By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
18 March 2021
Recently Wasim Rizvi, the former chairman of Shia Waqf Board in Uttar Pradesh filed a PIL in the Supreme Court seeking to remove 26 verses from the Quran. In this petition he has said that these verses were inserted by the first three caliphs of Islam (Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Umar, and Hazrat Usman) to expand their power and that they encourage violence, terrorism, bigotry, and hatred. This news led to hurt the Muslims’ sentiments across India and several organizations demanded the apex court to dismiss the PIL and pass strictures against Waseem Rizvi, as “Muslims will not accept any debate on authenticity and truthfulness of the Quranic verses”, because “not a single word of the Quran has changed over the last 14 centuries and that Wasim Rizvi is quoting these verses out of context and therefore no verse of the Quran provokes people to violence”. Indeed this act of Wasim Rizvi is reprehensible and it is hoped that the Supreme Court will reject his PIL.
There is no denying that the Qur'an has come into our hands in its entirety and perfection. The Quran in our hands is the same as it was in the days of our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The reason that not a single word has been changed during about 1400 years is that Allah Almighty Himself has taken the responsibility of protecting it as the Quran says, “We Ourselves have revealed the Quran and We are its Protectors.” (15:9)
Wasim Rizvi ignored this verse. If he thinks the three caliphs inserted these twenty-six verses of the Quran, then how will he interpret this verse (15:9) in which Allah Almighty says that He Himself is the Protector of the Quran? The authenticity of the Qur'an is so certain that it cannot be debated. However, the important thing is that the twenty-six verses about which the terrorist organizations, Islamophobes, and Wasim Rizvi are at mistakes is due to ignorance of the facts. This mistake is due to their deviation from the mainstream and that they are interpreting these verses out of context.
We will present these verses below and briefly explain the context of these verses so that it becomes clear to everyone and they avoid all kinds of fallacy.
The 26 verses of the Quran
فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
“And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (9:5)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَـٰذَا ۚ وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللَّـهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِن شَاءَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
“O you who have believed, indeed the polytheists are unclean, so let them not approach al-Masjid al-Haram after this, their [final] year. And if you fear privation, Allah will enrich you from His bounty if He wills. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Wise.” (9:28)
وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا
“And when you travel in the land, it is no sin for you to curtail some of your obligatory prayers; if you fear that disbelievers may cause you harm; undoubtedly the disbelievers are open enemies to you.” (4:101)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ يَلُونَكُم مِّنَ الْكُفَّارِ وَلْيَجِدُوا فِيكُمْ غِلْظَةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
“O People who Believe – fight the disbelievers who are near to you, and let them find severity in you, and know well that Allah is with the pious.” (9:123)
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا
“We shall soon put those who disbelieve in Our signs into the fire; whenever their skins are cooked (fully burnt) We shall change them for new skins so they may taste the punishment (again and again); indeed Allah is Almighty, Wise.” (4:56)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آبَاءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ إِنِ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
“O People who Believe! Do not consider your fathers and your brothers as your friends if they prefer disbelief over faith; and whoever among you befriends them – then it is he who is unjust.” (9:23)
إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ ۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ ۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ
“Their postponing of the months is nothing but furtherance in disbelief – the disbelievers are misled by it – they decree it lawful in one year and regard it forbidden in another year, in order to equate to the number of the months which Allah has made sacred, and to make lawful what Allah has forbidden; their evil deeds seem good in their sight; and Allah does not guide the disbelievers.” (9:37)
الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ۖ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَّكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ ۖ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلَا مُتَّخِذِي أَخْدَانٍ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
“This day the pure things are made lawful for you, and the food of the People given the Book(s) is lawful for you – and your food is lawful for them – and likewise are the virtuous Muslim women and the virtuous women from the people who received the Book(s) before you when you give them their bridal money – marrying them, not committing adultery nor as mistresses; and whoever turns a disbeliever after being a Muslim, all his deeds are wasted and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.” (5:5)
لَّئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْمُرْجِفُونَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ لَنُغْرِيَنَّكَ بِهِمْ ثُمَّ لَا يُجَاوِرُونَكَ فِيهَا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ﴿٦٠﴾ مَّلْعُونِينَ ۖ أَيْنَمَا ثُقِفُوا أُخِذُوا وَقُتِّلُوا تَقْتِيلا
