By Qadi Bohlool Bahjat Âfandi
The set-up and the original design of Caliphate were based on the theory of distribution of functions on the basis of efficiency and distinction, because, in sound societies, the consideration of distinction is incumbent.
Rather the measure of perfection of a society depends on the capability of people, from the angle of testing the inclinations, likes, dislikes, etc. Resources for training should be provided so that the special capabilities of individuals are perfected and their blooming is not possible if they remain untapped.
Therefore, people are appointed to posts that they are trained for. Similar is the case of innate capabilities and the natural way of training people. Thus the natural path of progress of every individual leads to perfection it goes on moving without any external obstructions. A perfect society too is that which, like the earth, remains ready for raising (sprouting) capabilities and when the capabilities reach perfection it also helps collective capabilities.
It is said that, in order to prepare a perfect society, this distinction or merit must be considered in every profession and skill very carefully and there should not be any neglect in any vocation of this account, be it trade, industry, voyaging, driving, tailoring, shoemaking, etc. or even military and government affairs.
The importance of each of these is in proportion to the extent of its influence. However any deviation from truth disturbs the equilibrium of them all. Since governance means the ensuring the safety of people, protection of relations and management, and the establishment of laws, it is of utmost significance to consider the distinction as well as the natural and acquired qualifications in case of people who are to be trained for this purpose.
Just as in the case of creation wherein both man and woman come into being and the management also provides the beginning and the seed of every living thing, and though, in case
of some partial and limited instances, does not provide the means of their growth and development through efforts, or there come some deterrents to such growth and progress.
Yet nature’s management looks to its aim and does not stop functioning.Similarly it is necessary that, for every job or duty which is essential in the administration of a society, individuals who are like their seeds should be moulded in the workshop of creation and if the management of the society conforms to the management of creations, such individuals should be trained similarly for the same purpose.
Of course, the religion of Islam, which is the religion of nature and in its planning has total and perfect conformity between the management of society and its training and the management of nature and its aim, it is a must that it should be attentive to the matter of administration and caliphate. Especially the Islamic state, which is not only the establishment of the laws relating to material matters and administration but it aims to direct thoughts and morals of people and leads them towards hereafter. Hence it is imperative that it should provide for and identify individuals for such leadership, the identification which the Holy Prophet (saw)has already mentioned on various occasions. The same personality is needed for exhibiting a perfect example.
Since the law of influence covering the family, blood heritage, morals in the matter of qualification (suitability) cannot be ignored, this suitability cannot be found anywhere but the Progeny of the Holy Prophet (saw). And as regards the rays of Islamic training, the family of the Holy Prophet (saw)is like the focal lens, which joins all the rays and light brightens up all directions, it is necessary that, in addition to suitability, the natural selection too should be only from the same family.
So the virtues which should be found in the Imam also belong to the same particular personality. Therefore, the way of identifying the distinct capacity, which is the foundation of rightful government, cannot be obtained through popular opinion of the people. Then what to say of the succession of the Holy Prophet (saw)!
Moreover, the common people neither know the real interests of mankind nor are aware of technical distinctions. Do we select the captain of a ship by public voting? It would only endanger the life and property of the passengers. But an error inidentifying the driver and director of people who is to guide people, enhance their capabilities, and ensure their salvation in this world as well as the hereafter, puts not only one society in danger but is likely to annihilate mankind. Besides, neither in the earlier days of Islam nor thereafter, consensus or democracy never achieved caliphate. The later Muslims only wanted to give a window dress to it and mould it in a legal form.
Even the constitution and democracy, which the world communities boast of today, is nothing but a deceit for weak communities. It is only the imposition of the wish of a minority upon all others. The kinds of governments and their manners and regulations are the effects of the Greek philosophy, especially that of Socrates and Plato and they regard a democratic government higher than dictatorship and lower than other governments (See Democracy of Plato). Briefly, it cannot be said that Islam had no view in this crucial matter. As it surely had and also it has guided Muslims toward it, it cannot be said that its aim was popular rule, democracy or socialism because:
1. Such a government is not a graceful government.
2. Such a government never achieves its aims. For, if a caliph, king or the chief of republic is elected with as per the common will of the people and classes, he will be a man who does not possess the requisite capability and qualification. The reason being that the masses are not aware of the intricacies of leadership, governance, politics, and the secrets of statesmanship. So they can never recognise the person who is truly worthy of this all-important position, and the recognition of such persons is actually an offshoot from the branches of Marefat.
3. Islam did not sanction this type of caliphate (that succeeded the Holy Prophet (saw)). In other words, it was absolutely un-Islamic.
4. Even if we assume that the right method, i.e. the democratic one, was used for the election of the first caliph, in the case of second caliph, it was through a will, while in the case of the third, it was through a special advisory body. Ultimately, each one of the three, was selected in a totally different way.
