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Ijtihad, Rethinking Islam ( 25 May 2020, NewAgeIslam.Com)

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Is Quran the Word of God or Sayings of a Great Reformer? A Study of The Most Authoritative Books of Quran Sciences, Ahadith And Tafaseer By Imam Ibn Hanbal, Imam Suyuti, Ibn-e-Kaseer, Etc


By Abdur Rahman Hamza, New Age Islam

 

 26 May 2020

  

(Revised with some additions on 8 June 2020)

 



“Every madrasa in the world teaches that Qurʾān is uncreated, like God. The implication is that the universality of any of the verses of Quran cannot be questioned, all of them have to be followed till eternity and every instruction remains applicable to Muslims for ever. Now, with this understanding, how can one question the motives of Jihadis when they quote militant, war-time verses of Qurʾān from Surah Tawbah, Surah Anfal and several others to justify their actions.”

  

This is what Mr. Sultan Shahin said in his speech at UNHRC, Geneva on 19 November 2019 entitled “Indian Muslim Clergy to Counter ISIS Propaganda: But they should go beyond rhetoric to a genuine counter-narrative that refutes Jihadism based on traditional Islamic theology” Though, I highly appreciate Mr. Sultan Shahin’s  tireless efforts for bringing a progressive change in the Muslim attitude in order to come out of the trap they are in and march towards a better future, after a thorough study of the Quran, I have reached the conclusion that if we sincerely and honestly want to bring about a meaningful change in the  Muslim outlook, we will have to, go even beyond the question of createdness and uncreatedness of Quran. We must first of all, ponder over the question whether Quran is really the word of God or Hazrat Muhammad just used revelation as a convenient way of carrying out his mission which he thought was necessary to reform the uncivilized Arab society. In the times and environment, he lived in, claims of revelation was perhaps the most powerful way of influencing the minds of illiterate Bedouins living in a desert 1400 years ago.

 

 Unless we tackle this basic issue first and reflect on it openly and frankly, no reform in Muslim worldview seems possible. The question of createdness and uncreatedness of Quran will stand automatically resolved if we accept Hazrat Mohammad as a great reformer of his time.




We find in the Quran many examples of the verses being produced as mere response to a particular situation after an incident had already occurred. They cannot be said to have been written in Lauh-e-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet, co-eternal with God, lying in an eternal divine vault in Heaven) from before the creation as is believed by majority of Muslims. This is not possible as some of the verses are statements of Hazrat Muhammad during verbal confrontations between him and his opponents while some others are desires, suggestions or statements made by his close friends, Sahaba and his wives which were immediately testified to by Allah (or Hazrat Muhammad) as a part of revelations. Here are a few such examples:

 Note: The occasions of the revelation of all these verses are mentioned in the most authoritative books on the study of Quran, taught in all madrasas, “Al- Itqan Fi Uloom-il- Quran (The Perfect Guide to the Sciences of the Qur’an) by Allama Jalaluddin Suyuti and Tafseer Ibne Kathir, etc. Interestingly, Maulana Maududi, Maulana Shabbir Usmani and many others have completely refrained from mentioning them in their discourses on Quran. The reasons are not difficult to imagine.

 First example: Quran 2:125

وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَهِيمَ مُصَلًّى

 

2: 125 (And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning, they return to it repeatedly.’’ He then narrated that Anas bin Malik said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “I agreed with my Lord, or my Lord agreed with me, regarding three matters. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I wish you take the Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.’ The Ayah,

﴿وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَهِيمَ مُصَلًّى﴾

 

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)) was revealed. I also said, `O Messenger of Allah! The righteous and the wicked enter your house. I wish you would command the mothers of the believers (the Prophet’s wives) to wear Hijab. Allah sent down the Ayah that required the Hijab. And when I knew that the Prophet was angry with some of his wives, I came to them and said, `Either you stop what you are doing, or Allah will endow His Messenger with better women than you are.’ I advised one of his wives and she said to me, `O `Umar! Does the Messenger of Allah not know how to advise his wives, so that you have to do the job instead of him’ Allah then revealed:

