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Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 31


By Anna Suvrova





1 There is no paucity of hagiographic literature on Nizamuddin Awliya.Among them (apart from the books of authors already referred to above) are ‘Ali Jandar’s Durar-i Ni.amı (Ms. in Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad), Muhammad Jamal Qiwam’s Qiwm al-‘aqa’id (Ms. in the library of Osmania University, Hyderabad), Gesudaraz’s son Sayyid Muhammad Husaini’s Jawami‘al-kalim (published in 1937) and Afżal al-fawa’id, ascribed to Amir Khusrow. Apart from that the authorship of the afore-mentioned fabricated malft, Rhat al-qulb and Rhat al-muhibbn was ascribed to Nizamuddin Awliya himself, which was, however, strenuously denied by him.


2  Ghiyathpur (or Moghulpur), a village in the suburbs of the so-called ‘New city’ (Kilugarhi), where the capital of Sultan Balban and his son Kaiqubad was located in the thirteenth century. The ‘New city’ was situated to the northwest of the ‘Old city’ (Mehrauli) of the Ghorids.


3 The opposition lazimı-muta‘addı has been borrowed by the mystical literature from grammar, where the former term signifies the intransitive verb (action limited to the subject), and the latter, the transitive (action directed towards the object). It is exactly this meaning of grammatical transitiveness, which is applied by Nizamuddin Awliya to religious service (Nizami 1992: 51).


4  In explanation of the idea of worldly life without involvement with and attachment to worldly matters Nizamuddin narrated the parable about a saint, who had sent his wife to take food to a dervish, living on the other bank of the river. There was no ford in the river, and the saint told his wife to ask the water to part out of respect to her husband, who had never slept with a woman. The wife, who had given birth to the saint’s children, was extremely amazed at such a direction, but obeyed, and the river parted before her. Having fed the dervish, the woman asked how she should now return. The dervish repeated her husband’s instructions: she should tell the river to give way to her for the sake of a hermit who had not taken food for thirty years. The bewildered woman, before whose eyes the dervish had had his meals, carried out the order and reached home safely, where she demanded an expla-nation from her husband. The saint said: ‘I never slept with you to satisfy the passion of my lower self. I slept with you only to provide you what was your due. In reality, I never slept with you, and similarly, that other man never ate for thirty years to satisfy his appetite or to fill his stomach. He ate only to have the strength to do God’s will’ (Amir Hasan 1992: 152).


5  The earliest historical work, ascribing the saying to Nizamuddin Awliya is ‘Tarkhi Mubarak Shahı’ of ‘Abdullah Sirhindi (end of the fourteenth century). In the sixteenth century Bada’uni, in Muntakhab at-tawarıkh, explains the origin of this saying: ‘among the inhabitants of India the opinion is widespread, that Sultan Ghiyathuddin Tughluq, because of the enmity harboured by him towards the Sulţan al-masha¯’ikh, sent him a notification while on the way to Lakhnauti: “After my return to Delhi either the Shaikh will remain there or myself.” The Shaikh replied: “It is still far away to Delhi” (Bada’uni 1973, 2: 301).




6  In the last year of ‘Ala’uddin’s rule, the military leader Malik Na’ib, by resorting to intrigue, saw to it that the heir apparent, Khizr Khan, was deprived of the rights of succession to the throne. After his father’s death Khizr Khan was blinded, and the other claimant, Qutbuddin Mubarak, miraculously escaped death. When he ascended to the throne under the name of Mubarak Shah, he put to death Khizr Khan and the rest of his brothers. The fate of the unfortunate prince found its reverberation in Amir Khusrow’s poem Duwal Rnı-o Khiz.r Khn.


7  Amir Khusrow’s poem Nuh sipihr (Nine heavenly spheres) served as a proof of the fact that the ban imposed by Mubarak Shah Khalji was not taken into consideration. In spite of the fact that it was written on this Sultan’s order, the poet included in it glorification (madh) of his spiritual preceptor, without any hesitation.


8  Barani wrote about dınpanahı: ‘Even if the ruler were to perform every day a thousand rak‘a of prayer, keep fast all his life, do nothing prohibited, and spend all his treasury for the sake of God, and yet not practice dınpanahı, not exert his strength in the extirpation, lowering, curbing and debasing of the enemies of God and His Prophet, not seek to honour the orders of the Divine law and not show in his realms the plendour of ordering the good and prohibiting the forbidden ... then his place would be nowhere but in Hell’ (Schimmel 1980: 13-4).


9 Mash riq al-anwar (thirteenth century) represents a popularization of the so-called Sahıhain, i.e. of the two collections of authentic hadıths, known as as-Sahıh of al-Bukhari and al-Ja mi‘as-sahıh of Muslim (both of the ninth century). The study of Mashriq al-anwar, comprizing 2,253 hadıths, was a compulsory part of the syllabuses of South Asian madrasas up to the end of the fourteenth century. The text of Mash riq al-anwar called into being numerous commentaries. Later, Tabrizi’s Mishkt al-mașabih became the basic collection in the field of science of hadıth.


10  The origin of the nickname Awliya is not quite clear to modern researchers. Amir Hasan on several occasions calls the Shaikh ‘Sultan of saints’ (sulţn al-awliya), although he was more often referred to as the Sultan of Shaikhs (sulţn al-masha’ikh). It is possible that later the word sulţan was dropped and Awliya got appended to the saint’s name. Many centuries after the saint’s death, Shah Waliullah’s son, the theologian Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, explained this and similar nicknames by the fact that the use of plural forms for an individual is an indication of accentuation of some quality, i.e. it plays an emphasizing role.


 11 While his mother was ailing, Nizamuddin endeavoured to help her by performing ziyarat: ‘When my mother -May she be blessed - fell ill, she asked me several times to visit the tomb of a certain martyr or a certain saint. I would obey her command, and when I returned home, she would say: ‘my illness is better, my affliction has eased’’ (Amir Hasan 1992: 149).  It is known that Nizamuddin performed ziya rat of           Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki’s tomb several times and visited the tomb of Shaikh Farid in Ajodhan seven times.


12  Thus Amir Hasan set free his slave Malih by name ‘in gratitude for the privilege of discipleship’. Later Malih became a murıd of the Shaikh. Another instance of liberation from slavery is also connected with Amir Hasan, who, while serving in Deogiri, ransomed a Hindu girl, paying five tankato her owner, and returned her to her parents, thereby evoking praise and blessing of the Shaikh.




13 In other South Asian fraternities, for example among Suhrawardis, visitors were admitted to the khnqah only during particular ours: between midday (.ohr) and pre-evening (‘asr) obligatory prayers.


14 Amir Khusrow, at times without sufficient grounds for the same, is traditionally considered to be the founder of qawwalı, wedding songs B BAL MOR (having an obvious folk origin) and lyrical poetry in Hindustani (Urdu). The invention of sitar and musical style khayal is also attributed to him.


15 From previous works of this type Amir Hasan, probably, knew Muhammad bin Munawwar’s Asrar-i tawhıd (discourses of Abu Sa‘id bin Abul Khair, 1178), Malft-i Najmuddın Kubra’ (1221) and Fıhi ma fıhi (collection of Jalauddin Rumi’s discourses, compiled after his death).


16  From this quotation it follows that Nasiruddin had a nostalgic feeling for the recent times of his predecessor as for the ‘golden age’ of Sufism, and perceived the present as decline. Whereas objectively he had the greatest influence and power compared to all the great shaikhs of the Chishtiyya. The first of the Chishtis to accept the post of shaikh ul-Isl m, he saw to it that some ‘ulamand șufıs were allowed to remain in Delhi after the forced resettlement of its population in the new capital in the Deccan. It is considered that, thanks to Nasiruddin, the mystic and intellectual tradition in Delhi was not interrupted.


