemplary Life of the Prophet: Veritable Foundations of Ascertaining Spiritual Truths
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s spiritual magnum opus, Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya (Ahmadiyya Proofs) is a veritable reflective commentary of the Holy Qur-an (tarjuman-e-Qur'an) that combines his spiritual, mystical, and experiential insights of Divine enlightenment in the course of his prayerful reading and introspective meditations of the Holy Qur-an (See, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, A Brief Sketch of My Life [Kitab-al-Bariyya]. Columbus, Ohio: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore, 1996; Chapters 4 & 5 “Spiritual Experiences” and “Divine Appointment and Claims”; pp. 16-32.). Furthermore, Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya and the other spiritual writings of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad utilize the pure Word of Allah in the Holy Qur-an and the righteous precedents set by Prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah to elucidate, exemplify, and instantiate in practical terms the Divine truths found in the pages of the Holy Qur-an. According to Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the Holy Book, the perfect exemplary conduct of the Prophet, and the private revelations of certainty (ilham) vouchsafed by Allah to His beloved saints (awliya) and reformers (mujaddid) are indeed indispensable testimonies in proving the existence of God (Ibid.).
God’s revelation of His Divine Names and Attributes are gifts of grace (ni’mat) and mercy (rahmat). Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was aware that apprehending the divine truths in the Holy Quran can only happen when God bestows His enabling grace to the person reading and contemplating its message. The holy prophets (Rasul), saints (Awlia), and regenerators of faith (Mujaddid) encountered the Supreme Lord in a very intimate and personal way. Their very own virtuous lives are perfect models and proofs of the Reality of God. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claims that his divine office as the Renewer (Mujaddid) of Islam for the fourteenth century of the Islamic Era (Hijrah) is God’s bestowal of mercy on the Islamic Ummah (community). He understood that his commission as a Mujaddid is for the revitalization of the Islamic faith, which was attacked by atheism, agnosticism, colonial missionary-peddlers, positivistic empiricism, hyper-rationalism and atheistic materialism (See at length; Maulana Muhammad Ali, The Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Newark, California: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore, 1984; pp. 8-23.).
IV. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's Claim of Being "Mujaddid" (Regenerator) of Islam and His Office of Upholding and Defending Divine Revelation
The devout believer can show to the world the reality of God and the truth of His presence in the universe, because he himself has experienced God in his very own inner life. Whereas a rationalist philosopher—no matter how theistic he is in his philosophical commitment, and no matter how well he proves God’s existence in his characteristic cold, calculative and logical rationalism—can never produce the spiritual fervour, ecstatic joy, divine faith and exuberant zealousness of the Prophets and saints.
Through revelation (Wahy or Ilham); prophets, saints, and regenerators of the faith perceive in their souls the absolute truth and certainty of monotheism (Tawheed), as revealed in the pure light of the Holy Quran-an. Thus, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a Mujaddid saint is bold, outspoken and courageous in his confidence in the truth of Divine Revelation. Furthermore, he firmly exhorts the faithful to put their trust in the Holy Qur-an and the Sunnah of the Prophet as indubitable and inconvertible bases of true faith.
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad says: "My dear child, the sterile logic of this world is a ‘Satan’. And the ephemeral philosophy of this world is like Iblis. It greatly covers the light of faith and gives rise to bravado and takes one close to atheism... [G]uard yourself against this and develop a humble and meek heart and become such that you obey the commandment without dispute and dissent, just as a child obeys his mother... I have attained this perfection by following the Qur-an and the Holy Prophet and if the ultimate objective of religion is to develop a personal relationship with God, I have by following the Quran and the Holy Prophet, achieved this objective. There is no other religion in the world that can transport a man to these heights. Islam is the only living and true faith, a faith by following which, one attains to God-realization." (Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Izalah-i Auham, quoted by Dr. Basharat Ahmad, op.cit., pp. 41-42.).
During the British Raj in India, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, through his spiritual and mystical writings, exerted his utmost to revitalize the faith of Indian Muslims when anti-Islamic forces from all sides vehemently attacked the foundational tenets of Islam. By giving rational, mystical, allegorical, as well as spiritual proofs on the truth of Islam, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad guided the Muslims of India in that difficult and torturous period of their history. During the British colonization of India, irreligious forces inimical to Islam strived to remove the inborn love for Islam and for the Holy Prophet Muhammad in the heart of the Indian Muslims by conducting slanderous propaganda aimed against Islam and by imposing laws that endeavoured to efface the beautiful Islamic heritage that was rooted in the Indian subcontinent for many centuries.