﴿عَسَى رَبُّهُ إِن طَلَّقَكُنَّ أَن يُبْدِلَهُ أَزْوَجاً خَيْراً مِّنكُنَّ مُسْلِمَـتٍ﴾

 

(It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you. (66:5)

 

Tafseer Ibn Kathir further says: (at that time) Umar said:  "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, what trouble do you feel from your wives If you have divorced them, verily Allah is with you, His angels, Jibril, Mikal, I, Abu Bakr and the rest of believers are with you.' Often, when I talked, all praise is due to Allah, I hoped that Allah would testify to the words that I uttered. And so, the Ayat of option was revealed. Allah said,

(Maybe his Lord, if he divorces you, will give him in your place wives better than you,) and, (but if you help one another against him, then verily, Allah is his Protector, and Jibril, and the righteous among the believers; and after that the angels are his helpers.

These verses related to the scandal of Maria Qibtia.

 

Second example: Quran 33:35

 

إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

 35. Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women, the Qanit: men and the women, the men and women who are truthful, the men and the women who are patient, the Khashi`: men and the women, the men and the women who give Sadaqat, the men and the women who fast, the men and the women who guard their chastity and the men and the women who remember Allah much with their hearts and tongues, Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.

 The Reason for Revelation

 

Founder of the Hanbali school of Sunni jurisprudence, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded that Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet said, "I said to the Prophet, `Why is it that we are not mentioned in the Qur'an as men are.' Then one day without my realizing it, he was calling from the Minbar (a pulpit in the mosque) and I was combing my hair, so I tied my hair back then I went out to my chamber in my house, and I started listening out, and he was saying from the Minbar: Quran 33: 35

 

«يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ:

﴿إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ……﴾»


(O

(O people! Verily Allah says: [For Muslim men and women,- for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in Charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise,- for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.]  Quran 33: 35 '')

This incident and Umm Salamah’s statement were also recorded by An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir


(Note that “O people! Verily Allah says: “is not part of the Quran, though reported by Umm Salamah as part of revelation.)

 

Third example: Quran 2:97-98

 

قُلْ مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ٩٧مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ٩٨

 

97. Say (O Muhammad ): "Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'an) down to your heart by Allah's permission, confirming what came before it (i.e. the Tawrah and the Injeel) and guidance and glad tidings for the believers. 98. "Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.''

 

 The Reason for Revelation

 

Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari said, "The scholars of Tafsir agree that this Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response to the Jews who claimed that Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of the Jews and that Mika'il (Michael) is their friend.'' Al-Bukhari said, "Allah said,

 

Say (O Muhammad): "Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), 98. "Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.''

 Allama Jalaluddin Suyuti writes in “Al- Itqan Fi Uloomil Quran” that it has been narrated that Abdur Rehman Bin Abi Laila said that one day a Jew met Umar Bin Al- Khattab and said to him. “Gabriel about whom your friend (Muhammad) often talks is our enemy. Umar replied, “Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.'' Abdur Rehman says Umars’s words were testified by Allah and this verse was revealed.

 Allama Suyuti has also mentioned many verses which were actually words from the mouth of Sahabah (Hazrat Muhammad’s followers) and were later testified by Allah (or Hazrat Muhammad) and became part of the Quran. Apart from these, there are many examples of Hazrat Muhammad being rescued rather conveniently from one predicament or another by divine revelation about which Hazrat Aisha, his favourite wife, once commented, “I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires.

 

Fourth example: Quran 2:196

 

وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ۖ وَلَا تَحْلِقُوا رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَو

بِهِ أَذًى مِنْ رَأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِنْ صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُك ٍ

 

 2: 196. “And complete Hajj and `Umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady that you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either fasting or giving Sadaqah or a sacrifice.”