5. The emphasis on selection will be to ensure that there should be nothing like selfishness, personal interests and groupings. Resultantly, a capable person is identified and selected to acquire the post.
Obviously, the one whom the Holy Prophet (saw)has selected and the one who has been identified with distinct signs of infallibility by the Holy Prophet (saw), will of course, be a guaranteed selection and the best choice.
Abu Hurayrah is one of the many very harmful calamities that have harmed the root and the brain of Islam. He is one of the reasons as to why the tree of Islam faded and its branches and leaves turned yellow and its fruit decreased.
It is he who gave a shape of legality and authenticity to the tyrannies of Mu’awiyah, particularly through his concocted traditions, merely to fill his belly on the dining table of Mu’awiyah, his advanced age notwithstanding. What is regrettable is that this man is respected among the masses, considered to be a reliable narrator of traditions and a link in the conveyance of religion.
Obviously, this is a very dangerous thing as we see that they quote traditions from him abundantly in the so-called reliable books of Ahadith. But in these very volumes, we do not find even one from the thousands of Hadiths narrated by the members of the family of the Holy Prophet (saw) who were trained in the light of Prophetic radiance and were nourished therein. If we conduct an unbiased study of the condition of Abu Hurayrah during the days of the Holy Prophet (saw), we shall find that the noble company of the Holy Prophet (saw), which was the venue of the radiation of the rays of the divine revelation and enlightenment, was a place of passing time (coffee house) for him.
In fact, his presence was boring even for others and once even the Holy Prophet (saw) had told him: “Visit me only occasionally, so that your love for me may increase.” Every one who attended that spiritually enlightening assembly brought with him some of the fragrance of the sweet revelation and of the sublime moral features of the Holy Prophet (saw).
But we do not find any such sign in Abu Hurayrah. (While he is considered to be) the greatest among the narrators. It is mentioned on page 28, volume 2 of Seerah Zaini Dahlan under the heading “Talk of the Holy Prophet (saw)In Other Languages”:
Ibne Maajah has, among all other Hadiths narrated by Abu Hurayrah quotes that he (Abu Hurayrah) said, “The Holy Prophet (saw) came for prayer at an early hour. I also offered prayers with him. Then the Holy Prophet (saw) turning to me asked in Persian, “SHIKAM DARD?” (Do you have a stomach-ache?)’ I replied, “BALE, YAA RASOOLALLAAH” (Yes, O Prophet of God!).
Then he said, “BARKHEEZ, NAMAAZ BAGUZAAR, CHE DAR NAMAAZ SHIFAA AST” (Get up and offer prayer as there is cure in prayer). Explaining this conversation, Zaini Dahlan says: The word SHIKAM with the pronunciation SHIKAM, in Arabic, means stomach and the other word with the pronunciation DARD in a Persian word means pain.
The Iranians turn the arrangement of subject and predicate. So the meaning of his words SHIKAM DARD is STOMACH ACHE and, as an interrogation, the phrase means: DO YOU HAVE STOMACH PAIN? Then Abu Hurayrah said: Yes. Then he (Prophet) said: Get up and pray as there is cure in prayers. Indeed the result of Namaz (prayer) for people like Abu Hurayrah, whose signs of overeating were obvious in the presence of the Holy Prophet (saw)), is an exercise for lightening the stomach. While in reality, the original text in Arabic of the Hadith is also there, that is, AS SALAATU ME’RAAJUL MU’MINEEN (Namaz is the ascension to heaven for a believer).
Some have read this Hadith with an additional MEEM (m) and this ‘m’, in the Persian language, is a pronoun indicating, the first (speaking) person. Allamah Mulla Ali, while explaining ‘shifaa’ says, ‘The address to Abu Hurayrah is not clear in this word unless it is taken to mean in a sarcastic sense.
In other words, just as you see a man complaining of stomach ache you say that the trouble, which afflicts him, is also found in you. This is to bring humour in the talk so that affection may increase. We have quoted all this just to acquaint the readers with the personality of Abu Hurayrah.
A remnant of Muhammad (saw) and the honourable lady in Islam, notwithstanding that she is the daughter of the Prophet of Islam (saw)and a divine choice of God Almighty, from the viewpoint of her spiritual rank and personal virtues, is such that all the Muslims must bow their head in respect to her and her biography has made enough provision for all this.
The worldly queens, despite having little spiritual and divine virtues, have been continuously glorified in history books. But what do we find in this history about this great lady of Islam whose piety is exemplary and who wished nothing except the good of the ummah? The heads of all the other righteous personalities of the world are placed at her feet.
Translation from Persian: Syed Athar Husain Rizvi