“If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and the rumour mongers in Medinah do not desist, We shall then surely impel you against them, so then they will not remain your neighbours in Medinah except for a few days. Accursed – to be caught wherever found and to be slain thoroughly.” (33:60-61)
إنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ أَنتُمْ لَهَا وَارِدُونَ
“Indeed, you [disbelievers] and what you worship other than Allah are the firewood of Hell. You will be coming to [enter] it.” (21:98)
أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّاصِرِينَ
“They are the ones whose deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter, and for them, there will be no helpers.” (32:22)
وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّـهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَـٰذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آيَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا
“Allah has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] and has hastened for you this [victory] and withheld the hands of people from you - that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path.” (48:20)
فَكُلُوا مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
“So consume what you have taken of war booty [as being] lawful and good, and fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (8:69)
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
“O Prophet, strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination.” (66:9)
فَلَنُذِيقَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَسْوَأَ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
“But We will surely cause those who disbelieve to taste a severe punishment, and We will surely recompense them for the worst of what they had been doing.” (41:27)
ذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ أَعْدَاءِ اللَّـهِ النَّارُ ۖ لَهُمْ فِيهَا دَارُ الْخُلْدِ ۖ جَزَاءً بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَجْحَدُونَ
“That is the recompense of the enemies of Allah - the Fire. For them therein is the home of eternity as recompense for what they, of Our verses, were rejecting.” (41:28)
إِنَّ اللَّـهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّـهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
“Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment.” (9:111)
وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَلْمِزُكَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ فَإِنْ أُعْطُوا مِنْهَا رَضُوا وَإِن لَّمْ يُعْطَوْا مِنْهَا إِذَا هُمْ يَسْخَطُونَ
“And among them are some who criticize you concerning the [distribution of] charities. If they are given from them, they approve; but if they are not given from them, at once they become angry.” (9:58)
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى الْقِتَالِ ۚ إِن يَكُن مِّنكُمْ عِشْرُونَ صَابِرُونَ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُم مِّائَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا أَلْفًا مِّنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ
“O Prophet, urge the believers to battle. If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are a people who do not understand.” (8:65)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۘ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
“O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They are [in fact] allies of one another. And whoever is an ally to them among you - then indeed, he is [one] of them. Indeed, Allah guides not the wrongdoing people.” (5:51)
قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّىٰ يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ
“Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture - [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled.” (9:29)
وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّا نَصَارَىٰ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَهُمْ فَنَسُوا حَظًّا مِّمَّا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ فَأَغْرَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ وَسَوْفَ يُنَبِّئُهُمُ اللَّـهُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ
“And from those who say, "We are Christians" We took their covenant, but they forgot a portion of that of which they were reminded. So We caused among them animosity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. And Allah is going to inform them about what they used to do.” (5:14)
وَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاءً ۖ فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا
“They wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah. But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper.” (4:89)
قَاتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّـهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُّؤْمِنِينَ
“Fight them; Allah will punish them by your hands and will disgrace them and give you victory over them and satisfy the breasts of a believing people” (9:14)
كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَن تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
“Fighting has been enjoined upon you, while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.” (2:216)
فَلْيُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ الَّذِينَ يَشْرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَن يُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ فَيُقْتَلْ أَوْ يَغْلِبْ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
“So let those fight in the cause of Allah who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter. And he who fights in the cause of Allah and is killed or achieves victory - We will bestow upon him a great reward.” (4:74)
The above mentioned are not the only verses that are contextual but there are other verses and Ahadith which are related to the wars which were fought in the days of the Prophet peace be upon him.