Atheistic ideologies, sectarian divisions among Indian Muslims, as well as materialistic, hyper-rationalistic and positivistic empiricist philosophies aided the anti-Islamic forces of British colonialism in denigrating Islamic faith and traditions. Against this historical backdrop, the defense and renewal of Islam were the reasons that impelled Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to strongly declare and publicly proclaim his Mujadiddiyyat (divine role of reformation) and to criticize all human-made philosophies that denigrate the pristine revelation of Islam (Cf. Maulana Muhammad Ali, True Conception of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Columbus, Ohio: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore, 1996; pp. 1-17, 49-55.). Human knowledge devoid of guidance from the All-Intelligent God will cause the weakening of faith, degradation of morals, laxity in worship, and loss of a compassionate heart characterizing a proper human being.
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad—seeing the extreme poverty of human philosophy in explaining the purpose of life—warned the Muslims not to trust in the directions of those human philosophers whose minds are not sanctified in the truths of faith. To quote from Dr. Basharat Ahmad in his assessment of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s scathing critique of mundane philosophy: “A philosopher is like a blind man, groping in the dark, trying to discover some argument. It is quite possible that he may or may not find correct arguments by this blind search and he may or may not draw the correct conclusions from these. That is why God, the Most High, has differentiated between a prophet and a philosopher in the Qur-an: ‘Can a seeing man and a blind man be alike? (35:19)’... Thus the difference between a philosopher and a prophet is the same as the difference between a blind man and a man with his sight... Hence, all those perfect followers [i.e. saints] of the Holy Prophet who had tasted of the spiritual experience based their invitation to men on this personal experience of God...” (Dr. Basharat Ahmad, op .cit., p. 32.).
V. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s Scathing Criticisms of Hyper-Rationalist Philosophies as Poor Approximations of the Absolute Truth
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad understood that hyper-rationalist philosophy that is devoid of Divine Revelation is nothing but a poor approximation of Reality. The philosophers—with faltering reasoning and error-prone suppositions—can only best theorize and speculate about Ultimate Reality. On the other hand, the prophets and the saints (being the inheritors of the wisdom of the prophets) fully know of Reality since the Almighty God, as the Absolute Truth graciously deigned to impart these truths to the hearts of the prophets and saints by His divine favour (Ni’mat). Prophets and saints can impart the truth to the seeking hearts because they themselves have seen (Deedar) and tasted (Zawq) the Reality of God in their lives. Thus, the saints’ invitation for us to partake of the spiritual life is directly based on their very own personal encounter with the Reality of God in their experiences of daily living. This personal encounter with God Who is the Absolute Truth, as mediated through Divine Revelation (Wahy), is poetically expressed by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in this manner: “It is the light of the Quran that turned out to be the most resplendent of all lights: Pure is He from Whom gushed forth this flood of light. The entire world have I combed and all shops have I hunted: Of pure wine of Divine knowledge, have I found this one phial… I live by the Word of God that comes to me. His message is to me as the food of my soul…” (Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam of Fiji, Quest After God: Glimpses of the Life of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Suva, Fiji: Fiji Ahmadiyya Publications, n.d.; pp. 22, 41.).
Western philosophy’s claim to knowledge and certainty failed to convince Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. During the British colonization of India, when modern Western philosophy is outrightly encouraged, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad firmly held to, and tenaciously defended the truths of Islam. His faith had never been affected by the constant and consistent bombardments of worldly philosophers against the Islamic faith. Whenever there is a clash between modernist philosophies and Islam, he would never become powerless in the face of such mundane philosophies. His writings courageously protected the creed of Islam by using sound philosophical truths and Qur’anic expositions to establish the truths of Islam and pin down the mistakes of Western philosophy (Ibid., pp. 31-32.).
Reading the many treatises, he authored, one is constantly amazed at how Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad—although he was not formally schooled in Western sciences and philosophies—could with elegance of speech, with profound philosophical reasoning responded effectively, and dismissed forcefully the assaults raised by Western philosophy against Islam.
Reading the Barahin-i-Ahmadiyya, one can notice that Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was deeply convinced that his spiritual and mystical writings were God’s bestowment on him as Ilhaam (personal revelation) for the regeneration of the Islamic faith (Cf. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, A Brief Sketch of My Life, op. cit., pp. 16-24.). He had undergone the purgative and transformative experiences (Riyazat Wa Mujahadat)—these experiences of spiritual purification culminated in what Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad calls the “experiences and encounters of spiritual visions” (Ru’yah and Ilhaam) which gave him the overwhelming conviction of God’s Reality (Ibid, pp.18-20. Also, see at length Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Testimony of the Holy Qur’an [Shahadat Al-Qur’an]. Newark, CA: Ahmadiyyah Anjuman Ishaat Islam, 1989; pp. 1-51, for the complete narrative of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s conviction of the truth of the Holy Qur’an and his role as a Mujaddid of Islam.).
