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Radical Islamism and Jihad (06 Apr 2015 NewAgeIslam.Com)

Tackling the Onslaught of Radical Ideology in Bangladesh: Muslims of Bangladesh Must Reclaim the Spiritual Islam Threatened by the Extremists



By Ghualm Rasool Dehlvi, New Age Islam

6 April 2015

Freedom of conscience and expression is in jeopardy in Bangladesh. Radical Islamists do not recognise any basic human rights. Two bloggers, Avijit and Washiqur Rahman, have been killed in quick succession for demanding religious freedom and tolerance. It is a tragedy for the country that was established as a secular state and that has been recognised by the UN, as Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics claimed in 2008, as a moderate Muslim country. But this tall claim does not stand to scrutiny.

The killing has reminded us of a similarly brutal violence against a Bangladeshi woman journalist, Nadia Sharmeen, who was mistreated by the country’s largest radical Islamist group Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh. The fanatic goons of this extremist outfit, who loudly claim to be ‘protectors of Islam’ manhandled the lady and beat her up badly merely for being a ‘woman field journalist’ and working outside her home. Actually, the Emir of the Hefazat warned the government with 13-point demands, which included banning the women’s right to work outside. They admonished their followers in their preachy speeches not to educate their girls in schools, colleges, and universities and to confine their early school education up to grade four or five. For, women, in the eyes of the Hefazat leaders, have been created to stay within the four walls of their homes, look after their husbands and their belongings and raise their children. That’s all they are meant for.

Clearly, moderate, peaceful, tolerant and pluralistic narrative of Islam is no longer the reality of Bangladesh. Going by the history, Islam was first preached in Bangladesh during the rightly guided caliphate of the Khulafa-e-Rashidin. According to modern research studies, inhabitants of this land were well-acquainted with Islam much earlier than the Muslim conquest of Bengal. Muslim merchants would come all the way from Arabia to Chittagong port even in the pre-Islamic period. But it was a group of Prophet’s companions, namely Abu Oakkas Malik, Quyes bin Sairadi, Tameem Ansari, Urrah bin Assasa and Abu Quyes bin Harisa, who came to Chittagong in 618 during the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh).

They preached Islam in various parts of Bangladesh for years and then moved. Afterwards, several delegations of the followers of the Companions (Tabi’een) including Muhammad Mamun and Muhammad Mohymin came and preached Islam in the land. Then emerged the Sufi saints, who came to be known as Pirs and Fakirs in Bangladesh. Perhaps, they were the people who played the most vital role in preaching Islam in the country. For instance, the Sufi saint Shah Jalal of Yemeni origin, who was a descendant of the Prophet’s family and belonged to a family of saints, had a large share in preaching Islam in Bangladesh.

Clearly, the group of Prophet’s companions, the Tabein and the Sufi saints who first introduced Islam to Bangladesh must have preached moderate, peaceful and pluralistic Islam, which is the only true version of this faith as enunciated in the Qur’an. But the radical Islamists in Bangladesh today have sabotaged all the Islamic legacy of peace, pluralism and democracy brought by the earlier preachers of Islam. As a matter of fact, essential and egalitarian messages of Islam, particularly the ideals of human equality, universal brotherhood, and social justice had attracted the indigenous peoples of Bangladesh who embraced Islam. Muslim mystics and Sufi saints (popularly known in Bangladesh as pirs and faqirs) reached out to the downtrodden sections of Bangladeshi society. They preached the universal Islamic values of infinite love, mutual respect, religious harmony and social affinity in place of retrogressive and ritualistic views in the name of Islam as being propagated today by the radical Islamists of Bangladesh.

Sufi influence is now beginning to disappear. It has been confined to only occasional consultation or ritual observance of Sufi-oriented rituals and festivals. Today’s fakirs and pirs in Bangladesh have also done away with their duty to keep alive the moderate and mystical Sufi ideas and values. Though they still enjoy their occupations in the shrines of saints, that outnumber the mosques and madrasas in some areas, they have almost lost an impacting ideology that continued to preach peace and moderation for centuries. Now their business has been reduced to merely providing spiritual consultation to the shrine visitors and devotees, who look up to them as their peer-o-murshid (spiritual guru) and seek consultation in relation to the issues in their life and career.

