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Global Order: Ideologies, Religions, Sufism and Sindh-Balochistan – I

By Zulfiqar Shah

28 November, 2016

Nations, continents, and their interrelations are the world body politic subsided by the culture. We need to have a leap beyond the faith in the world-order of these steady withering away contours. We have an international establishment in the form of United Nations; we were unable to transfer it into world establishment; however we have been attempting to translate the UN into virtual world establishment. This phase of ours is a bygone past.

On the sidelines of UN reforms, we need to think as international community for a Global Order, to really transform ourselves for the climax of our new realities, challenges, and achievement. The unattained concept and materialisation of a world establishment went unconceived. We missed our own flight to our required destinations.

Let us have a new rapid for the knock, which needs an open-up of a new door towards a global order and a real global establishment on the sidelines of globalisation for our generations. Let us learn from the missing links of socialist states, which missed their leap from gradual socialism of state and society together due to structural socialism, and because of statehood necessities.

Transition for Interdependence and Unity

No doubt, the post-Marx interpretations chose to focus revolution as an attempt to take hold of state, leaving aside the journey of society in cohesion and unison with the socialist republics. Yet, the historical materialism, the essence of the political dimensions of Marxism needs to revisit from philosophical perspective, given the transformation as a step between revolutions and evolutions.

This is the point, where disconnect between political left and right can be undone and a unity of opposites and diversity can be created. It will also help not only creating a patchwork between the democratic world and despotic skewed world of previously socialist states like China, Cuba, Vietnam and others in an appropriate transition into a new mode of economy that can smoothly sail amid industrialist world without invoking a conflict of interest, and thereby opening up the new ways of a polity, economy, society and international engagement for the globalised human society, with highly changed characteristics and emergence of new classes.

This approach, if seen in the perspective of Marxism, is a post Deng Xiao Pieng development in terms of polity and economy and post Leninist development in the perspective of state and polity. This no doubt, will give a full stop to unacceptable political and economic modus operandi of controlled and extraordinarily nationalised economies and societies. This will also help creating cushions against economic recessions around the globe by created consensual economic interdependence in the world.

Federative Sovereignty and Self Rule - In search of new incarnation of Pakistan

Nature of rule in united India; international politics of that time; sudden concept of Pakistan after Second World War; and the feudalist-cum-religion orientated composition as well as politics of All India Muslim League (AIML) turned the newly created Pakistan an inappropriate statehood that hasn't become an inclusive, peopleistic and interdepending state internally as well as externally as yet.

Pakistan faced and is still facing serious constitutional crises, which is deeply rooted in the absence of the constitution until 1960s. A two-decade long period of Pakistan was guided by Britain Indian Act of 1935, in the light of Qaradad-e-Maqasid, a Muslim League Resolution adopted after Pakistan. After the dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971, the remaining land was limited to Indus plains.

A new constitution was adopted 1973, albeit by the same Parliament that was controversial because East Pakistan's mandate was not accepted. In accordance with the political principles, practices and precedence, a non-Constitutional Parliament cannot undertake the constitution making process. In the perspective of federations and ethnically diverse countries, particularly if the federating states have historical status of countryhood, a constitutional elections are required which either have equal seats from the federating states/provinces or may undertake the constitutional process in association with central-provincial joint deliberations for the constitution making.

History of federating provinces in Pakistan is peculiar to federal issues. Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (N.W.F.P previously and now KHYBER PAKHTUNKHUWA) did not want to become part of Pakistan under Khan Ghaffar Khan, known as Bacha (Badshah) Khan, besides it was leased out for its annexation with India through a simple Durand Agreement by Britain from Afghanistan.

Although the expiry of lease and claims of Afghanistan have been the issues that need detailed discussion, Awami National Party mainly, and other political parties like Qomi Party, Jammiat-e-Ulmai Islam - F (KHYBER PAKHTUNKHUWA - Chapter), and Tahreek-e-Insaf (KHYBER PAKHTUNKHUWA - Chapter) are having their opinion on the historical as well as contemporary matters. Punjab chose its own split/partition into two through Punjab Legislative Assembly Resolution, with a one vote majority tendered by a Christian Punjabi only after when votes of supporters and opponents of split were equal.

Sindh participated in the Second World War. The combatants were kept in prisons and also some of them were hanged after creation of Pakistan. Since Pakistan Armed Forces were created out of Punjab Regiment of British Indian Army; Air Force, Parachute Wing, Sindh-Rifle (Pakistan Rangers today), and British Navy, the armed forces of Pakistan were dominated by Punjabi Muslim soldiers, officer with a few Hindko Hazara amongst them. Even the Major General Wisal Mohammad and Air Martial Asghar Khan, officers in British Indian Armed Forces, who bombed Sindh and participated offense on Sindhi by colonial Britain in the Second World war, were promoted to the posts of senior hierarchy of Pakistan Armed Forces.

