By Ameen Fayaz
June 26, 2020
For fulfilling the above-stated mission, Hallaj coined the term “Ana al Haq” (I am the truth) and Allama Iqbal came up with the concept of Self-realization (Khudi). From analytical point of view, both are actually one and the same thing. For rationalists, these two concepts are either beyond understanding or mere superstition. The traditional Ulema (theologians) of the two periods were either the Qaroons of the dictionary of Hijazi spirit of language or were totally ignorant of the current disciplines of knowledge, with the result, with reference to the concepts of “Ana al Haq” and “Khudi”, leaving the common people aside even scholars/intellectuals of the two times could not understand the underlying meaning of the same as they would go on saying about modern knowledge :
MazhabHai Jis Ka Naam Who Hai IkJanoon E Kham/ Hai JisAadmi Kay Takhayul Ko Irtiaash
Yes, there was one difference between the two times. In Hallaj’s times, narrow-minded scholars of jurisprudence dominated the scene and so they did not allow him to live; while as in Iqbal’s times, even though the enlightened scholars/intellectuals were a minority, they were conscious of the reality/truth to the extent that despite Allama’s satire in “ Khalq E Khuda Ki Ghat Main Rind-O-Faqih-O-Meer-O-Peer”, they did not doubt the intention of Allama Iqbal. This is the reason when a cleric Deedar Ali Shah issued a decree of Kufr against Allama Iqbal, he became the object of criticism/blame of the whole subcontinent.
Hallaj continued his spiritual experiments while being altogether carefree about the environment in which he was living and even the consequences of the ideas that he propounded. He says, “ WallaziLam Yazl Kana QablalJihat Wal Illat Wal AalatKaifaTazzamanathuJihatWa Kaif Talhiq Un Nihayat” ( “Ta Seen ul Marifat”).
(Translation:Ma’rifat (gnosis) is such a thing that existed before all the dimensions, all the causes and all the instruments. Then how can dimensions encompass it and how can logical objectives be associated with it.”
Mansoor says,“MannWasalaIlal Manzoor IstagnaAnin Nazr”, that is “the one who became one with the beloved, normal sight/seeing has no value for him/her”.
However, Allama Iqbal presented his spiritual experiments only on some special occasions as he went on representing the environment of his times with full force and even was very careful in his style of saying such things:
Azan Tarsam Ki PinhanamShudFash /Gam E Khud Ra NigoyamBadilKhuwesh
AahayKi Za DilKhezadAzbahar Jigar Dozi Sat/ Dar SeenaShikan Our AAaloodaNakun Lab Ha
With the understanding of his readers maturing up and evolving to a greater extent, Allama was not only accepted as a great poet but a philosopher also; rather people even recognized him as an “Aarif”, somebody who is blessed with the sight of the truth and a “Rind”, somebody who is drunk with the love of the God. He says, “ Nishnakht Maqam E KhuweshUftadBadamKhuwesh / Ishqai Ki NamoodayKhawast Az Shorish E Yarabb Ha”
For the explanation of spiritual evolution, Hallaj has in one symbol shown three steps of the same and in another worked out four points; however, Iqbal has made the use of common concepts like Aql, Ishq, Ilm and Irfan for working out his philosophy of the same and has thus avoided talking through a high level symbolism for saying the same thing.
Hallaj says, “ ZauUl Misbah Ilm Ul HaqeeqatWaHararathuHaqeeqat Ul Haqeeqat Wal WasoolIlaihi Haq Ul Haqeeqat” ( Ta Seen ul Fahm) which means that “The light of the lamp is the knowledge of the Reality ;its heat is the Reality of the Reality ,and union with the same is the Truth of the Reality.”
At another place, he says that “In the comprehension of the Truth, the one who is still in the world of waiting (Aalam e Intizar), he/she refused to recognize me and could not even see me, with the result, not believing in me and so calling me a Zindeeq; the one having the recognition of the second circle assumed me the scholar with divine guidance; yes, when I reached the third circle, he considered me still caught in wishes and desires; and ,the one who has reached the fourth circle forgot me and disappeared from my sight” (Ta Seen un Nuqta).
Allama Iqbal confined this whole division to Aql and Ishq only. He says:
Aql Dar PaichakAsbabWaIlal/ Ishq Chogan Baz Maidan E Amal;
Ilm Tarsan Az Jalal E Kayinat/Ishq Garq Andar Jamal E Kayinat;
Banda E TakhmeenWaZannKiramKitabi Na Bann/Ilm Sarapa Hijab Ishq SarapaHazoor
At the surface level, this categorization might look contradictory; nevertheless, the fact of is that it is a matter of individual experiences. Since both the masters find their power of expressions in the spiritual world inadequate, they, therefore, finish their discourses by asking questions, Hallaj by declaring himself a convict and Allama by asking questions.
Hallaj says,“ Kaanni…Kaanni…KannaiHuwa…A Huwa Anni.”(trans. As if I…as if I….as If I am He….Is He me?”
Iqbal says, “ZamanayGum Kunam Khud Ra Zamanay Gum Kunam Our A / ZamanayHarduraYa Bam Chi Raz Ast Ein Chi Raz Ast Ein?”;
“Tu Nay Yeh Kya Gazab Kiya Mujh Ko BhiFash Kardiya/ Mein Hi ToIk Raz ThaSeena E Kayinat Main.”
Despite this difference in saying the things, the two are quite similar to each other in their way of thinking: “Kira Khabar TuiYakiMadu Char Khudeem”.