Besides that, historians ascribed to him a prominent role in the enthronement of Firoz Shah Tughluq (1351-88), who revived all the former privileges of the fraternity. In other words, Nasiruddin Chiragh-i Dihli saved his order at the cost of violation of the precepts of its founders: he accepted shughl and interfered in the affairs of state.



1  In addition less well-known disciples of thefounderofthe Suhrawardiyya order were also preaching in South Asia: Maulana Majuddin Hajji, Shah Turkman Sahib and Ziauddin Rumi. Sultan Mubarak Shah Khalji endeavoured to exploit the latter in his struggle against Nizamuddin Awliya. Abu Hafs ‘Umar’s disciple was also the saint of Bengal Jalaluddin Tabrizi, who started his discipleship under Abu Sayyid Tabrizi, but after the latter’s death, shifted to Baghdad, where he became one of the most ardent murıds of Shihabuddin Abu  Hafs.


2  According to Sur r as-șud r, at the maz.har Hamiduddin Suwali Nagori proclaimed: ‘“As treasure and serpent are associated in form, they should be linked in reality ... Then wealth is a serpent and one who stored wealth in fact rears a serpent.” Baha’uddin Zakariya replied: “Although wealth is a serpent, someone who has learnt the incantation to overcome the venom, need not have any fear from the serpent.” Hamiduddin retorted that one should not rely upon charms on the occasions when there is threat to life (meaning spiritual life). Here his opponent lost patience and declared, that perhaps wealth was really dangerous for spiritually imperfect Chishtis, but the strength of the Suhrawardis made them not accessible to temptation and bewitchment with the evil eye. Hamiduddin finished the discussion, telling that Suhrawardis in their spiritual development “were not higher than Prophet Muhammad, who had often remarked that his poverty was is pride”. Shaikh Baha’u’d-Din Zakariyya Suhrawardi was unable to reply’ Rizvi 1986: 128-9).




3  It is true that Nizamuddin Awliya did not encourage his disciples to perform sajda, but nor did he forbid it. ‘As to the sajda, in ancient communities the practice was recommended in the same manner as subjects prostrating themselves before rulers, or pupils before their teachers. Religious communities performed sajda before their Prophets.In the days of the Prophet Muhammad, sajda was halted. Its obligatory haracter disappeared but its recommendatory character remained ... Although sajda is not obligatory it is not illegal. There can be no question of prohibiting what is legally remitted’ (Amir Hasan 1992: 328). Evertheless, Amir Hasan begins each chapter of Fawa’id al-fu’ad mentioning performance of sajda before the Shaikh.


4 The difference between khnqh and jam ‘at khana is notional enough, and often these terms are used as synonyms. K. A. Nizami has written in this connection: ‘Though broadly used in the sense of hospices these terms differ in their connotation. The khnqah was a spacious building, which provided separate accommodation for each visitor and inmate. The jam ‘at khanah was a large room where all the disciples slept, prayed and studied on the floor. The Chishti saints built jam ‘at khnahs. The Suhrawardis constructed khnqahs. Common people, unable to appreciate the distinction, used the word khnqah even for the Chishti jam‘at khanahs, and now the term is used for all places of spiritual activity without distinction’ (Nizami 1961: 175).


5 Juwliq Arabicized plural form from Persian jlakh-‘coarse wool’, ‘sackcloth’. Juwaliqs were considered to be a branch of the alandariyya fraternity, and it was founded by Hasan al-Juwaliqi in thirteenth century.


6  Nizamuddin Awliya, who had condemned the snobbery of the Suhrawardis with restraint, cites a story in witness of the Chishti thesis: in each group of ordinary people (‘mı) there are chosen ones (khas. .ı). In the course of a journey Baha’uddin Zakariya came across a group of uwaliqs disliked by him, in which a particular man stood out as radiance was emanating from him. To Baha’uddin’s question, what he was doing among these vagrants, the man replied: ‘Zakariya! [I am here] that you know that in the midst of every group of people there is one of God’s elect’ (Amir Hasan 1992: 84).


7  Nizamuddin Awliya was of the opinion that Shihabuddin Abu Hafs simply did not hear music. He narrates that once Auhad Kirmani was on a visit to Abu Hafs and sought his permission to organize sam ‘. The host gave the necessary instructions and withdrew into a corner, where he got absorbed in dhikr. The musicians played and sang the whole night. In the morning the Shaikh could not recollect that he had been a witness to musical audition. In other words he heard music without listening to it. ‘Every time that a musical assembly would gather in his khanqah and the participants would recite the Qur’an, Shaykh Shihab ad-din would hear it, but the actual musical performances, with all their attendant commotion, he would not hear. Just imagine how absorbed he was in his spiritual discipline!’ (Amir Hasan1992: 119).




8 It was not clarified in the original Persian text of Faw’id al-Fu’ad, but Bruce Lawrence in his English translation mentioned the gender of Qadi Hamiduddin’s beloved as masculine.


9  Hagiographic literature maintains that Baha’uddin Zakariya’s son was kidnapped since he had threatened Hamiduddin Suwali Nagori, for which the latter had cursed him. This is a rare evidence of open hostility between members of two fraternities.


10  Baha’uddin Zakariya and the Qadi of Multan wrote a letter to Iltutmish, in which they suggested that the Sultan’s troops should be sent to the city in order to put an end to the Governor’s misrule. The letter fell into Qubacha’s hands who executed the Qadi, and invited the saint to his palace for an explanation. Shaikh Baha’uddin fearlessly owned authorship of the letter and declared: ‘Whatever I have written, I have written because it is true and I have also written it for the sake of Truth (i.e. God). As for you, do what you want. By yourself, what can you do? What rests in your hands?’ (Amir Hasan 1992: 219). The Governor had to leave Baha’uddin’s deed without consequences, and soon after the saint’s efforts were crowned with success, as in 1228 Iltutmish annexed Sind and Multan. Nasiruddin Qubacha, pursued by the Sultan’s troops, was drowned in the Indus.


11  Earlier, having conquered Sind, Muhammad bin Qasim had executed the local ruler Dahir and sent two of Dahir’s daughters to the Caliph as a gift; out of a feeling of revenge, they had accused the Arab military leader of rape. The Caliph sent an order to Muhammad bin Qasim, according to which he had to be sewn up in the hide of a newly slaughtered cow and sent to Damascus. Muhammad bin Qasim, who was only eighteen years old, did not care to repudiate the slander, obeyed the Caliph’s order and after a few days died of suffocation on the way.


12  Prior to the story involving the dancing girl, the Shaikh ul-Islam had endeavoured to open the Sultan’s eyes to the alleged fact that Jalaluddin Tabrizi cohabited with a Turkish slave boy, and even spied upon him from the roof of the adjacent house. Jalaluddin, having noticed the shadowing, used to make the slave give him a massage in the bed, teasing his persecutor for fun. However, in this case Iltutmish did not allow the matter to be proceeded with any further, having ordered Najmuddin Sughra to leave the saint alone.


13  Jalaluddin Tabrizi served his murshid with incomparable self-denial. Thus, Abu Hafs Suhrawardi annually performed Hajj, and being an elderly person of poor health, found it difficult to prepare his food on the way. Jalaluddin accompanied him everywhere, carrying on his head a small portable stove, on which food remained hot all the time.


14  Fakhruddin ‘Iraqi (died in 1289), a Persian mystic poet, author of a poetical dıw n, the poem ‘Ushshq-nama (Book of the Lovers) and the treatise Lama‘t (Flashes of Light), propagated Ibn al-‘Arabi’s ideas in his creative writings. After Baha’uddin Zakariya’s death he left the subcontinent and lived the life of a wandering dervish: preached in Konya, was the head of a khnqah in Tuqat, subsequently lived in Egypt and Syria. ‘Iraqi was buried by the side of Ibn al-‘Arabi’s tomb in Damascus.