These verses are as follows;
(2:244) (2:216) (3:56) (3:151) (4:74) (4:76) (4:89) (4:95) (4:104) (5:33) (8:12) (8:15) (8:39) (8:57) (8:67) (8:59-60) (8:65) (9:5) (9:14) (9:20) (9:29) (9:30) (9:38-39) (9:41) (9:73) (9:73) (9:88) (9:111) (9:123) (17:16) (18:65-81) (21:44) (25:52) (33:60-62) (47:3-4) (47:35) (48:17) (48:29) (61:4) (61:10-12)(66:9)
The war-related Ahadith are as follows;
Sahih Bukhari (Book 52, Hadith 177) Sahih Bukhari (Book 52, Hadith 256) Sahih Bukhari (Book 52, Hadith 65) Sahih Bukhari (Book 3, Hadith 125) Sahih Bukhari (Book 52, Hadith 220) Sahih Bukhari (Book 52, Hadith 44) Abu Dawud (Book 14, Hadith 2526) Abu Dawud (Book 14, Hadith 2527) Sahih Muslim (Book 1, Hadith 33) Sahih Bukhari (Book 8, Hadith 387) Sahih Muslim (Book 1, Hadith 30) Sahih Bukhari (Book 52, Hadith 73) Sahih Bukhari (Book 11, Hadith 626) Sahih Muslim (Book 1, Hadith 149) Sahih Muslim (Book 20, Hadith 4645) Sahih Muslim (Book 20, Hadith 4696) Sahih Muslim (Book 19, Hadith 4321-4323) Sahih Muslim (Book 19, Hadith 4294) Sahih Muslim (Book 31, Hadith 5917) Sahih Muslim (Book 31, Hadith 5918) Sahih Bukhari (Book 2, Hadith 35) Sunan an-Nasa'i (Book 25, Hadith 13) Sunan Ibn Majah (Book 24, Hadith 2794)
These Quranic verses and Ahadith are mostly quoted out of context by the militant organizations and Islamophobes to make Islam appear as a hostile and aggressive religion. Our fight is against such radical outfits. Our aim should be to reform them. For that purpose, we should make the right approach. But Wasim Rizvi took the support of lie and cunning when he sought the removal of the twenty-six verses of the Quran.
In such a demanding situation, we are bound to propagate that all these war-related verses are contextual and are related to the defensive wars fought against the Mushrikin or Kuffar of Makka in the days of the Prophet (peace be upon him). This becomes very clear once we notice the shane nuzul (reasons and circumstances of the revelation) of these verses as also mentioned in the popular classical books of Tafsir and Hadith.
It is necessary to focus on the causes and circumstances of Makka and only then we can well understand these verses and Ahadith. After the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him invited the People of Makka to Islam, the same people, as a renowned mufassir of the Quran, and former Justice of Pakistani Supreme Court Allama Peer Karam Shah Azhari says, “who once held him in high esteem and applauded him to be the most truthful and trustworthy person had then stooped to brand him as crazy poet and mischief-monger. Everything went topsy-turvy. Those who embraced the religion chosen for them by Allah were subjected to all sorts of indignities and persecutions. Hazrat Bilal was rolled on the glowing embers. Yasir and his wife Samiya were wounded with spears. Not to speak of the poor and the helpless, even the blue-blooded could not go unmolested. For instance, Osman’s uncle would tightly wrap him in fresh animal skin, and throw him in the scorching sun. The searing sun, profuse sweat, and foul smell of the skin would choke his breath and be unbearably excruciating and painful. Similarly, Abu Bakr was once subjected to such cruel and painful torture that he lay unconscious for a long time.
“Besides inflicting physical torture, they stooped to make them the butts of their playful jokes. They raised baseless objections to the verses revealed by Allah, derided the injunctions of Shariat. In brief, they left no stone unturned. Although the Muslims suffered heartless oppression, torture, and abuse for thirteen years, yet they were not allowed to exact a measure of retaliation. They were commanded to persevere patiently. During the thirteenth year after the declaration of his Prophet-hood, Allah commanded the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions to migrate. They carried out Allah’s command worshipfully and migrated to Madina –nearly 300 miles away from Makkah. Still, the animosity of the inveterate enemies of Islam had not subsided. They inflicted fresh injuries on the Muslims; robbed them of peace of mind and heart. A band of pagan Arabs would raid the pastures of the Muslims and take away their cattle. If they encounter a lonely Muslim, they would not hesitate in killing him mercilessly.
“For as long as 14 or 15 years, the Muslims suffered insults, outrages, and injuries at the hands of their persecutors. They bore all these indignities with the utmost humility and patience. When the aggression and ruthlessness of the pagan Arabs grew more hotly than ever, Allah granted permission to the believers to take up arms in their own defence and make the mischief-loving pagan Arabs believe that the torch of Islam – that lights up the darkness – would never be allowed to be blown out. Likewise, the flag held aloft for the dissemination of the truth will never be let down, however hot they might grow. This torch will remain lit until the doomsday. And the flag of the truth will continue to flutter so long as the world exists.” (Zia-ul-Quran, Vol: 3; p.218- the quoted excerpts translated by Khushtar Noorani)
The first verse which was revealed to permit fighting in self-defence is as follows;
“And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but do not transgress. Truly Allah loves not the transgressors.” (2:190).