 

The Reason for Revelation

 

Al-Bukhari reported that `Abdur-Rahman bin Asbahani said that he heard `Abdullah bin Ma`qil saying that he sat with Ka`b bin Ujrah in the mosque of Kufah (in Iraq). He then asked him about the Fidyah of the fasting. Ka`b said, "This was revealed concerning my case especially, but it is also for you in general. I was carried to Allah's Messenger and the lice were falling in great numbers on my face. The Prophet said:

«مَا كُنْتُ أُرَى أَنَّ الْجَهْدَ بلَغَ بكَ هذَا، أمَا تَجِدُ شَاة»؟

؟: لَاقُلْتُ

(I never thought that your ailment (or struggle) had reached such an extent as I see. Can you afford a sheep (for sacrifice)' I replied in the negative.) He then said:

 

«صُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ أَوْ أَطْعِمْ سِتَّةَ مَسَاكِينَ، لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ نِصْفُ صَاعٍ مِنْ طَعَامٍ، وَاحْلِقْ رَأْسَك»

 

(Fast for three days or feed six poor persons, each with half a Sa` of food (1 Sa` = 3 kilograms approx.) and shave your head.)

 

So, this is a general judgement derived from a specific case.

 

We also find plenty of examples of just in-time revelations in the Quran. The following is one such example of the prophet of Allah being rescued rather conveniently from one predicament by divine revelation.

 

لَا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۚ

 

Q 4:95: “Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives.”

Interpretation of this verse in Sahih Bukhari:

 

حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ، قَالَ لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ ‏{‏لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ‏}‏ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ ادْعُ لِي زَيْدًا وَلْيَجِئْ بِاللَّوْحِ وَالدَّوَاةِ وَالْكَتِفِ ـ أَوِ الْكَتِفِ وَالدَّوَاةِ ـ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ اكْتُبْ لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ ‏"‏ وَخَلْفَ ظَهْرِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَمْرُو بْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ الأَعْمَى قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَمَا تَأْمُرُنِي فَإِنِّي رَجُلٌ ضَرِيرُ الْبَصَرِ فَنَزَلَتْ مَكَانَهَا ‏{‏لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {‏غَيْرُ أُولِي لضَّرَرِ‏}‏‏"‏

 

Translation:

 Narrated Al-Bara:

 There was revealed: 'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah.' (4.95) The Prophet () said, "Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the inkpot and the scapula bone (or the scapula bone and the ink pot)."' Then he said, "Write: 'Not equal are those Believers who sit..", and at that time `Amr bin Um Maktum, the blind man was sitting behind the Prophet (). He said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is your order for me (as regards the above Verse) as I am a blind man?" So, instead of the above Verse, the following Verse was revealed: 'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc.) and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah.' (4.95) - Sahih Bukhari 6:61:512

Note the sequence of events in the above hadith:

Prophet Muhammad receives a revelation, which is part of Sura 4:95 as it exists today.

Prophet Muhammad calls Zaid to write down the revelation and begins to recite it to Zaid: “All who fail to participate in jihad are viewed as inferior to those who do participate.”

A blind man asks how the verse applies to him, since he is blind and cannot participate in jihad.

Prophet Muhammad then conveniently receives a new revelation that adds an exception to jihad for the blind and disabled.

 The famous Pakistani Alim Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, the son of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi’s Khalifah Mufti Shafi Usmani, in his book, ‘The Chronology and Background of Quranic Revelation’ says  that “The  smallest portion of the Quran to be  revealed  was ” لضرر غيرأولى "...except those who are disabled” (al-Nisa’, 4:94) which forms part of a longer verse.


 In the light of the above verses, it is difficult to determine which verse is genuine (divine), which verse is altered and which verse is simply a human addition.