This was the reason why he never became apprehensive whenever he was confronted with the assaults of Western philosophy against the integrity of the Blessed Qur-an. Through allegorical examples, metaphorical instantiations, deductive proofs, inductive reasoning, and most of all; mystical intuitions, personal revelations, and spiritual visions, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad demonstrated that he could use philosophy “at its own game” and defeat it by utilizing philosophy’s own arsenals, and thus upheld the crystal-clear truths of Islamic belief in Divine Revelation.
VI. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s View of the Proper Place of Philosophy vis-à-vis Divine Revelation: “Philosophy as Servant of the Quran-an and not its Master”
Lest we misinterpret Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to be an inveterate enemy of philosophy, let it be understood that what he was against is the philosophy or philosophies that aim to destroy religious principles—philosophies that are utilized by anti-Muslims to attack the Islamic faith (e.g., empiricism, positivism, materialism, agnosticism, atheistic philosophies, etc.). Likewise, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad asserts that philosophies tending to support the logical concept of a Divine Being (i.e., theistic philosophies, naturalized theologies, theistic existentialism, etc.), if devoid of the sure guidance of Divine Revelation, such philosophies still cannot be infallible guides in arriving at the reality (Haqiqat) or certainty (Yaqeenan) of God’s existence.
The above-mentioned points must be remembered when one seeks to properly understand Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s cutting criticisms of human philosophies. If one seriously looks at his spiritual writings, one will clearly notice that Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad employed logical reasoning and rational proofs in elucidating and explaining the Islamic faith. Furthermore, he utilized philosophical analogies and instantiating metaphors as examples, in the same way that he deployed deductive and inductive reasoning in expounding the truths of Islam. For him, the real purpose of philosophy is in giving logical support and analytic proofs of Divine Revelation. Philosophy finds its nobility in being a servant to the truths of the Holy Qur-an in the same way that science is likewise a means to explain theological principles (Cf. Maulana Muhammad Ali. True Conception of the Ahmadiyya Movement. op. cit., pp. 14-18.).
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad has no sympathy with the movements of modernist and ultra-rationalist Indian Muslim thinkers, e.g., Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Syed Amir Ali, and Prof. S. Khuda Bakhsh. For him, these Western-influenced Muslim philosophers and modernist ulama made the Quran subservient to mundane philosophies and materialistic sciences. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad felt that these modernists and “neo-Mutazilites” have no qualm in forcing the Qur’anic Revelation to “tow in line” with modern science. In contrast with these ultra-rationalist ulama, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad contends that secular philosophies and sciences are not the “masters” of the Qur’anic truths; instead, they should serve the cause of Divine Revelation (Cf. Maulana Muhammad Ali, The Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, op.cit., pp 93-94.).
It is likewise interesting to note that Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s view regarding the superiority of Divine Revelation over and above science and philosophy perfectly echoes the stance made by another Mujaddid (Regenerator of Islam), the medieval Muslim theologian Hazrat Imam al-Ghazali (circa, 1058-1111 A.D.) in his celebrated book, The Incoherence of the Philosophers. In this book, Hazrat Imam al-Ghazali likewise asserts that without the guiding revelation of God as found in the Holy Qur-an, the enterprise of human philosophy will simply self-destruct; since philosophy due to its varied and conflicting theories will only lead the seeking soul to mental confusions, self-doubts, nihilism, agnosticism and spiritual turbulence. It is the indubitable guidance of Divine Revelation alone that can deliver humankind from spiritual uncertainties and self-deception coming from the human being's own misguided and untamed self (nafs-e-ammarah) (See Oliver Leamann, A Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy. Oxford: Polity Press, 1999; pp. 24-26.).
VII. By Defending the Primacy of Divine Revelation over Human Philosophy, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Had Done a Great Service to all Monotheistic Faiths and Divinely Revealed Religions
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s critique of philosophy in his defense for the truths of Islamic revelation is geared towards confirming the prophetic foundation of Islam as an authentic divinely revealed religion. He repeatedly points-out in his writings that the fundamental basis of Islam is the Holy Quran-an and all other areas of knowledge are subordinate to and in the service of the Qur’anic revelation. It is God Himself Who guarantees the truth of the Holy Qur-an since it is God Who revealed the Quran to the world.
Therefore faith (Iman) in the One God and confidence placed in the Divine revelation (the Holy Quran-an) as given by God to the Holy Prophet Muhammad constitute the foundational grounds of Islamic faith. By defending the truths of the Holy Quran-an against the onslaughts of secular and hyper-rationalist philosophies, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad performed a great service to all revealed religions in that he has totally upheld the primacy of Divine revelation (i.e., belief in the infallibility of prophethood and in the truth of all divinely revealed scriptures) which is the very basis of all monotheistic faiths; whether Judaism, Christianity, or Islam (See Dr. Basharat Ahmad, op. cit., p. 54.).