15  This statue, often mentioned in historical and geographical literature, had made Multan a centre of pilgrimage in pre-Islamic epoch. It was broken by Mahmud Ghaznavi’s soldiers in the eleventh century and finally destroyed in the course of the capture of Multan by Aurangzeb’s troops in the seventeenth century.




1  Guru Nanak’s pilgrimage to Mecca, described in the hagiographic works of the Sikh janamsa¯khı¯s can, in particular, serve as a proof of this statement. Since access to the sacred city was forbidden for the followers of other religions, and Guru Nanak could hardly be expected to disguise himself as a Muslim, it is obvious that he was taken to be a mu’ahhid on the basis of his appearance and conduct. After Mecca, Nanak set off to Baghdad in order to visit ‘Abdul Qadir Jilani’s darg h. Here the Caliph supposedly presented him with a cloak, embroidered with verses of the Qur’an (it has been preserved up to the present day, together with other relics in the gurdwr Janamsthan, at Nanak’s birthplace, in the small town of Nankana Sahib). On returning to Punjab, Nanak visited Ajodhan and Multan, where he met Baba Farid’s and Baha’uddin Zakariya’s descendants (although janamsakhıs assert that these were the great saints themselves, in spite of the fact that they had actually died several hundred years back) - all this points to the closeness of his interests to Sufism.


2 Siph Slr- military leader, commander, acustomarytitle for Ghaznavids military vicegerents.


3  The first independent ruler of the Muslim Bengal, Sultan Ilyas Shah, who was suffering from leprosy, moved from Pandua to Bahraich in order to be cured in Salar Mas‘ud’s tomb. His contemporaries consid-ered the ‘medical’ motivation of the trip to be a pretext, concealing political ambitions, and apprehended him on the grounds that for the same reason Ilyas Shah would have wished to visit the still more curative mausoleum of Nizamuddin Awliya in Delhi.


4  Even the great saint of the sixteenth century, the founder of Qadiriyya fraternity in Punjab, Muhammad Ghawth, whose tomb is in Ucch, was known by the nickname BlaPır. In Qannauj (Uttar Pradesh) there is the tomb of yet another B laPır, in which a saint of the sixteenth century, Shaikh Kabir, is buried. These duplicate tombs are an example of the fact that different saints are venerated under the same name or nickname.


5  Magh is a tribe of Burmese origin, inhabiting the hill district of Chittagong. The Bengalis and the English called them robbers or pirates as in the Middle Ages they often attacked the Indian ships in the Bay of Bengal and on the territory of Bengal.




6  For detailed description of this rite in nineteenth-century Northern India, see (Meer Hassan Ali 1975: 154-5).


7  The  story  of  the  false  prophet  Muqanna  was  given  a  romantic interpretation in Thomas Moore’s short story in verse, included in his poem ‘Lalla Rukh’ (1812-17). Later in the short story ‘Hakim from Merv, a Masked Dyer’ Borges presented his own, as always, paradoxical, interpretation of Muqanna’s story, according to which his mask concealed the face, disfigured by leprosy.


8  The influence of Naths’ deified religious preceptor Gorakhnath on Sufi tradition has been most comprehensively reflected in the works of Chishti theologian ‘Abdul Quddus Gangohi (died in 1538). His book Rushd-na¯ma (The Book of Right Guidance) consists of sabads (sabd), hymns and invocations, popular amongst Naths, where their teaching is identified with the doctrine of wahdat al-wujud. The yoga practice of Naths is typical for Sabiriyya, a filial branch of the Chishtiyya, founded by ‘Ali Sabir (who died in 1291), Baba Farid’s khalıfa. Some wandering dervishes, often be-shar‘, not connected with any particular silsila, iden-tified with Gorakhnath the semi-legendary Baba Ratan of Bhatinda, a senior contemporary of Prophet Muhammad, who supposedly passed on the esoteric teaching of Naths to the Prophet. After that Baba Ratan, this record-holder in longevity, lived another six hundred years in the god-forsaken village of Punjab. According to this incredible and preposterous legend it turns out that the Prophet of Islam, who passed away in 632, was the disciple of a Hindu, who lived not earlier than the eleventh century!




1 In literary Indo-Persian tradition qalandars are called‘perpetually intoxicated’ (damadam mast qalandar) for they drove the ‘intoxication’ (sukr) trend of Sufism to extremity.


2  Al-Hujwiri cites as an example of malamatı’s typical behaviour an event from Ibrahim b. Adham’s life, as narrated by him: ‘On one occasion I was in a ship where nobody knew me. I was clad in common clothes and my hair was long, and my guise was such that all the people in the ship mocked and laughed at me. Among them was a buffoon, who was always coming and pulling my hair and tearing it out, and treating me with contumely after the manner of his kind. At that time I felt entirely satisfied, and I rejoiced in my garb. My joy reached its highest pitch one day when the buffoon rose from his place and super me minxit [urinated on me]’ (al-Hujwiri 1992: 68).


3 The other ancestor of the Qalandariyya movement is considered to be Hasan al-Juwaliqi (died    1322) who established the first cloister (zawiya) of qalandars in Egypt.


4  In spite of great loss of blood, Nasiruddin Chiragh-i Dihli survived. In accordance with the moral principles of the Chishtis he forgave the qalandar who had made the attempt on his life and even paid him twenty tankas in compensation for the ‘damage’, since the clumsy murderer had got wounded with his own knife. At the saint’s urgent request Sultan Firoz Shah did not take any measures against Turab, confining himself to his banishment from Delhi.




5  The Hyderis of Khurasan derived from Qutbuddin Hyder, a disciple of the above-mentioned Muhammad b.Yunus as-Sawaji. Ibn Battuta considered Hyderis, Jalalis and the ‘Iraqian Ahmadiyya (Rifa‘iyya) to be related groups.


6  Members of the Turkish fraternity Bektashiyya used to wear on their chest similar stones, called taslım-tash as a token of humility or submission to the will of God.


7  According to Nizamuddin Awliya: ‘During the Mongol onslaught, the infidels of Chinghiz Khan turned toward India. At that time Qutb ud-din counseled his friends, “Flee, for these people will overpower you!” “What are you talking about?” they asked him. “They have brought a dervish along with them,” he explained, “and they have kept him hidden. That dervish is coming (here) now. In a dream I have wrestled with that same dervish, and he threw me to the ground. The truth of the matter is that they also will overpower you, so flee!” Having said        this, he himself retired into a cave and did not reappear. And what he had predicted came to pass’ (Amir Hasan 1992: 101).


8 Barani believed that the bloodshed and unlawful execution of Sidi Maula called down divine retribution on Sultan Jalaluddin Khalji. The event was the watershed, and was followed by an unprecedented dust storm and a severe drought and famine throughout his reign.


9 According to the anecdote, narrated in the chronicle of the eventeenth-century Trıkh-i D’udı, the founder of the empire of the Great Mughals, Babur visited Sikandar Lodi’s court with a shaven head and in the company of qalandars. The Sultan of Delhi supposedly recited to the guest a verse of Hafiz, to the effect that a shaven head did not make one a qalandar. Babur countered it in verse, that a crown on one’s head had not yet made anybody a true ruler. This legend nevertheless stands testimony to the status held by qalandars in the beginning of the sixteenth century.