Before we reach a final conclusion, it would be appropriate for us to look at a few Islamic rulings which are open violation of human rights, but Islam retained some of them in their original form and some others with minor changes because these  were common among the Bedouin tribes of pre-Islamic Arabia and were not considered flawed. Here are some examples:


(1) Punishment for adultery: First the Qur'an commanded such women to be imprisoned in the house for life according to the old custom of the Arab society (4:15) and later according to the second commandment they are to be stoned to death which was the punishment in the Torah.


(2) Punishment for theft: Verse 5:38 “As for the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands. It is the reward of their own deeds, an exemplary punishment from Allah. Allah is Mighty, Wise”.

 

(3) Violence against women: The Qur'an allows the husband to beat his wife for disobeying and speaking out, although severe beating, that is, beating that causes injury is forbidden. The purpose of the permission for husband to beat his wife lightly is to force her to obey. Reference: Majmooa-e-Qawaneen-ne- Islami, Published by Muslim Personal Law Board Page 150 Section 214


(4) Arrangement of marriage of a minor by the father or grand-father: If the father or grandfather arranged with good intention, the marriage of the minor to a person who is not equal to her in the society, for example, the husband is illiterate, poor or illiterate  whereas the girl is from a civilized and educated family, then the marriage will take place and it will remain obligatory. In such a case, even after reaching puberty, the girl will not have the right to get the marriage annulled. In case the girl insists on annulment, she will have to prove to the Qazi the cruelty of the husband or that he is suffering from some communicable disease. Then, the Qazi will take the decision at his own discretion because in Islam, marriage is the slavery of the woman and after the marriage the husband becomes the owner of the wife's body just as the slave girl is his property. That is why the Mahr  (dowry) is called “Maal-e- Buza in Islam, i.e. the price of woman’s vulva  (her private parts). - Reference: Majmooa-e-Qawaneen-e- Islami, Published by Muslim Personal Law Board, Page 238 Section 323 with Arabic footnote.


Note: The custom of selling daughters by their fathers existed in the Arab society as one of four types of marriages before the advent of Islam with the exception that the mehr was then received by the father, not by the daughter).


(5) If a man remarries without the consent of the first wife and the first wife cannot bear the trauma and she only demands khula  (separation), still the woman does not have the right to khula on that basis. (when Ayyub Khan introduced family laws in Pakistan and gave this right to the first wife if she is unable to reconcile, the Ulema of that country vehemently opposed it by saying that it was un-Islamic).


(6) In the case of Qisas (retaliation in kind), Islamic law says that if a Muslim kills an infidel, the Muslim will not be killed in return, but the heirs of the slain person will be forced to take Diyat (blood money). And the amount of Diyat is also very discriminatory. For example, in Saudi Arabia, where Islamic law is enforced, the Diyat of the slain people belonging to different religions is like this.


Diyat (blood money) of a Muslim victim is 100,000 riyals
Diyat for a Muslim woman and a Christian man is 50,000 riyals
Diyat of a Christian woman 25000 riyals
Diyat of a Hindu man is 6,666 riyals
Diyat of a Hindu woman is 3,333 riyals

 

 (7) Apostasy: Apostasy is punishable by death or life imprisonment. A person is born in a Muslim home so he is called a Muslim without any reference to his will or consciousness. When he grows up and becomes an adult, he studies Islam honestly, reads the books written by his own elders and Islamic scholars and finds many things unreasonable or out of date. He is not satisfied with this religion and ultimately decides to leave it. Now, as per the Islamic law he will be given a chance to repent and come back to the fold of Islam within three days, but if he fails to do so in the stipulated period, he will be sentenced to death or life imprisonment. This practice is considered against the freedom of religion and freedom of conscience in today's world.


(8) If the father of a minor girl dies and she has no grandfather either, then her uncle or uncle’s son becomes her guardian. Now, if a situation arises when the minor girl is forced to be married , then her mother who gave birth to her, does not have the right to choose her daughter’s husband, instead, the uncle, and  in his absence,  the cousin of the minor girl will have the right to choose her husband.