Since, Sindhis were not Lead in the Sindh Intelligence during colonial Britain, which during the Second World War was led by British Army's Colonel Yung, no Sindhi and Baloch was included in the Intelligence Bureau under Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan, even later on they were not given spaces in the newly found Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) and Military Intelligence; simultaneously in the Army, Air Force and Navy of Pakistan until 2016 in their all units and formations including the exclusive Sindh bound Sindh and Balochistan Regiments, Pakistan Coast Guards and Navy limited to the coastal Sindh and Balochistan.

Mohammad Ali Jinnah (M.A. Jinnah), although joined hands of Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi (M.K. Gandhi) in the movement for the provincial autonomy in united India, Pakistan was realized formally as a viable idea after 1945. The idea of Pakistan, in fact, is wrongly associated with Dr. Allama Iqbal. Dr. Iqbal basically toed the concept of amalgamation of united Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (then NWFP), and Balochistan into one Muslim majority state within united India did not included East Bengal.

Dr. Iqbal died before the said to be Pakistan Resolution of March 23-24, 1940. The Resolution was not mentioning word 'Pakistan'; it was also mentioning word 'States' not the word 'State' according to some 1950s works on the Partition of colonial Britain India. Besides, word 'province' was not used in the said to be Pakistan Resolution. Therefore, Pakistan is post Second World War development.

Besides, those legislators, led by Pakistan Muslim League Sindh leader G. M. Syed, who presented and passed resolution from Sindh Legislative Assembly for a homeland for Muslim majority States, which were on the both sides of Indus, quit AIML within a few years, and later on became against creation of Pakistan. Word 'Pakistan' was not used in the Sindh Legislative Assembly's resolution. If seen in the context of turning Sindhi people in favour of AIML; organizing it in the province; and conceiving, tabling and lobbying for the Resolution for the Homeland of / for Muslim majority provinces around the Indus plains in Sindh Legislative Assembly, G.M. Syed can validly be said, if not claimed, the co-founder of Pakistan along with M.A. Jinnah in certain fundamental terms.

Meanwhile, according to the Pakistan Studies text books in Pakistan, when word as well as a separate country was demanded for the first time in London, it was an Idea of Ahmediyya Punjabi Muslim youth. The 1946 Indian provincial elections were again a kind of referendum, in which AIML lost to those who earlier presented the Resolution from Sindh Legislative Assembly and later disassociated themselves from AIML.

Pakistan, created on August 14, 1947, was perceived to be a moderate secular Muslim federation by Mohammad Ali Jinnah - the Qaid-e-Azam (Great Leader); a title is used for him. Jinnah was a Kutchhi Sindhi, born in Jhirk town of Thatta district, brought-up in Karachi, educated in London in Britain (Bar at Law) and professionally was based in Mumbai. He was lawyer of Khan of Kalat, a King of Balochistan, within undivided India after invasion of Balochistan by the second half of eighteenth century.

Although Balochistan was freed in March 1947 before the Indian Partition; Jinnah after creation of Pakistan, like before 1947, lived in Ziarat, Balochistan while he was undergoing Acute Asthma. He died due to the government negligence, and can appropriately be termed as first Sindhi martyr in Pakistan who was founder, Governor General, and the statesman of Pakistan.

When, successive Indian Government refused or at least delayed to give the financial assets of Pakistan's parts, he tendered request to Khan of Kalat, who gave him gold equal to his physical weight; in fact he was weighed in a bid to honour by the Khan (King). Hence, Pakistan undertook its state financial and fiscal journey thereafter.

Pakistan establishment-claimed Resolution of 1940 was violated for the first time when Pakistan was turned from a federation of the sovereign states, against the text of 1940 Resolution, into unitary statehood and system through 'One Unit' through the decision by the military regime. Until then Sindh was forwarding financial aid to Punjab province and the Central Government of Pakistan, according to available documents and data.

During this, archaeological treasury of Moen Jo Daro was shifted from Sindh to Punjab, in Lahore. Almost replicas of the original were left in Sindh. This happened because, it was the formal colonization by Punjab, which can be said internal colonization from federal perspective, because although Islamabad was the Capital, Departments of Culture, Tourism, Water and Power (called Water and Power development Authority-WAPDA) shifted to Lahore, the Capital of Punjab.