Abdal (pl. of badal) ‘substitutes’, a category in the saints’ hierarchy abrr (pl. of brr)‘the dutiful ones’, a category in the saints’hierarchy advaita vedntanon-dualistic philosophy as developed in India by Shankara afrad (pl. of fard) ‘the troops’, saints of lowest rank ‘ahd (‘ahd al-yad)swearing allegiance to the murshid during initiation ceremony ahis harmlessness; the Hindu and Jaina concept of not killing any living being aiwn arcade, gallery attached to the building akhlqmorals, ethics akhı ‘brother’, a member of a Turkish trade-guild akhyr     ‘the chosen ones’, a category in the saints’ (pl. of khair) hierarchy ‘lim (pl.‘ulam)one trained in the religious sciences am¸itathe nectar of immortality; the drink of Hindu gods ‘rif Gnostic, adept given mystical knowledge ‘așa staff ‘asrthe afternoon prayerstnthreshold, entrance to a shrine, abode of a holy man stanbosı‘kissing the threshold’, paying respects awliya (pl. of walı)saints awqaf (pl. of waqf) pious foundation awtda certain four saints regarded as mainstays of (pl. of watad)the faith yat‘sign’, verse of the Qur’n bai‘aa vow of allegiance baq abiding in Go.




Brahmas poems that deal with the peculiarities of the twelve months as seen through the eyes of a loving woman Baraka holiness, virtue as inherent spiritual power bţin interior, hidden knowledge be-shar‘outside the religious Law bid‘a       innovation, something added to the Prophet tradition, hence heretical bhajanreligious songs in the bhakti tradition Bhakti popular mystical current in Hinduism in which the love relation between an adept and God is emphasized chaddara sheet, cloth chakkin ma‘millstone poems’, devotional songs in the vernacular using the imagery of grinding flour charkhinma‘spinning wheel poems’, songs in the vernacular using the imagery of spinning chill forty-days retreat chill-i mak‘s inverted fast performed upside-down in a dark place dar al-harb ‘territory of war’, an area where Muslims are not in power and which must be conquered darbr court, reception at court dargha Sufi convent, shrine or tomb darwza door, entrance dastr turban dharmasl a place of rest for pilgrims dhikr‘recollection’, a spiritual exercise employed to attain spiritual concentration; rhythmical repetitive invocation of God’s names dınpanhı the protection of faith, a duty of a Muslim ruler dıwn collection of poems by one author Durgpj an annual festival in honour of the goddess Durg fan the ‘annihilation’ of the mystic in God; union with the Absolute faqıh one trained in fiqh faqır (pl. fuqar)‘a poor one’, a general term for a dervish faqr poverty far’id  obligatory religious duties farmn decree, edict, a royal order Ftiha‘The Opener’, the chapter with which the Qur’an opens




Fatw   a legal opinion issued by a muftı fiqhreligious law, the juridical ystem of Islamfu’d heart futh unasked gifts and presents to the saints and their hospices futuwwa chivalrous qualities of a youth; the term given to certain organizations of artisans; in Sufism an ethical ideal, which places the spiritual welfare of others before that of self ghaib      hidden, mystery ghawth‘Helper’ (of the Age); the highest rank in hierarchy of saints ghazallyrical poem with monorhyme, often of the Sufi content ghzı (pl. ghuzt)a warrior for faith gin devotional poetry of the Isma ‘ls Gurdwrtemple and shrine of the Sikhs habs-i damregulation of the breath hadıth tradition going back to the Prophet based in isnad or chain of the transmitters hadra ‘presence’, a Sufi gathering for loud dhikr and song recitals Hajj ritual pilgrimage to Mecca hl (pl. ahwl)a transitory spiritual state of rapture, associated with passage along the Sufi Path haqıqat‘The Reality’, one of the stages of the Sufi Path Haqq‘The Real’, Sufi term for God harmsacred, forbidden Hayythe Living hujraa chamber, cell of a dervish hull indwelling, infusion of God in a creature Hullı a heretical sect Ibahatıya‘the people of incest’, used by medieval Muslim writers for the Carmatians or Ismals ifţrbreaking the fast ihy al-mawt reviving the dead; (fig.) bringing waste land into cultivation ijza licence or diploma ilhm inspiration of a human soul by universal Spirit ‘ilm (pl. ‘ulm)knowledge, science of divine things like ‘ilm al-hadıth Imm leader in congregational prayer Immbraa building in which Sh ‘a services are held in commemoration of their Imms.




ımnfaith, creed inkar al-kasb severing the acquisitive bonds ‘irfn Gnosis ‘Ish the evening prayer ishrq          illumination ismname; al-ism al-a‘zam: ‘The greatest Name of God’isnd chain of transmitters of a prophetical or mystical traditionistidrjmiracle worked by evil powers ittihdidentification of the divine and human naturesjam‘at khnaassembly-hall or a Sufi convent Jmi‘a Friday mosque jmi‘ as-salsila Sufi initiated in two or more orders jhand a flag jubbaa long gown with full sleeves juwliqa endicant dervish kfı  Sindhi and Punjabi lyrical verse form kfirinfidel, non-Muslim kalm   word, speech, poetical workkarmt grace, miracle-work of saints (Pl. of karma) kashfdisclosure, uncovering, taking away of the veil khalı fadeputy, the leader of a branch of an order khalwat seclusion, retreat khalwat dar solitude in a crowd anjuman khnqha Sufi cloister khatm al-wilya       the seal of sanctity khawss  elect, privileged khilfat-nma a  ocument given by a shaikh to prove the authority of his khalıfa khirqaa patched garment of a dervish khuţba homily delivered at the Friday prayers khwja master, teacher kufr infidelity kulh    a conical hat worn by dervishes Kumbhkmel a fair held by Hindus every twelfth year in (kumbha: a      particular towns (so called because the sun is water-pot; athen in Aquarius) sign of Aquarius) langarpublic kitchen attached to Sufi shrines mahb b‘beloved’, part of the title of high ranking Sufis madhab Sunni juridical school




Majdhb an enraptured one majlis (pl. majlis)      gathering, assembly makhdm‘one who is served’, the hereditary keeper of a shrine maktbt writings, collection of correspondence malmatblame, censure malamatı one who incurs censure malf          t collections of a saint’s ‘utterances’ man qib virtues of saints, hagiographies maqm stage or degree on the Sufi Path Maqbara a tomb, mausoleum ma‘rifat mystical intuitive knowledge; one of the stage on the Sufi path mathnawı        poem in rhyming couplets Maul d birthday, especially that of the Prophet or a saint mazr‘place of visitation’, shrine, a tomb of a saint mel fair at the tomb of a saint in connection with his ‘urs mihrb a niche in the wall of a mosque indicating the direction of prayer mu’ahhid         one who believes in the Unity of God, an Unitarian muftı a lawyer authorized to promulgate a fatw muhallaa quarter of a town mujhada ‘striving’ along the mystical Path muj wir an attendant at a mosque or a shrine mu‘jiza a miracle-work by prophets Mujtahid the highest authority in jurisprudence mukashafa revelation Mulhid heretic munjt meditations muqımn‘residents’, the inhabitants of a khnqh murqaba spiritual communion with a saint or spiritual guide muraqqa‘a  a patched frock murıd          a disciple, novice murshid Sufi guide or preceptor musfaha initiation rite of handclasp musfirn ‘travellers’, those Sufis who are not bound to a particular convent or hospice mush hada contemplation muwallih a group of be-shar‘dervishes nafs the lower self, the animal-spirit soul




nafs-i ammra unregenerate soul nafs-i lawwma the reproachful soul nafs-i muţma’inna the tranquil soul naugaza‘nine yards long’, legendary saints of huge size nisba epithet of origin nubuwwat    prophetship, prophesy nujab’‘preeminent ones’, a saint category(pl. of najib) nuqab’        ‘chiefs’, a saint category (pl. of naqib) Paramtm the Supreme Spirit in Hindu religious philosophy Paramesvara         the Supreme Lord; an epithet of Vishnu peshtq elaborate gateway of a mosque or other public building pır‘elder’, Sufi preceptor pradakshinya  in Hinduism reverential salutation by circumambulation from left to right so that the right side is towards an object saluted pras d in Hinduism the remnants of blessed food presented to a god qad divine predestination Qadam Ras   lfootprint of ‘the Prophet’s foot’ on stone venerated by believers qadar fate qdı          judge in sharı‘at law qalandara wandering dervish qalb heart qawwlı music recital and itinerant singer and musician Qayymthe Eternal qibla the direction a Muslim faces during ritual prayer qubba        a domed building quţb ‘axis’, ‘pole’; the head of the hierarchy of saints Rmajanamsthn the birthplace of God Rma raqsdancing ribţ a religious hostel, hospice rislatreatise riw q cloisters around the court sadaqa     alms, donation Sadr as-sud r        chief judge sahw      mystical state of ‘sobriety’ sajdaprostration in prayer sajj daa prayer rug




