By Ayesha Siddiqa
July 10, 2018
The Pakistan Supreme Court’s sentencing the
former prime minister Nawaz Sharif to 10 years and his daughter Maryam Nawaz to
seven years in jail in the Panama Papers’ case has left many in the country and
the world wondering if the verdict is entirely about accountability.
Anti-corruption and accountability are indeed popular mantras in the country,
especially amongst the literate youth and the middle class. But the judgment
has a political context and ought to be viewed in that light.
The need for accountability was popularised
by both civil and military dispensations. Besides the military governments of
Generals Zia-ul-Haq and Pervez Musharraf, both Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto
had used the handle of anti-corruption to punish the other, when in power. The
courts had disposed off many cases that the two instituted against each other
during the 1990s. Accountability was never possible especially because the
country’s prime anti-corruption agency, the National Accountability Bureau and
its National Accountability Ordinance, 1999 (NAO), were used mainly for
political ends. While the Sharif family was exiled to Saudi Arabia in December
2000, negotiations were conducted with hundreds of other politicians in the
backdrop of the accountability law. NAO stipulated over 10 years imprisonment
for anyone involved in corruption.
However, the July 5 decision is still not
The financial misconduct of Nawaz Sharif
and his family were all stories until 2016 when the Panama Papers — documents
of a Panama-based legal firm, Mossack Fonseca, pertaining to offshore companies
of many bigwigs around the world — were leaked. On August 29, 2016, the
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI) leader, Imran Khan, moved the Supreme Court
(SC) to disqualify Nawaz Sharif as head of the government on the basis of the
Panama disclosures. The SC turned down the application on the basis that the
petitioners had not approached other more appropriate fora. But after Khan
threatened protests, the Court decided to hear the case on October 28, 2016.
Journalist Zia-ud-Din is of the view that this hyperactivity began on the day
of the ‘Dawn leaks’ — a story by journalist Cyril Almeida regarding civilian
leadership telling the military to control militants or face international ire.
This was perhaps the last straw that broke the camel’s back in terms of the
military’s capacity to tolerate Nawaz Sharif.
No matter how the judgment is presented, it
is a fact that the entire judiciary suddenly turned hyperactive to prove Nawaz
Sharif as not only corrupt but also incapable of being in politics. In another
landmark decision, in April, the SC disqualified Nawaz Sharif for life from
politics by invoking Article 62 (1)(f) of the 1973 Constitution and declaring
him as not being sadiq and ameen (honest and truthful). This amendment was
inserted in the Constitution by General Zia. It is worth mentioning that in
April, the corruption case was still under process but the SC based its
decision on a hypothetical calculation of undeclared assets pertaining to the
payments Nawaz Sharif had not received as a director in his son’s company
registered in the UAE. The judges were of the opinion that even if the then PM
had not taken the money, he could do so at a later stage. Even the operative
part of the July judgment admits that in the absence of documentary evidence
pertaining to the Avenfield flats in London, it is difficult to prove Nawaz
Sharif’s ownership of these flats. The court, however, presumed that these
flats are owned by the ex-PM.
The judgment comes like an icing on the cake
of an anti-Sharif campaign that started in 2016. During its peak in the last
six months, it was headed by the country’s top adjudicator. With the media on
his heels, the chief justice of the SC was seen going around questioning
governance delivery in Punjab. His team members included the former judge,
Justice Javed Iqbal, currently the head of the National Accountability Bureau.
There is little doubt that all this is not
about ending corruption. Instead, the powerful military is punishing a former
client, and re-shaping the country’s political field. Just like Zulfiqar Ali
Bhutto, who had the support of some segments of the military in 1971 but was
abandoned, and then physically eliminated, Sharif is being removed before his
party becomes too powerful. From the ownership of the China-Pakistan Economic
Corridor (CPEC) and fighting the battle in Afghanistan to managing the Kashmir
issue and dealing with Donald Trump’s US and Narendra Modi’s India, there are
numerous issues on which the establishment would like to have a greater say.
Clearly, Nawaz Sharif, a former partner, who was installed against the Pakistan
People’s Party during the early 1990s, had grown independent and far too
confident to be allowed to continue in politics. His reference to the ISI’s dabbling
in politics as “khalai makhlooq”(supernatural creatures) had to be dealt with
severely. Military’s touts like Zaid Hamid, in fact, tweeted: “more punishment
is coming towards him (Nawaz Sharif) now in other cases. His entire wealth will
be confiscated… including the Raiwand palace”. Bleeding Nawaz Sharif and his
PML-N to extinction is certainly one of the goals that may well be achieved by
giving the leadership to his younger brother Shahbaz Sharif or other permanent
members of the establishment like Chaudhry Nisar or Mushahid Hussain Syed.
In all this, the highest judiciary of the
country has become the butt of jokes on social media, and the society at large.
It seems to be collapsing under the weight of its current partnership with the
military establishment in the civil-military battle. While taking “Nawaz Sharif
to task”, it allowed former dictator Pervez Musharraf to leave the country. It
even found a way to force the government to issue Musharraf with a new passport
and identity card. With thousands of cases pending in the superior court, the
chief adjudicator and his team have turned populist, citing Islamic history or
appeasing the audience, rather than citing the law or creating common law.
Institutional collapse and rising authoritarianism is, unfortunately, the trend
in both Pakistan and India. However, given Pakistan’s civilian institutional
decay, the loss is higher.
Ayesha Siddiqa is research associate SOAS, University of London South
Asia Institute and author of Military Inc.