Women in Politics in Saudi Arabia
By Isobel Coleman
January 18, 2013
Just days ago, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah made history when he named thirty women to the kingdom’s Shura Council, an appointed advisory body that cannot enact legislation but is still the closest institution to a parliament in that country. He also amended the Shura Council’s law to ensure that women would make up no less than 20 percent of the 150-person council going forward.
The announcement did not occur in a vacuum. Before now, some women served in an advisory capacity, but not as full members, on the committee. In 2011, King Abdullah, known for relatively moderate views on women’s roles in society, announced that women would be appointed to the Shura Council and that women would be able to run and vote in the country’s 2015 municipal elections.
Nevertheless, the recent follow-through is a sign of King Abdullah’s seriousness about incrementally increasing women’s participation.
In a 2011 speech, King Abdullah introduced the decision as a vital step for keeping up with the times, saying, “Balanced modernization in line with our Islamic values, which preserve rights, is an important requirement in an era with no room for the weak and undecided people.” He also explained that the decision to appoint women to the Shura Council and to allow them to vote and run in elections was made after consulting with religious scholars.
” [T]his mixed-gender Shura Council may well pave the way to greater opportunities for Saudi women, however incrementally.” – Isobel Coleman, Council on Foreign Relations
General view of a session of the Shura Council presided over by Saudi King Abdullah in Riyadh. (Reuters file photo)
Much as when women from conservative Muslim countries including Qatar and Saudi Arabia competed in the Olympics for the first time this past summer, a considerable amount of attention is being paid to the logistics of women’s participation in the Shura Council. The amendments allowing women to join the council specifically prescribe gender-segregating measures, ranging from separate office spaces to council chamber entrances to seating areas. As journalist and Saudi Arabia expert Thomas Lippman explains, “Even when [King Abdullah] moves boldly, he moves cautiously, in increments that the conservatives can be persuaded or forced to accept.” Indeed, this gender segregation is an absolute prerequisite to women’s participation in Saudi Arabia.
“#The_new_Shura_Council_does_not_represent_me” materialised, a reminder that the Shura Council is unelected. Manal al-Sharif – a female activist who has shown great courage in advocating for Saudi women’s right to drive – wrote on Twitter that “The amendments ignored Saudis’ demands of electing the members and increasing the Council powers! It still cannot pass or enforce laws” (via POMED). Essam Alzamel, a tech entrepreneur with a significant Twitter following, wrote, “There are two types of parliaments: the kind that represents the people and the kind that represents the people but is not of the people.” Just a few days after the King Abdullah’s announcement, around fifty clerics opposed to the Shura Council decision turned up at the Royal Court to request a meeting with the king and one of his advisers, which they were not granted. This protest was notable, particularly given that Saudi Arabia’s primary religious authorities have approved of the king’s decision.
Despite the limitations of the Shura Council, the appointed women have their work cut out for them. As my friend, women’s rights advocate and new Shura Council member Thuraya Arrayed said to Al Arabiya News, “I expect this decision to open doors for qualified women to take part in all fields and not just in politics but in all areas.” Fellow new Shura Council member Thoraya Obaid, whose impressive career includes time as executive director of the U.N. Population Fund, told the newspaper Asharq Alawsat, “…as for those who do not accept this, this is a huge challenge for women to prove that their presence is an addition to, not lessening of, Saudi society.” With female council members like these, this mixed-gender Shura Council may well pave the way to greater opportunities for Saudi women, however incrementally.
CFR research associate Thalia Beaty contributed to this post. It was originally published on blogs.cfr.org.
The views expressed in this Insight are the author’s own and are not endorsed by Middle East Voices or Voice of America. If you’d like to share your opinion on this post, you may use our democratic commenting system below. If you are a Middle East expert or analyst associated with an established academic institution, think tank or non-governmental organization, we invite you to contribute your perspectives on events and issues about or relevant to the region. Please email us through our Contact page with a short proposal for an Insight post or send us a link to an existing post already published on your institutional blog.
Isobel Coleman is senior fellow and director of the Civil Society, Markets, and Democracy Initiative as well as director of the Women and Foreign Policy Program at the Council on Foreign Relations.