Hallaj says, “ QalaLahuAistakbarta? QalLaw Kana Li MaakaLahzatunLakana Bi YaleequTakaburWaTajabur” ,that is “ Allah said to Satan , ‘you showed arrogance?’ and Satan replied , ‘If I had been blessed with fraction of a moment with You, then arrogance and being would have suited me?”; at another place, Hallaj says, “ WaIblees JahadaSajood Li MuddatihiTaweelatAlalMushahidat” (Ta Seen ul Azal), which means that “Satan refused to bow before Adam because he had been observing/witnessing for long Allah”.
Iqbal, while discoursing on the subject, muses like the following: “ zimannramanndargahibehtar/ki our a deedawamarashuneeda”.
Hallaj says, “QalaIblessuIradatuk Fi SabiqatiFama Li Budo.MaliBudakaBudu.TayaqantuAnaalQurba Wal Buda Wahidun”, that is to say “In the process of creation, Your (Allah’s) intention for me against that of Adam is older; therefore, I am not afraid of distance. Your being away from me is not a distance at all. I am sure that nearness and distance are one and the same thing for me.”
Iqbal has constantly translated the same idea: “ Aalam e soz -o- saz main wasl say badd kay haifiraq/wasl main marg e aarzuhijr main lazzaat e firaq”; “ tapedanwanarseedan cha lazzataydarad / khoshakasaykidumbalemehmalasthunooz”
In defence of Iblees, Hallaj says “Araftuk fil azal and ana Khairunminhu liana li qidamahu fil Khidmat” that is to say “ I know you forever ,therefore I am better than Adam because I am the first to serve and worship you.” Allama Iqbal has thus commented on the issue: “UsaiSubhi Azal Inkar Ki Jurat Hui Kyun Kar/MujhayMaloom Kya Who Razdan Tera Hai YaMera?”
Similarly, Mohiuddin ibn Arabi, talks thus about the gnosis of Hallaj: “Raaitu Rabbi Biaini Rabbi/ Fa Qala Mann Anta Qultu Anta”, that is to say “I saw my Lord with His eyes/ So he asked me “who are you? “and I said “I am You”.
And Iqbal too expresses a similar kind of idea while being a bit careful in his style of expression: “Bar Muqam Khud RaseedanZindagi Sat /ZatRahay Parda DeedanZindagi Sat”.
Man being an animal whose understanding is limited to five sensory organs cannot therefore fully prove the existence of any creation. Hallaj, in this regard, says, “AlmarifatAnil MukawantBayinatun/La TudrikuhalHawasu”, that means that “The gnosis of all the created things is evident/open / the five senses cannot fully well comprehend the same.”
Allama has made the same concern/issue the subject of his metaphysical enquiry into the modern education system: “ Mahsoos Pe Bina Aloom E Jaded Ki /Is Dor Main Hai Sheesha E AqeedaPashPash” ; and he, thus, criticizes the narrow mindedness in the modern knowledge system : “Teri Nigah Main SabitNahi Khuda Ka Wajood /Meri Nigah Main SabitNahiWajood Tera” because he was fully well sure of the fact that there exists beyond the world of senses many more worlds/universes/existences; and, man, while gradually evolving through all such stages, can conquer the world of senses: “HarkiMahsoosat Ra TaskheerKard/ Aalmay Az Zarra E Tamer Kard”.
This creed attains the form of an experience in the world of Love for both of these masters where our concept of time and space is altogether changed. For Hallaj, this world is the laboratory of the Lord who trains/teaches/guides in self-revelation; and, Allama Iqbal finds it open for every believer as he says “KushaiChasm Ki Ain Khawab, Khawab E Bedari Sat”.
Despite all these similarities between the two, Allama Iqbal has made some beautiful additions to the ideas/inklings/hints thrown by Hallaj as for example Hallaj would say “Al HaquMa Aslamahu Ila KhalqihiLiannahuHuwaWaInniHuwaWaHuwaHuwa”(Translation: The Truth of his being (Mohammad PBUH) was handed over to His creations by Allah because he was He and I am He and He is He) Ta seen us Siraj).
However, Iqbal gave a collective colour to the same idea and declared Hallaj’s statement “Anal Haq” as the collective I am “Khudi” (self-realization): “Agar Farday Ba GoyadSarzanish Bah /Agar QoumaiBagoyadNarwaNeest”.
It is proved here that Iqbal interpreted the Sufi beliefs with due regard to the Islamic Shariat as the tradition of the Prophet goes “YadduAllahialalJamat”. With reference to being under the protection of the Hand of God (Allah’s help) in this tradition, Allama has described the collective acts of the Qoum e Hashmi or the Ummat I Islamia as the act of the God which is fully supported by this Ayat (Sign) of the Holy Quran “Wa Ma RamaitaIzRamaitaWalakin Rama Alallah” ( Translation :You did not shoot the arrows when you shot them but Allah shot them).In this context, Iqbal says , “ AzmOuKhallaqTaqdeer Haq Sat / Roz E HaijaTeerOuTeer E Haq Sat.”
This is not just the concord of their individual ideas only; but while pointing to their spiritual beliefs it becomes quite evident that despite distance in time and space between the two, both were actually the travellers on the same path. The difference between the two is that Allama has left behind a lot of material that serves the detailed explanation of his ideas while as the absence of thirty-one other works of Hallaj forces one to depend on those few inklings/hints/suggestions that he has made in Kita but Tawaseen.Some explanations of this abstract are :
Being Muslims, both of them believed that the Universe is the manifestation of the will of Allah even though we may not be recognizing/knowing the same”.
(To Be Concluded)
Note: This paper was published by Professor Mohiud Din Hajini in the Sheeraza (Special issue on Iqbal titled Mehfil e Iqbal) of the J&K Cultural Academy in 1978 in Urdu.
By Ameen Fayaz
Original Headline: PART-II | Two Great Souls: Iqbal and Hallaj
Source: The Greater Kashmir
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