By putting philosophy and the sciences as servants of Revelation and not masters, he sets forth his deep conviction that true science and philosophy do not contradict Divine Revelation but rather support, exemplify, validate, and confirm it.
The great Sufi mystic, Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi advised the philosophers of his day and age: “Ai-Keh Khwandee Hikmat-I Yunanian...Hikmati Imaniyan Ra Ham Be-Khwan.” The meaning of this Persian couplet is this: “Oh thou that hast read the wisdom of the Greeks...do also read the wisdom of the believers”. (In Dr. Basharat Ahmad, op.cit., p. 1.).
In the same way, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad counselled the agnostics and sceptics who are steeped in various mundane philosophies to take guidance from the divine and sure truths of the Holy Qur-an. The spiritual writings and reasoned proofs for Islam given by this valiant Punjabi saint as he defended the Qur’anic truths, made the impartial and sincere spiritual seekers to encounter the reality of God’s Existence in their lives, thus transforming the gloomy and hopeless condition of their being to that of a radiant and optimistic life overflowing with joy (Mabruk) and bliss (Sa'adat). These spiritual boon of faith (Ni’mat-E-Iman) and grace of certitude (Ni’mat-e-Yaqeen) that Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s proofs of Divine Revelation gave to the believers, are precious gifts that mundane philosophers cannot provide to the restless souls of bewildered, agitated, confused and rudderless humanity.
VIII. Epilogue: Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s Life and Message Exemplified Authentic Service to the Cause of the Holy Quran and Islam
In closing, permit me to say these words of advice (Naseehat) to one-and-all: we ought to be grateful to Almighty Allah for the blessed life of the Mujaddid saint, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. His saintly life epitomized authentic loyalty to the cause of Islam despite persecutions, vilifications, various hardships, all types of sufferings, vicissitudes and adversities coming from the enemies of Islam. Likewise, we need to be thankful to God for Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s divine office of Mujaddidiyyat (Islamic Reformation). All the bulk of his spiritual treatises and mystical writings made available to us abundant and clear proofs of the Reality of God and the truth of Divine Revelation—thereby chasing away the gloom of agnosticism, scepticism and uncertainty in our hearts. I hope that owing to the guidance of the Qur’anic revelation and the writings of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in defense of Islam, we will be granted the serene assurance and the absolute affirmation (Yaqeen-e Mutlaq) of the veracity of our Islamic faith and of the Living Reality and Necessary Existence of God in our lives.
Now that we are already armed with the absolute spiritual assurance of our faith, thanks to the efforts expended by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in defending the truths of the Qur-an from the attacks of hyper-rationalists, modernists, and agnostic philosophers, we will hopefully turn out to be pious, assiduous and sincere worshippers of Allah, the Almighty. Insha-Allah, with the assurance and tranquillity in our spirit (Sukun-e-Dil) wrought by reading the Holy Qur-an as elucidated by the life and works of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Sahib, we will become fruitful individuals and responsible members of the Islamic Ummah (community). Being assured and convinced of the certainty of God’s existence through the proofs provided to us by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Sahib in his spiritual treatises, our lives will abundantly overflow in all goodness (Aamal-i-Saleehat) in Allah’s service (Khidmat-E-Ilahi), reformation of our lives (Islah-Un-Nafs), and for the propagation of the truth of Islam (Dawaat Wa Isha’at-E-Islam) to others who are in need of such valuable guidance. May it be so. Ameen!
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Ali, Maulana Muhammad. The Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Newark, California: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore, 1984.
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Faruqui, Naseer A. Ahmadiyyat in the Service of Islam. Newark, California: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore, 1983.
Leamann, Oliver. A Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy. Oxford: Polity Press, 1999.
Suhrawardi, Amir Munir. Baba Farid ka Munajat [Baba Farid’s Supplications]. Pakpattan, Pakistan: Khanqah Kitabkhanah, n.d.
Prof. Henry Francis B. Espiritu is Associate Professor-7 of Philosophy and Asian Studies at the University of the Philippines (UP), Cebu City. He was former Academic Coordinator of the Political Science Program at UP Cebu from 2011-2014. He was former Coordinator of Gender and Development (GAD) Office at UP Cebu from 2015-2019. His research interests include Islamic Studies particularly Sunni jurisprudence, Islamic feminist discourses, Islam in interfaith dialogue initiatives, Islamic environmentalism, Classical Sunni Islamic pedagogy, the writings of Imam Al-Ghazali on pluralism and tolerance, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Turkish Sufism, Ataturk Studies, Muslim-Christian dialogue, Middle Eastern Affairs, Peace Studies and Public Theology.
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