As Sufi masters, pirs and fakirs are no longer the influential ideological entities in the country; Salafi-Wahhabi mullahs have successfully established the rule of their widespread fanatic ideology. They have become the dominant ideologues of Bangladeshi Muslims today. Members of the orthodox clergy, mostly educated in Darul Ulum Deoband, Jamiatul Falah, Jamia Salafia and other Indian Islamic seminaries, attached to mosques as imams or associated with madrasas as maulvis, play the most pivotal role in reshaping the common religious mindset of Muslim community in the country.

Clearly, an intolerant, exclusivist, totalitarian and religio-fascist version of Islam is massively imported and propagated across the country. The threat of violent ideological extremism is becoming more widespread and localised, as exemplified by the recent acts of violence in Bangladesh. The Islamist militant group of Bangladesh, Ansarullah Bangla Team (ABT), which draws inspiration from the global jihadist movement, is actively engaged in preparing more and more militants in the country, with an aim to conquer at least one part of Bangladesh through an armed jihad, something that is clearly mentioned in its stated objectives. Therefore, it has launched concerted efforts focused on the massive proliferation of the dangerous extremist ideology that is, most regrettably, detrimental to the madrasa students who are likely to fall prey to their evil designs.

However, as the fundamentalist activism has received a big boost and the cult of violent Islamist extremists is taking over the country, the duty of moderate Muslims of Bangladesh is becoming increasingly important. A rigorous and concerted effort to reclaim the lost legacy of spiritual Islam is the most needful thing to do. The sooner they wake up to this baffling challenge, the better for them.

But this gigantic task can only be carried out when Islam’s real enemy, radical Islamist ideology, is knocked down. It must be countered in Bangladesh much in the same way as it needs to be rooted out from all other parts of the Muslim world. From ISIS, Al-Qaida, and Muslim Brotherhood in the Middle East to the Tahrik-e-Taliban Pakistan and Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh, this ideology is the real common threat to moderate spiritual Islam that has sabotaged the peaceful efforts of the Sufi saints in South Asia. A massive work is needed to curb this radical thought that has caused the entire Muslim world to be a source of religious violence, suppression of free thought, killing of independent thinkers and more and more chaos in the rest of the world. The remedy, for Muslims of Bangladesh, is to recognise this ‘real enemy’ within and eradicate it with all its obnoxiously retrogressive forms in order to restore the mystical glory of their peaceful faith. A reformist religious discourse is the pressing need for them that may help them evolve a moderate, spiritually-inclined and inclusive understanding of Islam to save them from the clutches of the exclusivist Islamist discourse that has put the entire Muslim world in jeopardy.


Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi is a classical Islamic scholar. He has graduated from a leading Islamic seminary of India, Jamia Amjadia Rizvia (Mau, U.P.), acquired Diploma in Qur'anic Arabic from Al-Jamiat ul Islamia, Faizabad, U.P., and Certificate in Uloom ul Hadith from Al-Azhar Institute of Islamic Studies, Badaun, U.P. He has also graduated in Arabic (Hons) and is pursuing his M. A. in Comparative Religion from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/radical-islamism-and-jihad/ghualm-rasool-dehlvi,-new-age-islam/tackling-the-onslaught-of-radical-ideology-in-bangladesh--muslims-of-bangladesh-must-reclaim-the-spiritual-islam-threatened-by-the-extremists/d/102312


  • thanks for mailing me this article.

    for me the way i look is, i work here in a christian ngo and many churches are here.

    general muslims are good towards us and tolerant towards the christians, which is a minor group (0.05%)

    but i know extremist are raising up

    our NGO funding was stopped, many of this orphanages gives life to many muslim childrens and hindu and christians aswell

    but the funding barring has been removed by sheikh hasina, so its going well

    but i am in fear of taking interviews of how ppl will understand it or take it?