(9) Marriage of a minor girl: Marriage of a minor girl is permissible in Islam. Even a three- or four-year-old girl can get married. Scholars advice the husband not to have intercourse with her until she becomes an adult, but if the husband does so and the child is injured or physically harmed as a result, then the husband, though, will be responsible for her treatment, but neither he will  be punished in this world, nor will he be sinful in the sight of God.

 

(10) If a father kills his son or daughter, retribution (Qisaswill not be taken from the father even if the mother of the slain son or daughter demands it.


(11)  Although slavery is now abolished, it is not without interest to know that if a master kills his slave, the master will not be killed in retaliation. This was the custom in the Arab society even before the advent of Islam. This practice continued in Islam.


(12) Offensive Jihad: The jihad movements being waged by ISIS, Boko Haram and various Islamic organizations in fact represent the true teachings of Islam, even though our scholars issue fatwas against it saying that their activities are un-Islamic. These are just rhetoric. After reading the commentaries of Maulana Abul-Ala Maududi, Syed Qutb of Egypt, Mufti Shafi Usmani of Pakistan and Allama Ibn Katheer etc, it becomes crystal clear that verse 193 of Surah Al- Baqarah demands from all Muslims to keep fighting for the world domination of Islam till the Day of Judgment. 


However, Islamic jurisprudence allows Muslims to extend a hand of friendship and peace to non-Muslims wherever they are weak and do not have the strength to fight and win, but it is mandatory for them to try their utmost to strengthen themselves within, and when they are confident of victory in any  part of the world, they must wage jihad under the leadership of a Khalifah and must reject the offer of friendship and peaceful coexistence and strive to enforce Sharia. This offensive jihad is farz-e-kifayah. ISIS and Boko Haram etc. are the true followers of real Islam. These organizations are citing the Qur'an and Hadith, particularly the war related verses of surah AL-Anfal, surah At-Taubah and surah Al-Baqarah (verse 193), as proof of their jihad being Islamic.


In fact, most of the above practices are those that were already prevalent in Arab society. The society in which Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) opened his eyes was a tribal society consisting of illiterate Bedouin tribes. Obviously, in order to reform such a society, it was possible to reform it only within the limitations of the same social structure. For this, it was necessary to take into account their temperament, beliefs and habits. Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavi writes in his famous book Hujjatullah -ul-Balghah that, when  prophets  legislate Shara’e ( plural of Sharia) laws, they take into account all the hidden beliefs and habits that are embedded in the people such as the disease, “ Maraz-e- Kalb” (Rabies) is embedded in a person.  Reference: Hujjatullah al-Balighah, Volume I, Page 224, Chapter 56.  

 

See also Hujjatullah al-Balighah, Volume I, Chapter-73, Page No- 32. For further details.

 

Note: Mufti Abdul Quddus Rumi Saheb Marhoom, the then mufti shaher Agra, had serious objection to Hujjatullh-ul-Balighah being taught in Darul Uloom Deoband, by Qari Tayyab Saheb Marhoom, the then rector of the madrasah.


In the light of the above facts, it can be rightly assumed that not all the rules of Islam are eternal and universal, but most of the rules could only apply to that generation and that also for a certain period of time.

 

However, the fact that most of the teachings of the Qur'an are useful and worthy of imitation for humanity is beyond dispute. But we must also realize that the changes that Prophet Muhammad brought to Arab society were merely an improvement for that region and society of that time. In his time and in his generation, Hazrat Muhammad was a great social reformer. He created a new system of social security and a family structure that improved the previous system. We can accept the good things out of it and let go of the things that are harmful to us in the 21st century, such as offensive jihad, underage marriage, violence against women, etc.