Sajjadanishın a successor of the founder of an order, the present head of an order salt ritual prayer slik pilgrim on the Path sam‘‘audition’, musical recital saum fasting from daybreak to sunset șaum-i D’dı to eat one day and to fast the next one so that the body does not get accustomed to either way sayyid descendant of the Prophet, a group highly venerated in India shadd  girding, a part of initiation ceremony shahawt the thoughts and desires of an ordinary man Shahda the profession of faith shaikh          ‘an elder’; the head of religious fraternity Shaikh ul-Islm title of honour given by Sufis to the most reputed saints Shaikh title given by secular authority to the ash-shuykhrenowned religious leaders and mystics sharı‘at 1 Muslim jurisprudence; 2 The stage of the mystic Path sharıf noble, sacred; one who claims descent from (pl. shuraf’)      the Prophet shirk ‘associating’ someone with God, hence the greatest sin for a Muslim shuţţr ‘couriers’; a category in the saints’ hierarchy(pl. of shţir) silsila a chain of spiritual descent silsila al-baraka chain of benediction sir mystery subh dawn prayer fı a Muslim mystic sukr mystical state of ‘intoxication’, opposite to sahw Sunna    tradition of the Prophet tabarruk sacred relics; a portion of presents or food presented to a saint and given to his dependants .abaqt‘categories’, biographies .abaqt al-awliy iographies of the saints tahajjud the eighth prayer performed at night tj‘crown’; a high-crowned hat of a dervish tan zul ‘an arc of  escent’ in a Sufi’s inner journey taraqq ‘an arc of ascent’




Tarwih supererogatory ‘prayer of rest’ .arı qa     ‘a way’; the Sufi Path; a mystical system or Sufi school of guidance tasawwufIslamic mysticism, Sufism .awf ritual circumambulation of the Ka‘ba or other shrine taw jud ecstasy induces by dhikr tawakkul       absolute trust in God tawhd the unity of God ta‘w dh amulet usually prepared in a Sufi centre tirtha     in induism a shrine or a sacred place of pilgrimage ‘Umra small pilgrimage to Mecca ‘urs‘wedding’; the festival commemorating the death of a saint  irahinıthe loving woman separated from her beloved in Indian devotional poetry wahdat al-wujd        the unity of Being, existential monism wahdat the unity of the witness or phenomena ash-shuh dwajd   ecstasy walyat territory of spiritual ‘jurisdiction’, the area where the power of a certain saint is active walı (pl. awliy)a saint waqf (pl. awqf)pious foundation wilyatsaintship, concept of sanctity wud’ritual ablutionzhidascetic; one who practices zuhd zhir exterior, opposite to bţin zandaqa heresy,  theism zwiya‘a corner’, a small Sufi centre zindıq  an atheist, infidel, heretic ziyrat‘visitation’, pilgrimage to shrines zuhd world-denial, renunciation.





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 ‘Abdar Rahim 164

‘Abdul ‘Aziz Makki 185

‘Abdul Ghani Nabulusi 7

‘Abdul Haqq Muhaddith Dihlawi61, 85, 105

‘Abdul Karim of Bulri, Shah 100

‘Abdul Latif Bhita’i, Shah 23, 37

‘Abdul Qadir Jilani (Pir-i dastgir) 7, 18, 24, 56, 62, 119

‘Abdul Quddus Gangohi 192 ‘Abdullah (musician) 135

‘Abdullah al-Ansari of Herat 62,178, 193

‘Abdallah al-Yunini (Asad ash-Sham) 169

‘Abdullah Ghazi, Shah 15, 22

‘Abdur Rahman Chishti 156, 158,171, 176

Abu (Bu) ‘Ali Qalandar of Panipat   185-6

Abu Bakr Tusi Hyderi (Qalandari) 191

Abu Hafs ‘Umar, Shihabuddin,

Suhrawardi 62, 133, 134, 135,137, 140, 142, 143-4, 180, 184 Abu Ishaq ash-Shami 61

Abu Ishaq Kazeruni 167

Abu Sa‘id al-Hujwiri 47

Abu Sa‘id bin Abul Khair Maihani 43, 62, 90, 128, 178

Abu Sa‘id Tabrizi 62

Abu Yazid Taifur Bistami (Bayazid Bistami) 22, 24, 39, 63, 106,

165, 173 Abul ‘Abbas al-Ashqani 45

 Abul Faraj Runi 53

Abul Fazl al-Khuttali 41

Abul Fazl ‘Allami 62, 70, 156

Abul Hasan ‘Ali al-Mas‘udi 153

Abul Qasim al-Gurgani 45

Afghanpur 110, 150, 151

Agra 54, 70, 81, 156

Ahmad ‘Abdul Haqq 192, 193  Ahmad al-Badawi 18, 169

Ahmad bin ‘Ali ar-Rifa‘i 190 Ahmad ibn Hanbal 16

Ahmad Naharwani 148

Ahmad Shah Abdali Durrani 2 Ahmad Shahid of Rai Bareilly 169 Ahmad Sirhindi, Shaikh,

mujaddid-i alf-i thani 20, 28, 35, 36, 37

Aibek, Qutbuddin, Sultan of Delhi   64, 65

Ajmer 26, 29, 63-7, 81, 157, 171; pilgrimage to 69-80

Ajodhan see Pakpattan

Akbar, Jalaluddin, the Mughal

Emperor 5, 53, 70-1, 74, 156

‘Ala’uddin Hasan Bahman Shah(Hasan Gangu) 112

‘Ala’uddin Khalji, Sultan of Delhi 11, 110, 122, 141, 191

Aleppo 171

‘Ali Asghar Chishti 65, 85, 91

‘Ali bin Abi Talib, the fourth

Caliph 7, 18, 24, 36, 47, 61, 133 Amir Hasan Sijzi 85, 93, 96, 99,104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 113, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 136, 140, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148,    149, 181, 182, 189, 193, 201




Amir Khurd (Sayyid Muhammad bin Mubarak Kirmani) 19, 61, 65, 85, 87, 89, 94, 96, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105, 108, 110, 113, 115, 117, 127, 148, 149, 165, 191, 201