Before the revelation of the Quranic verse 2:190, fighting was forbidden in Makkah and initially in Madina. As per “Tibyan al-Quran” authored by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi, the Quranic verses which initially debarred Muslims from fighting in defence are as follows;
“Repel evil with the best deeds; We well know the matters that they fabricate”. (23:96)
“So forgive them and excuse them; indeed Allah loves the virtuous”. (5:13)
“And be patient over what they say and avoid them with gracious avoidance”. (73:10)
“Then if they turn away, O dear Prophet, (Mohammed – peace, and blessings be upon him) upon you is nothing but to clearly convey (the message)”. (16:82)
“Therefore advise; indeed you are a proclaimer of advice. (The Holy Prophet is a Remembrance from Allah.) You are not at all a guardian over them”. (88:21-22)
“And you are not one to use force over them” (50:45)
But with the revelation of 2:190, fighting was allowed against those who initiated fighting; “And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but do not transgress. Truly Allah loves not the transgressors.” (2:190).
This first command for fighting was revealed in connection with the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. It is reported that in 6 A.H/628, the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) went out with his companions from Madinah to Makkah for performing ‘Umrah. When they camped at Hudaybiyyah near Makkah, the Makkans came and prevented them from continuing on into Makkah. So the Muslims remained there for a month. Then they made a treaty stipulating that they would turn back the following year for three days and perform the ‘Umrah and that there would be no fighting among them. Having concluded the Treaty, they came back to Madinah. Then, as the time for that approached, Muslims feared the treachery of the Makkan pagans and being called upon to fight in the sacred precinct [Haram] during the sacred months. This verse 2:190 was then revealed to set the rules of war, meaning that Muslims are allowed to fight if the Arab pagans initiate fighting with them. We already know that in the initial days, Muslims were brutally tortured, murdered, and driven out of their homes, but despite that, as the above Quranic verses testify to this fact, they were commanded to have patience and pardon their enemies, but now since they have made a treaty and are feeling treachery of the Makkans, Muslims are therefore allowed to fight them in their defence.
The points derived from the verse 2:190 can be shortly summarised that this verse was the first revealed to permit fighting. As a Muhkam verse, this sets the guidelines for defence and prohibits every sort of transgression. In this 21st century, the people have made certain laws for promoting peaceful coexistence and maintaining peace-treaties, therefore, war should not be initiated against any peace-seekers. The modern terrorists are transgressing the limits set by Allah Almighty and detailed by the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) as mentioned above in the verse 2:190 and a number of Ahadith. In the Shariat terminology, they are transgressing the limits of Allah, by initiating the war against the peaceful citizens, killing children, women, chronically ill, old men, bombing the populated areas, and punishing the innocent civilians with fire. These are the crimes they are committing by making the strictly forbidden acts lawful, and thus they are inventing falsehood about Allah.
Do these radical outfits forget at such a time the Quranic warnings, such as “And do not say about what your tongues assert of untruth, ‘This is lawful and this is unlawful’, to invent falsehood about Allah. Indeed, those who invent falsehood about Allah will not succeed” (16:116)?!
While committing terrorism, do they ignore this Quranic verse which commands Muslims to fulfil the promise as, “And fulfil every covenant, Verily the covenant will be questioned about” (17:34)?!
While committing indiscriminate killing, do these brainwashed youth forget this Quranic verse which reads, “But if they intend to peace, you also incline to it...” (8:61)?!
While brainwashing their members and the youth, why and why do the terrorist masterminds intentionally ignore the Quranic command which says, “And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden, except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly - We have given his heir authority, but let him not exceed limits in [the matter of] taking life. Indeed, he has been supported [by the law]” (17:33)?!