Sindhi and Bengali were the only indigenous languages that were having official scripts and were the mode of education in Sindh and East Pakistan. Assets in terms of monetary, land, culture and reservoirs were practically handed over to Punjab province. When, Pakistan was revert back again to federal statehood, after secession of East Pakistan into Bangladesh, assets were not returned back to Sindh and others treasuries of all kind.

Conspiracy was to the extent that Balochistan was asked to undo Sindhi language as mode of education in late sixties, (until then Sindhi was mode of education of Balochistan), and was asked to adopt Urdu mode education, in lieu of which Lasbella Princely State was acceded to Balochistan, which historically was Sindh. Sindhi today have no problem with reference to Lasbella for being in Balochistan.

Sindh and Balochistan are more than sister lands and have remained one country for centuries. Sindh has deep concerns about territorial intrusions by Punjab through including Machko areas, a historical territory strip, into Punjab province. Sindh officially have been, and is demanding to stop Punjab Police and Pakistan Rangers - Punjab's violation of territorial sovereignty of Sindh in the federation of Pakistan. No Police or military actions from the constitutional forces of Punjab should undertake military actions and operations in Sindh. Besides, all the assets, including archaeological treasures, should be returned back to Sindh without any delay in accordance with the demands by Government of Sindh.

Not only was the treatment of Sindh Combatants of Second World War was a violation of United Nations lately adopted instruments concerning Prisoners of War, also refusal of Pakistani Armed Forces to protect borders of Sindh during 1965 Wars. Pakistani Armed Forces limited themselves to Punjab-India borders, particularly Lahore-Sialkot sectors, and even converted themselves into Come Cozy against the Indian tanks to protect Punjab.

Elected by the democratic system through immediate team of Hur Jammat (Hur - means free or liberated person. Hur Jammat means community of Free / Liberated Person with hierarchy) Pir Pagara Syed Ali Mardan Shah succeeded for the leadership - spiritual and political in all of its connotations - called Pir Pagara. Hur Jammat included the Second World War fighters, named Hur Army / Force, was told by Pakistan Army that military is unable to give combat at (defend) Sindh - India borders, therefore Pir Pagara, who was Supreme Commander having a Commander-in-Chief of Hur Force issued command for the protection and defense of Sindh to those who were released by then from Concentration Camps of colonial Britain. Thus, Sindh protected Sindh borders in Pakistan with India, without participation and help by Pakistan Army.

In fact, Father of Pir Pagara Syed Ali Mardan Shah Rashidi, like his mentor and friend Subhash Chandra Bose of the Indian National Army (INA) was not allowed to be given publicly known burial. Graves of both Pir Pagara Sabghatullah Shah and Subhash Chandra Bose, officially, are still not made public. However, Pir Pagara is buried at either Astola or Churno Island near Sindh-Balochistan in Arabian Sea -- historically mentioned by the Europeans, particularly in a France map as Sindhi Sea.

Both the Supreme Commanders of India and Sindh during Second World War were punished because of being allies of Axis Forces. Germany and Japan, and Ottoman Empire supported Hur Army in terms of arsenal, and beyond. However, Hur Army was self sufficient in ammunition. Their connections with Germany and Japan are academically and from the point of view of military record are mentioned.

However, in today's world politics, previous Axis Forces have allied with Allied Forces for instance US and UK alliance with Germany, Japan, and Turkey, and France. Russia alone is maintaining a politics of its own strategic realities, which most of the time ends into a middle path. The history with reference to contemporary aspects are Sain Rashidi sahib, cousin of Pir Pagara Syed Ali Maradan Shah Rashidi was central leader of Jeay Sindh Qomi Mahaz (JSQM) the largest freedom movement political party in Sindh and the second largest party in Sindh.

Sindhi and Baloch, today, like over the period of beyond last one century are not part of the armed forces and services of colonial Britain, and their Pakistani continuity. Even the services and forces that are created later on have been following the same practice. Sindh-Balochistan today demands the exclusive participation in the Sindh and Balochistan Regiments, Pakistan Rangers - Sindh, Frontier Constabulary - Balochistan, Pakistan Navy, ISI and Military Intelligence Sindh and Balochistan chapters, Pakistan Coast Guards -- Sindh and Balochistan, Intelligence Bureau Sindh and Balochistan, equal participation in remaining formations and corps of Pakistan Army and their equivalent in Pakistan Air Force, Strategic Programs like Nuclear and Missiles, and proportionate participation in the highly geographic sections of Pakistan Army according to the geographical realities of Sindh and Balochistan.