Amir Khusrow Dehlevi 108, 124-5, 127, 193

Amroha 190 amulets 8

Anasagar 64, 67 Anatolia 169

Aquinas, Thomas 8 Arakan 166, 168, 169 Arkali Khan 191

Asad ‘Ali, Sayyid 166, 167

Ashraf Jahangir Simnani 135, 171,176, 186

Astrabad 62

‘Attar, Fariduddin 40, 56

Aurangzeb, the Mughal Emperor4, 5, 28, 75, 176 Aush 86

Awadh 19, 157, 158, 160, 171 Ayodhya 155, 160

Azerbaijan 41

Bab ‘Umar 44, 45, 72

Baba Farid (Shaikh Mas‘ud

Fariduddin Ganj-i Shakar) 2, 11, 23, 24, 37, 54, 70, 81-104,

106, 107, 113, 114, 116-19, 123, 124, 127, 140, 141, 145,

149, 155, 166, 177, 178, 181, 183, 184, 200, 201

Baba Ratan, Hajji 24

Baba Tahir ‘Uryan 24, 178

Babur, the Mughal Emperor 7, 18 Badaun 113, 145 Badauni, ‘Abdul Qadir 20, 24, 28, 75, 113, 174

Badruddin Ishaq 94, 95, 96, 97, 117, 124, 147

Badshahi Masjid of Lahore 7, 36

Baghdad 16, 18, 24, 41, 47, 56, 62, 92, 133, 139, 143, 144, 145,  163

Bahadur, the Mughal Emperor 76

Baha’uddin Naqshband 16, 18

Baha’uddin Zakariya Multani 13, 78, 81, 86, 118, 127, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141-50, 152, 153, 154, 181, 184, 186, 194

Bahraich 18, 155-6, 158, 159, 160, 165

Ba’i Tilokdi 76

Bait al-Jinn 52

Bakhtiar, Laleh 32

Bakhtyar Kaki, Qutbuddin 10, 11, 16, 19, 30, 66, 70, 79, 84,

86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 96, 98, 119, 126, 134, 146, 183, 185, 201

Balban, Giyathuddin (UlughKhan), Sultan of Delhi 95, 97, 191

Baluchistan 22

Bangalore 22

Bansal 124

Barani, Ziya’uddin 28, 102, 105, 108, 111, 127, 129, 187

Bari Imam 18

Bayazid Ansari (Pir-i Raushan) 4, 82, 203

Bayazid Bistami see Abu Yazid Taifur Bistami

Bertels, E. 125

Bhit Shah 29

Bibi Fatima 97

Bibi Hafiz Jamal (Hafiza) 65, 77 Bibi Nahzan 23

Bibi Pakdaman 139, 150, 154 Bibi Rani 101

Bibi Sharifa 97

Bibi Zulaikha 114, 115, 116 Bihar 165, 168

Bilal bin Rabah 44 Bistam 24, 41

Borges, Jorges Luis 28

Bukhara 16, 18, 41, 61, 113, 114, 115, 143, 144

Bullhe Shah 54, 83, 84

Burckhardt, J. 20, 21

Burhan ad-Din Sagharji 164 Burhanuddin Gharib 122, 124 Burton, Richard 31



 cenotaphs (fake graves) 23-4 Chandar, Krishan 29

Chauhan, Prithviraj III 62-4, 66-7 Chhot’i Dargah 168-9

Chinghiz Khan 149

Chiragh-i Dihli, Nasiruddin 11, 37, 62, 70, 90, 103, 118, 124, 129,

138, 141, 182, 184, 186 Chisht 61

Chishtiyya 48, 51, 60-1, 63-9, 78-80, 86, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96,

102, 103, 118, 132-43, 150

Chittagong 22, 24, 165, 166, 167,168, 169

Chittor 70

Christie, Agatha 202

Collins, Wilkie 202

Conan Doyle, Arthur 202 Crooke, W. 161

Damascus 41, 45

dance, ritual 187-9, 200

Dara Shikoh 4, 10, 37, 40, 53, 54,           75, 105, 170, 201

Dard, Khwaja Mir 26, 28

Data Darbar (tomb of al-Hujwiri) 54-8, 64, 194

Data Ganjbakhsh see al-Hujwiri, ‘Ali bin ‘Uthman al-Jullabi

Delhi 11, 30, 32, 54, 64, 66, 68, 79, 81, 86, 87, 90, 91, 94, 97,

105-31, 134, 138, 157, 163, 169, 192

Deogir 118

Devatalla (Tabrizabad) 140 Dhakka 6

Digby, Simon 69, 70, 182

Faizabad 158, 160, 161

Fakhar Zaman 82, 194, 195, 198

Fakhruddin Ibrahim ‘Iraqi 147, 148, 184

Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah 165 Fakhruddin Zarradi 128

Farghana 41, 44

Farrukh Siyar, the Mughal Emperor 76

Fars 41

fasting 88-9, 91

Fatehpur Sikri 70, 81

 Finch, William 76

Firoz Shah Tughluq, Sultan of Delhi 5, 20, 70, 130, 141-2,

156, 186, 187, 191, 194 Firozkuh 61

Five Pirs, cult of 23 foods 88-9, 102-3, 122-3

Gandhi, Mahatma 30, 97 Ganges, River 166

Garcin de Tassy, J.H. 31 Gaur Govind 162

Gawhar, a dancing girl 146

Gesudaraz, Sayyid Muhammad

Husaini 19, 69-70, 82, 91, 182, 186 al-Geyoushi, M. 13

Ghalib, Mirza Asadullah 74

Ghazi Miyan (Salar Mas‘ud) 12,

18, 19, 22, 23, 26, 155, 156-61, 165, 166, 174, 177, 200

Ghazna 40, 52, 61, 92

Al-Ghazzali, Abu Hamid 128,133

Ghiyathpur 106, 111, 113, 121, 124, 126, 150

Ghiyathuddin A‘zam Shah of Bengal 192

Ghiyathuddin Tughluq, Sultan of Delhi 5, 109, 110, 125, 150, 152

Ghulam Farid, Khwaja 82, 83 Ghulam Yaqoob Anwar 194 Gidumal, Diwan 2

Gol Muhammadi, Firuzeh 57 Goldziher, Ignaz 6, 7, 25-6 Golra Sharif 36

Gopalan 161

Gorakhattri 184

Gujarat 12, 118

Guru Nanak 99, 155

Habba Khatun 82

Habib, Muhammad 120

Hafiz Shirazi, Maulana Shams al-din 73

Haft ‘Afifa 23 Haji Pir 15

Hajji, Nur Muhammad Faqir 53 Hala (Sind) 14




Hali, Altaf Husain 28

Al-Hallaj, Husain bin Mansur 45, 49, 186-87

Hamid Qalandar 86, 87, 92, 93, 95, 99, 105, 122, 138, 141, 146,186, 201

Hamiduddin Nagori, Qadi 15, 134, 138, 139, 147, 148

Hamiduddin Suwali Nagori 65, 69, 78, 95, 128, 134, 140

Hanbalis 25 Hansi 90

Hardwar 18

Harwan 61

Hasan Abdal 201

Hasan Afghan 148

Hasan al-Basri 61

Hasan Teli 13

Hazrat Bal 5

Herat 61, 62, 193

Hesse, Hermann 35, 52  hierarchy of saints 9-10  al-Hujwiri, ‘Ali bin ‘Uthman al-Jullabi (Data Ganjbakhsh) 8, 9, 37, 39-58, 59, 62, 68, 71,

81, 92, 173, 178, 173, 179-80, 186

Huizinga, J. 7, 8, 16 Husain, Yusuf 68

Husain bin ‘Ali, Imam 18 Husain Zanjani 64

Hydariyya 15

Hyderis, rituals of 189-91 Ibn al-‘Arabi, Muhyiuddin 9, 10,135

Ibn al-Mu‘alla 44, 45

Ibn Battuta, Muhammad bin          ‘Abdullah 102, 151, 156, 163,164, 165, 167, 170, 181, 189, 190-1