We know that the radical organizations worldwide are quoting these war-related verses Ahadith out of context for achieving their political ambitions. They can be understood from the above mentioned Shane Nuzul and by the following Ahadith:
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,
أَلاَ مَنْ ظَلَمَ مُعَاهِدًا أَوِ انْتَقَصَهُ أَوْ كَلَّفَهُ فَوْقَ طَاقَتِهِ أَوْ أَخَذَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا بِغَيْرِ طِيبِ نَفْسٍ فَأَنَا حَجِيجُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ "
Translation: “Beware, if anyone persecutes any peaceful non-Muslim citizen [Mu’ahid], or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him on the Day of Judgment.” (Please see Sunan Abi Dawud – Book 20, Hadith 125- Arabic reference).
The purport of this Hadith is that if any Muslim persecutes any peaceful non-Muslim citizen, or diminishes his right and so on, as mentioned above in the Hadith, the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) will plead for that peaceful non-Muslim on the Day of Judgment.
This Hadith is not simply a warning but a law promulgated in the blessed era of the beloved Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) even after the conquest of Makka [Fath-e-Makka]. This law is still a part of Islam. There is not a single hint of its being abrogated. Thus, according to the great Ulama and Fuqaha of Islam, this law is universal and all-time valid in its essence and application. Therefore, none of the followers of Ahadith or the followers of the interpretation of great Ulama and Fuqaha should hesitate to accept the message inherent in this Hadith.
Similar Hadith has been reported by several well-known Muhaddethin like Bukhari, Nasai, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, as follows;
“Whoever kills a peaceful non-Muslim living in minority [Mu'ahid] shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years (of travelling). (Sahih Bukhari, Book 87, Hadith 52)
“Whoever kills a peaceful non-Muslim living in minority or under Muslim-governed country [Mu'ahid] with no justification, Allah will forbid Paradise to him.” (Sunan Nasai, Book 45, Chapter “Seriousness of killing the Mua’hid”, Hadith 42)
“If anyone unjustly kills a peaceful non-Muslim living in minority or Muslim protection [Mu’ahid], Allah will forbid him [the killer] to enter Paradise” (Sunan Abi Dawud, Book 15, Hadith 284)
“Indeed, whoever kills a peaceful non-Muslim living in minority or under the Muslim protection [Mu'ahid] that has a covenant from Allah and a covenant from His Messenger (peace be upon him), then he has violated the covenant with Allah and the covenant of His Messenger, so he shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise; even though its fragrance can be sensed from the distance of seventy autumns.” (Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, Book 16, Hadith 19)
“Whoever kills a peaceful non-Muslim living under the protection of Muslim-run country [Mu’ahid], will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, even though its fragrance may be detected from a distance of forty years” (Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 21, Hadith 2789-Arabic reference)
“Whoever kills a peaceful non-Muslim (living in Muslim-run country) who has the covenant with Allah and the covenant with his Messenger, will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, even though its fragrance may be detected from a distance of seventy years” (Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 21, Hadith 2788-Arabic reference)
Besides, there are other Ahadith which forbid the killing of non-Muslim children, women, sick or elder and other non-warriors; which can be also considered evidence that war can’t be waged against non-warriors.
(1) “Do not kill any child, any woman, or any elder or sick person.” (Sunan Abu Dawud)
(2) “Do not practice treachery or mutilation. (Muwatta Malik)
(3) “Do not destroy the villages and towns, do not spoil the cultivated fields and gardens, and do not slaughter the cattle.” (Sahih Bukhari; Sunan Abu Dawud)
(4) “Do not kill the monks in monasteries, and do not kill those sitting in places of worship. (Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal)
(5) “Do not uproot or burn palms or cut down fruitful trees. (Al-Muwatta)
(6) “Do not wish for an encounter with the enemy; pray to Allah to grant you security, but when you [are forced to] encounter them, exercise patience.” (Sahih Muslim)
(7) “No one may punish with fire except the Lord of Fire.” (Sunan Abu Dawud).
From the above-mentioned Quranic verses and Ahadith, it is known to us that killing peaceful citizens including women, children, old men, monks, destructing places of worship, etc are forbidden. This is what we need to propagate all around the world, that is, we need to propagate that the war-related verses and Ahadith are contextual and were related to the defensive war fought during the days of the Prophet peace be upon him. As for Wasim Rizvi’s filing the PIL to seek the removal of the 26 verses of the Quran, it is highly condemnable and hurting Muslims’ sentiments. Hence we request the Supreme Court to reject his PIL immediately.
A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.
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