Besides, an equal participation in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and federal layers of Ministry of Interior, as well as other federal departments. A proportionate participation in the Department of Overseas Employments, and other similar sections of governance which can be appropriately treated on the population bases. At the same time, an exclusive Sindhi and Balochistani participation in Customs, Ports, Shipping, Police, Tax collections from the Highways inclusive of Provincial taxation rights on the highways that run through Sindh and Balochistan, a non-merger of Pakistani Armed Forces in the provincial departments as well as insertion from other provinces is required. The existence of Dry Ports in Punjab should be undone, and Sindhi and Baloch should be given exclusive and priority rights in the employment of natural resources extracting companies. The private entrepreneur in the provinces should be made bound to employ locals, and permanent residents of the provinces to larger extent.

Meanwhile, Provincial Assemblies renamed with Legislative Assemblies, with the enhanced legislative powers which must include the supervision of provincial borders, registration of internal migration from other provinces of Pakistan, and binding National Data Base Authority's powers with certain and concerned legislation by the provincial legislative assemblies. Sindh and Balochistan Home Departments, as well as in the others, should entitled to issue the directions and / or unavoidable notes for the naturalization process of foreigners. This will help resisting many issues including the free movement of terrorists across the Pakistan.

Besides, Sindh and Balochistan Governments, along with others, should be given liberty to engage with the other countries even beyond the trade and business deals, particularly in terms of culture, natural disasters and similar matter if and when required accordingly.

Southern Siraki Punjab, due to legitimate concerns of Sindh and Balochistan, should be appropriately and on the just bases be given the share within Punjab and the federation if and until their demand for a separate province is not materialized.

Chief Ministers of Sindh and Balochistan, like other Chief Ministers of Provinces, be at least virtually treated like Premiers (Prime Minister of the province) the status that was given to them by colonial Britain, which means turning the posts of Governors into ceremonial, and Chief Ministers should be considers practically Head of the Federating Provinces / States. At the same-times, like India, if not on the patterns of UK for example the existence of Scottish Pound, the Commissionerates of Provinces should be established in Islamabad to formalized province-federation relations. Besides, a few matters / areas should be identified on which both houses of parliaments as well as provincial assemblies together may legislate.

At the same times, like India, Sindh and Balochistan, along with others, should be allowed to legislate the exclusive matters for example in Rajasthan state of India, barrage land cannot be purchased by those who haven't got birth in Rajasthan. And, like Kashmir, no non-Kashmirī cannot purchase land in Jammu and Kashmir in India. Even a Maulvi / Pandit of non-Kashmiri origin cannot become the leader of religious places.

By doing this, Pakistan would be formally recognizing the sovereignty of federating provinces / states within the federation. Until and unless, provincial sovereignty is not formally and practically recognized by Pakistan (centre), Sindh and Balochistan may not consider the reviewing their will, demand and expression for freedom / secession. This means, if Self Rule inclusive of territorial as well as peoples sovereignty within the federation is not insured on above lines, Sindh and Balochistan will, according to their expressions and demands as of until 2016, will secede.

If briefed, Pakistan Establishment has many layers of decision making, governing and coordinating within and between Centre and Provinces. President, Prime Minister, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Chiefs of Army, Navy and Air Force, Director General of ISI, and National Security Advisor (NSA) are the core of height, constitutionally led by Prime Minister in terms of governance and by President in terms of state inclusive of war making as well as use of nukes.

There are two issues. One, numbers, and constitutional as well practical powers of elected civilian representation are fewer and limited respectively. Three civilians, if NSA or equivalent is also civilian, out of which Prime Minister is directly elected through people's representation. Rest five are from armed forces and a service. Hence, permanent inclusion of Foreign Minister, Chief Justice of Pakistan and occasional participation of four Chief Ministers according the nature of certain decision making, including the decision for the Nuclear Use would give a real sense of democracy. Besides, constitutionally, from the perspectives of state-systems and mechanism in the democracies across the globe, if Pakistan does not want to become exception, Director General ISI as well as Head of Intelligence Bureau should be made issue based participants of this layer of the Establishment.

DG ISI opinion is usually shared with President of Pakistan and Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, as well as Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan, especially the procedural and practical changes that have taken place after addition of a four-star General / Martial for the designation of Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Besides, the seat of Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee should also have an Air and Naval head on the seniority as well as other consideration bases.

The second tier of Pakistan Establishment, these days, is having Chief Justice of Pakistan, Chief Secretary of Pakistan, Foreign Minister, Foreign Secretary, Chairman Senate of Pakistan, Interior Minister, Director General Military Intelligence; Head of Intelligence Bureau, and according to the issue is participated by the Speaker National Assembly (Lower House), Chairmen Senate Standing Committees, Heads of National Assembly Committees, Parliamentarians with special tasks, if any. Foreign Minister should be made part of Premier layer of Establishment, and Foreign Secretary along with his / her team are key advisors to him; and Chief Ministers should be made Periodic part of this layer of Establishment for the efficacy and appropriate participation in terms of governance and internal security.