Ibrahim bin Adham 61

Ibrahim Farid Thani, Shaikh 99

Ibrahim Ghaznavi, Sultan 53

Ibrahim II ‘Adil Shah, Sultan of Bijapur 5

Ibrahim Qunduzi 61

Ibrahim Sharqi, Sultan of Jaunpur   5, 171, 172 icons 8

 Iltutmish, Shamsuddin, Sultan of   Delhi 10, 66, 91, 113, 138, 142,

146, 185

‘Imaduddin Muhammad 139

‘Imaduddin, brother of Rukn-i

‘Alam 151

‘Imadulmulk, grandfather of Amir Khusrow 123, 124

‘Inayat Shah of Jhok 4, 203 Iqbal (Lalla), servant of

Nizamuddin Awliya 111, 122

Iqbal, Sir Muhammad 27, 28, 36,

54-6, 62, 63, 64

‘Isami, historian 69

Iskandar (Alexander of

Macedonia) 167 Isma‘il Shahid 169 Isma‘ilis 4

Jabal al-Buttam 52

Ja‘far as-Sadiq, sixth Imam 47

Jahanara, daughter of Shah Jahan76

Jahangir, the Mughal Emperor 70, 75, 76

Jaipal, prime minister of Prithviraj Chauhan 67

Jalaladdin Rumi 18, 128, 185, 195 Jalaliyya 15, 154, 186

Jalaluddin Khalji, Sultan of Delhi 110, 162, 182, 191

Jalaluddin Surkhposh Bukhari 23, 81, 139, 147, 149, 152, 154,

165, 170, 186

Jalaluddin Tabrizi 62, 81, 86, 118, 138, 139, 140, 144, 145,

146, 147, 161, 164, 166, 184 Jam Durrek 82 Jama‘ Masjid 32

Jama‘at-khana Masjid mosque 130-1

Jamali Kanbuh 65, 85, 94, 99, 126, 193, 201

Jamaluddin Hansawi 90, 94, 117,   149, 191

James I, King of England 75 Jami, ‘Abdurrahman 40, 193 Jamna 191

Jaunpur 171, 185 al-Jazuli 169




Jhelum 12

Jinnah, Muhammad ‘Ali 30

Jiv Jan, ‘Ali Muhammad 82

Junaid, Abul Qasim 39, 42, 48,

106, 119

Junaidiyya 39, 49

Ka‘ba 165

Kabir 155

Kahtwal 85

Kaiqubad I 133 Kalpi 171

Kamaluddin Ja‘fri, Qadi 145 Kamaluddin Zahid, Maulana 115 Kamaru (Kamrup) 163

Karachi 22

Karbala 18

Kashmir 118

Kempis, Thomas à 41 Kerala 118

Khan-i Khanan 191

Khansa (Hang-chow-fu) 164

Khizr (Khidr), Khwaja (Zinda Pir) 23, 166, 167-8

Khizr Khan, son of ‘Ala’uddin Khalji 111, 129

Khizr Rumi, Shah 185

Khurasan 41, 42, 47, 170, 172, 193

Khusrow Khan Barwar (Nasiruddin Khusrow, Sultan)109, 111

Khuzistan 41

Khwaja Ahmad 113, 114

Khwaja ‘Azizuddin 118, 121 Khwaja Hasan Maimandi 157 Khwaja Hasan Thani Nizami 34 Khwaja Husain 75, 78

Khwaja Muzaffar, Shaikh 48

Khwarezm-Shah Muhammed of

Bukhara 133

Kilugarhi 124

Kipling, Rudyard 185 Kishlu Khan 151

Konya 18, 185

Kot Karor 143

Kubrawiyya 48, 62, 143

Lahore 23, 36, 37, 39, 41, 52, 53,           54, 62, 64, 68, 81, 145, 194, 200

 Lakhi 22, 201

Lakhnauti 110, 118, 164, 184

Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (Mir Sayyid

‘Uthman) 16, 18, 184, 186-7, 189, 191, 194, 200

Lang, Fritz 202

Lawrence, B. 69, 128 Loh Langar Shah 22 Louis IX 169

Lucknow 6, 160

Madariyya 15, 171, 173, 176-7

Madho Lal Husain (Shah Husain)

54, 194-6, 197, 200 Mahdavis 4

Mahdi of Jaunpur 4

Mahmud Begra, Sultan of Gujarat   5

Mahmud Ghaznavi, Sultan 52-3, 156, 157

Mahmud Khalji, Sultan of Malwa 69

Makanpur (Kanpur) 12, 171, 172, 174

Makhdum ‘Azizuddin (Lal Pir) 161 Makhdum Faqih 12

Makhdum Nuh 14

Makhdum-i Jahaniyan Jahangasht, Jalaluddin 12, 23, 135, 170, 186

Makli Hill 1

Malamatiyya 179 Malik al-’Adil I 133 Malik Ayaz 52

Malwa 118

Mangho Pir 14, 22, 26, 165, 201 Manikpur 23

al-Marghinani, Burhanuddin 115 Mas‘ud Bakk 186

Mas‘ud ibn Sa‘d-i Salman 53 Matthews, D.J. 74, 183

Maula, Sidi 182, 191

Maulana ‘Alauddin Usuli 115 Maveraunnahr 41

Maya Ba’i 76

Mayhana 41, 43

Mazar-i-Sharif 56

Mazhar Janjanan 27

Meer Hassan ‘Ali, Mrs 173, 174, 175

Meerut 157, 165




Mehrauli 87

Meister Ekhardt 122 Merv 41

Mewat 158

Mihr ‘Ali Shah of Golra Sharif 36, 203

Mir Sayyid ‘Uthman see Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

Mir Taqi Mir 74, 183

miracles 13, 15, 16, 44, 46, 118-20 Mithankot 29

Miyan Mir 37, 54

Miyan Rajab 161

Mubarak Shah Khalji, Sultan of Delhi 5, 111, 150

Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam 9, 18, 150

Muhammad bin al-Hasan 171

Muhammad bin Qasim 143

Muhammad bin Tughluq, Sultan of Delhi 11, 69, 101, 102, 110, 151, 152, 156, 165, 169

Muhammad bin Yunus as-Sawaji 181, 189

Muhammad Ghauthi Shattari 65, 85, 161

Muhammad Kabir bin Shah Isma’il 193

Muhammad Shah, the Mughal Emperor 76, 126

Mu‘inuddin Sijzi, Khwaja Hasan (Pir-i Sanjar) 11, 26, 37, 54, 70,

61-80, 81, 86, 87, 92, 95, 118, 129, 133, 135, 139, 151, 177, 178

Mu‘izzuddin Ghori, Muhammad Shihabuddin 61, 62, 64, 65, 67,143

Multan 14-15, 25, 85, 86, 87, 92, 132-54, 163, 165, 193-4, 201

Murshidabad 185 music 48, 49, 75, 91, 128, 138, 147-8 al-Muqanna of Khurasan 172

Nabiganj 6

Najaf 24, 171

Najibuddin Mutawakkil 97, 116 Najibuddin Suhrawardi 62, 133 Najmuddin Kubra 62

 Najmuddin Sughra 64, 66, 145, 146

Naqshbandiyya 26, 35, 113, 162

‘Naqshbandiyya reaction’ 27, 36,143, 160

Nasik 18

Nasikh, Imambakhsh 74 an-Nasir, Caliph 133

Nasiruddin Mahmud, Sultan of Dehli 156

Nasiruddin Qubacha 142, 143 Naths 173

Nehru, Jawaharlal 30 Nicholson, R. 40, 47 Nishapur 41, 189

Nizami, K.A. 11, 63, 85, 87, 90, 95, 102, 106, 111, 126, 183

Nizamuddin Awliya 11, 19, 31,34, 37, 66, 70, 84, 85, 89, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 103, 105-31, 134, 138, 139, 145, 147, 148, 150, 151, 163, 165, 177, 178, 181, 189, 191