 

Therefore, the change of time and place demands that Islamic jurisprudence be revised and amended so that it can meet the requirements of the 21st century.
In the light of the above facts, some people would be right in concluding that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was a great social reformer and that he adopted the method which was most appropriate at that time for the betterment of his uncivilized society. It seems that he himself may have felt that he was chosen by God to do this job. This is also conceivable in the light of the rational explanation offered by Shah Waliyyullah when, after mentioning Hazrat Muhammad and Hazrat Maryam seeing Hazrat Jibril and Hazrat Muhammad’s Meraj (ascending to heavens) experience and some other similar incidents, he has written, that  all  these things can also be considered as sensory existence, which means that it was merely a feeling of the person concerned  i.e., Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and Hazrat Maryam as is the case with a person in a state of sleep or illness when he  visualises strange things and hears terrible voices which are his own feelings while in reality, they do not exist outside in  the real world.

 

It is tragic, that all this information is contained in the writings of our elders. Allama Suyuti's al-Atqan Fi Uloom-il-Quran is available for external study in all Islamic madrassas including Darul Uloom Deoband, Mazahirul Uloom, Saharanpur, And Brailvi madrasas, all over the country and is part of the curriculum of Islamic studies at Jamia Millia Islamia and Aligarh Muslim University. Hujjatullah Al-Balgha is being taught in the specialization curriculum after Faraghat in Darul Uloom Deoband.

 

 It is written in the same book, “Al-Itqan Fi Uloom-il-Quran that Hazrat A’esha said  that after  the death of the Holy Prophet, when People were busy preparing and burying his dead body,  many verses of the Qur'an, including the verse of stoning and many verses of surah Al-Ahzab which were written on leaves and were placed under the pillow were eaten by the animal of the house (goat). Therefore, a large part of the Qur'an has now disappeared from the Qur'an. If so, what about God's promise to protect the Qur'an?  

 

On his part, Shah Waliyyullah has written in Hujjatullah-ul-Balighah, “It was the duty of the prophet (Hazrat Muhammad) to establish the domination of Islam over all other religions and not leave anybody outside its domination whether they accept it voluntarily or after humiliation. Thus, the people will be divided into three categories. 

 

“1) Those who follow the religion of Islam inwardly (sincerely).  

“2) Those who follow Islam outwardly because they have no other option and no capability to resist.

“3) Lowly Kafir (unbelievers), who have to be tasked with lowly labour works like harvesting, threshing, carrying of loads, for which animals are used.  

 

“The messenger of God also imposes a law of suppression and humiliation on the kafirs and imposes jizya on them in order to dominate and humiliate them …. He does not treat them as equal to Muslims in the matters of Qisas (Retaliation in kind), Diyat (blood money), marriage and government administration so that these restrictions should ultimately force them to embrace Islam.”

 

Now, our claim of Islam being a religion of peace and “la ikraha fiddin” (there is no compulsion in religion) becomes meaningless.  It should have happened that these books would not have existed in the first place, or if they had, they should have been burnt in the beginning if our Ulema wanted to protect the Muslims’ aqeedah (faith) in prophethood.  


The questions that naturally come to mind after reading these books have no satisfactory answers. Instead, the questioner is only asked not to let these questions prop up in his mind, lest the faith in prophet-hood should be lost. How is this possible?

 

درمیان قعرِ دریا تختہ بندم کردئی ۔۔۔۔ باز می گوئی کہ دامن تر مکن ہشیا ر باش

Translation: "I have been tied to a plank in the middle of the river and then it is said to me, "Look, don't get wet, be careful.”

 

How can this be?

 

URL: https://newageislam.com/ijtihad,-rethinking-islam/abdur-rahman-hamza,-new-age-islam/is-quran-the-word-of-god-or-sayings-of-a-great-reformer?-a-study-of-the-most-authoritative-books-of-quran-sciences,-ahadith-and-tafaseer-by-imam-ibnhanbal,-jalaluddin-suyuti,-ibn-e-kaseer,-etc/d/121950


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