The third tier of the Establishment consists, Federal and State Ministers, Federal Secretaries of various ministries/departments, and a similar participation from some other sections of the governance are party of this.

Sindh, Balochistan, and other provincial establishments are a proto-type of this; however the role of Governors and Corpse Commanders is key in the most of important matters, however Chief Ministers and Home Ministers, are part of the first layers of Provincial Establishment with issue based participation of Director General Pakistan Rangers - Sindh; Provincial Heads of Intelligence Services, Inspector General of Sindh Police. Chief Justice is not a permanent part of Provincial Establishment anywhere in the provinces.

The second layer of establishment is periodic, with participation of Provincial Ministers, Provincial Secretaries, relatively frequent participation by the Heads / Representation of Intelligence Services and similar others. Practical arrangements are different in Punjab, and to certain extent in KHYBER PAKHTUNKHUWA due to military operation in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and other parts of KHYBER PAKHTUNKHUWA.

In Punjab, practical role of Chief Minister is of Head not only of Governance but also of the province. Besides, Punjab Chief Ministers much before Eighteenth Constitutional Amendments held agreements with the representations of other countries, directly. Besides, Punjab Chief Ministers have more influence in Central Affairs, including foreign policy and security, whilst rests have almost non-existent. This is because; ethnic establishment of Pakistan is predominantly Punjabi in almost all of its structures.

Meanwhile, Hindu, Christians, Shia and other minorities should also be given proportionate/ appropriate share in the security and governance establishment of Pakistan, which today is almost non-existent. Besides, Sindh, Balochistan and other provinces Chief Justices should also be practically made part of Provincial Establishments.

Since Sindh, like Balochistan, have never been consulted on the foreign affairs and policies of Pakistan after the murder of M.A. Jinnah, and Sindhi and Baloch, like Siraiki and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa people, do not have their due share in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, therefore foreign policies of Pakistan should be considered without input and role by the Provincial Governments of here mentioned federating states and people. Therefore, all foreign policy related affairs; exclusively those to which Sindh, Balochistan and others are direct parties should be undertaken with Provincial consent. This includes, the Indus Basin Treaty inclusive of Kabul River matters, Seer Creek, China and India's plans and projects for construction on and around Indus River System; the regional and international climate change initiatives, borders affairs -- both provincial and international, existence of foreign forces on the land(s), water and air of Sindh and Balochistan, and others should be decided with consolation along with consent by the concerned Provincial Governments; being legitimate party towards Indus in terms of Upper Riparian, and in terms of indigenous to their historical land, elected representation of Siraiki people should also be engaged in such matters.

Sindh and Balochistan believe in the national doctrine of national security and sovereignty inclusive of people along with the territory. Sindh and Balochistan promote this for the better world tomorrow.

Borrowing words from G. M. Syed, Sindh is a historical country; nation; and the freedom of Sindh is possible, and can be claimed unavoidable. I add with due permission from G. M. Syed that Sindh is also a Sovereign State. Sindh State has evolved through thousands years of Kingdoms/Emirate and finally modernized under colonial Britain like united India, after having more than a dozen treaties and instruments signed between Sovereign Kingdom of Britain and Emirate of Sindh.

Simultaneously, the Khanate of Balochistan had at least one Sovereign Treaty with the Kingdom of Britain. The Self Rule to Sindh and Balochistan, as well as others, if not liberation, will not only serve the interests of 200 million citizens across the Indus lands in Pakistan, it will also ensure the peace and security in South Asia, and will ensure global security and legitimate international stakes and interests attached with the plains on the both sides of Indus, especially the coastal Sindh and Balochistan. (More details on some facts and analysis concerning above can be found in 'Why Britain is responsible to the people of Sindh and Balochistan, Daily Afghanistan Times, Kabul)

Zulfiqar Shah is a Sindh civil and political rights activist, journalist and writer. Although UNHCR recognized refugee, he is still associated with historical Diyal Das Club located in Hyderabad, Sindh. He is virtually house arrested on the request of Pakistan authorities, with round the clock audio-visual monitoring by Pakistan, USA, and India. The references to the facts and opinions have mentioning and citation apart from those that are established facts. The facts concerning period of colonial Britain are in documents that available for Public in India Office Library, London, UK; as well as Government of India at Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata being Britain rule capital and sub-capital in undivided India. A word 'Personality' used in the write-up is suggested by a Sindhi from Sindh in Pakistan.