Nur-i Turk 4, 90-1 Nurpur 18

Nuruddin Malik Yar Parran 191

Nuruddin Mubarak Ghaznawi 134, 139, 146

Omayyad Caliph 143

Pak Damanivan 23

Pakpattan (Ajodhan) 29, 84, 88, 92-104, 117, 135, 200

Pandua 118, 192 Panipat 185

Patiali 124

Peking 164

Peshawar 184

Pilgrimage 17-22, 25-6, 42, 138, 161, 202-3 behaviour on 33-4 Hajj 12, 19, 55, 56, 143 in Sehwan-i Sharif 189 to Ajmer Sharif 69-80 to tomb of  al-Hujwiri 53-8 to tomb of Baba  Farid 102-3 to tomb of Salar

Mas‘ud 155-6 to tomb of Nizamuddin Awliya 129-31 women 130-1, 154

Pir Baba 24




Pir Badr 13, 165-9, 177, 201 Pir Bukhari 12

Pir Ghaib 22

Pir Ghali 15

Pir Panjal 15

Pir Patho 15

Pir Sohawa 15

Pir Wadhai 15

Postans, Captain T. 27-8 Prayag 18

‘Prophet’s footprint’ 5 Pugachenkova, G. 57 Puskar 64

Qadi Qadan 82

Qadir Shah 171

Qadiriyya 7, 24, 48, 143, 179 Qadirwali Sahib 22

Qalandariyya 180, 181 Qalat 23, 24

Qandahar 92

Qani, Mir Ali Shir 1

Qannauj 157, 161

Qarsum-bibi 85, 92, 114 al-Qastalani 134

Quduri, Abul Hasan 115 Quetta 12

Qutb Minar 116

Qutb Shah, Muhammad Quli,         Sultan of Golkonda 5

Qutbuddin bin Sarandaz Kaunpuri   185

Qutbuddin Hyder 189

Qutbuddin Kashani, Qadi 144 Qutlug Khoja 106

Quwwat al-Islam mosque 65

Ram Deo 68 Ramla 44

Ranjit Singh 197

Razia, daughter of Iltutmish 91 Raziuddin as-Saghani 113, 115 Red Fort (Lal Qila) 32 relics 7-8 residential tombs 33, 154 Rifa‘iyya 190 Rizvi, S.A.A. 67, 79, 135, 159, 166, 170, 178, 186, 190, 192

Roe, Sir Thomas 75

Romuald, St 7-8

 Roshanites 4

Rudawli 158, 159, 192 Ruh, K. 122

Ruknuddin Abul Fath (Rukn-i ‘Alam) 118, 134, 139, 141 149-54, 163

Ruknuddin Walwaji 109

Sachal Sarmast 83, 84

Saddu, Shaikh 12, 22 SA‘di, Muslihuddin of Shiraz 134 Sadruddin Multani 140, 149, 150 Safa, Dhabihullah 148

Saidan Shah Shirazi 15

Salar Mas‘ud see Ghazi Miyan Salar Shahu 157, 161

Salargarh 158

Salim Chishti, Shaikh 70, 75 Samarqand 61

Santoji, Maratha Viceregent 76 Sarmad, Shaikh, Shahid 4, 170 Sathbhain Asthan 23

Satrikh 157, 158, 161 Sawa 181

Sayyid Ahmad Khan 27, 28

Sayyid Ahmad Yasavi 161-2

Sayyid Husain Mashhadi 65

Sayyid Mahmud Kirmani 94, 123 Sayyid Muhammad Husaini 91 Sayyid Murtaza 185

Sayyid Yusuf Gardezi 25

Schimmel, Annemarie 7, 24, 31,

33, 36, 63, 164, 174, 182, 195

Sehwan 16, 29, 186-7, 189, 200 seven righteous women, cult of 22-3

Shackle, C. 74, 82, 88, 99, 100,    101, 183, 196

Shadi Khan 111

Shah Daula 12

Shah Jahan, the Mughal Emperor 14, 75-6, 77

Shah Jalal (Shah Mujarrad) 13, 161-5, 168, 177, 178

Shah Musa Loharu 13 Shah Nasir 131

Shah Saddar 22

Shah Sufaid 12

Shahi Muy Tab 148 Shahpura hill 1





 Shaikh ‘Alauddin 102 Shaikh Bahlul Darya’i 194 Shaikh Hud 151

Shaikh Ismail 151

Shaikh Mahmud of Lahore 195, 196

Shalimar gardens 194

Shams Siraj ‘Afif 156

Shams Tabrizi, combined with Pir  Shams 14-15, 201

Shamsuddin Firoz 163

Shamsuddin Sharabdar 124

Sharafuddin Yahya Maneri 165 Shattariyya 143

Sher Shah Suri 70

Shihabuddin (grandfather of Shah Jalal) 165

Sikandar Lodi, Sultan of Delhi 5, 20, 156, 192

Sistan 61

Sleeman, William 160, 203 Somnath 157

Sonargaon 165 Srinagar 6

Sudkawan (Chittagong) 163

Suhrawardiyya 13, 48, 60, 62, 69,

78, 86, 102, 133, 134, 135, 138-40, 143, 150, 154

Sukkur 23

Suli Nuyin 142

Sultan Bahu 54, 83, 84

Sultan Weled, son of JalaladdinRumi 185

Suvorova A. 196

Sylhet 161, 162, 163, 164, 165

Tagore, Rabindranath 30 Taifuriyya 39

Tambaur 161 Tanjore 22

Tansen, Miyan 76

Taragarh 64, 65

Taraori 63, 64

Tariq Rahman 83

Thatta 14, 23, 143, 201 Timur 102

Tipu Sultan 36 at-Tirmidhi, al-Hakim 9, 13

 Tirmizi, S.A.I. 71, 76, 77 Transoxania 151, 170

Trimingham, J.S. 129, 142, 167, 168, 180, 185

Tripura 168

Trumpp, Ernst 31

Tughluqabad 152

Turab (wandering dervish) 181-2 Turkestan 41

Tus 41

Ucch 23, 29, 91, 143, 152, 154, 163, 186

Uchchin 116 Ujjain 18

‘Uthman Harwani 61-2

Uttar Pradesh 12, 113, 145, 158, 161, 171, 172, 174

Valencia, Viscount George 175, 176

Wade, Captain C.M. 102 Wahhabis 25, 27

Wali Baba 24

Wali, Muhammad 183

Waliullah, Qutbuddin Ahmad Abul Fayyaz, Shah 26, 90

War Mubarak 5 Warith Shah 160 Wasit 190 water, connection of saints with 14-15, 22, 67, 165-7, 168 women saints, tombs of 154

Yusuf Hamadhani 62 Zafar Khan 70

Zainul‘abidin, Sultan of Kashmir 5

Zebunnisa, daughter of Aurangzeb 76

Zhukovsky, V.A. 40

Zinda Shah Madar 12, 13, 24, 171, 172-4, 176-7, 178, 189, 201

Zohra-mela fair 159

Zuhra Bibi 159

Zulfiqar ‘Ali Bhutto 187


Other Parts of the Book, Muslim Saints of South Asia:


Muslim Saints of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries --- Part 1

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries - Part 2

Muslim Saints of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part - 3

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 4

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 5

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 6

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 7

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 8

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 9

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 10

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 11

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 12

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 13

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 14

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 15

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 16

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 17

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 18

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 19

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 20

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 21

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 22

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 23

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 24

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 25

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 26

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part - 27

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 28

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 29

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 30

Muslim Saints Of South Asia: The Eleventh To Fifteenth Centuries Part – 31