    Comment by Jason Abraham

    Posted by Ghulam Rasool Dehlavi

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 5/18/2015 12:56:15 PM

  • One more proof dear Naseer Ahmad Observer sahib,

    The Hifazat e Islam of Bangladesh is a strong advocate of Wahhabi Islam and is led by the Deoband-trained Ahmad Shafi, who is also the chairman of the Bangladesh Qaumi Madrassah Education Board, an apex body that oversees the functioning of madrasas across the country. Hifazat, a strong supporter of the Wahhabi movement, could create problems for the secular groups. Hifazat’s 13-point agenda demands imposition of strict Sharia laws in the country and punishment for all the leaders of the Shabaag movement who have been calling for a more secular society. Other demands include death for blasphemy against Islam and the execution of Internet bloggers and others who insult Prophet Muhammad. Hifazat calls for women’s development programs to be cancelled, and it is demanding laws against, what it deems to be, “shameless behavior and dresses” and mixing of men and women in public. Hifazat also wants rules against erecting statues in public places. The Hifazat e Islam has a strong support base in the country’s 25,000 madrasas.

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 4/9/2015 1:54:22 AM

  • Dear Mohammed Rafiq Lodhia sahib, according to the source you provided, “ a group of Sahabis including Abu Oakkas Malik, Quyes Ibn Sairadi, Tameem Ansary, Urrah Ibn Assasa, Abu Quyes Ibn Harisa came to Chittagong in 618 during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (PUB). They preached Islam there for few years and then went to China.”


    And “the following Sahabis came to Bangladesh through Chittagong seaport after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (PUB):


    - Abdullah Ibn Utban

    - Assem Ibn Amr Tameemi

    - Sahel Ibn Abdi

    - Suhael Ibn Adi

    - Hakim Ibn Abeel Assaqafi”


    And your question to me is, “Which one is correct?”


    What is the conflict between these two reports? If there were ten different Sahabis visiting what is now known as Bangladesh, at two different periods of time, five of them during the lifetime and five others after the death of the Prophet (pbuh), then what is the problem? I don’t understand what problem you see.


    I don’t know about the latter five who are reported to have visited the land after the demise of Prophet (pbuh). However, I have given you three historical sources for the earlier five who are mentioned in my article. May be they are also mentioned in hadith literature, which is a vast corpus containing volumes of collections, but I dint go through all. I don’t know about any such hadith, as of now.

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 4/8/2015 4:24:23 AM

  • Hello Dehlvi Saheb,


    Currently, I am not in practice of reading “Urdu, since I left Karachi, Pakistan in the year 1970. Hence, the interest in reading the two books by Shaikh Mohammed Ikram is most likely out of question.


    My concern was, “Why there were ten different Sahabis at two different period of time (?) visiting what is now known as Bangladesh? And that also, during the lifetime of the Prophet of Islam.


    Another thing that struck me was, “Why would a classical Islamic scholar, believe the story about the Sahabis, but vehemently demand that the Holy Qur’an cannot be clearly understood without any references to the ‘Science of Hadiths.?”


    From your vague response, it can be concluded that without verification based upon the Hadiths, it is unwise to believe in the story. If the journey was done during Prophet’s time, then somewhere it should be recorded in the Hadiths. Am I right or wrong? 


    Hopefully, you will make a sincere attempt to answer, even though it might be a little uncomfortable question to answer. I can completely understand the difficulty, but for the sake of confronting centuries old facts, it will be good to know “The Point Of Verification. 


    Kind personal regards,


    Mohammed Rafiq Lodhia 





    By Mohammed Rafiq Lodhia - 4/7/2015 5:49:27 PM

  • Dear Mohammad Rafiq Lodhia saheb, While writing this article, I read two Urdu books namely Rud e Kausar and Mauj e kausar, which talk about the advent of Islam in Sindh or Indian subcontinent at great length. Both are authored by Shaikh Mohammad Ikram. Besides them, the sahabis who came in the region of Bagladesh are mentioned  in one more valuable book on the history of India, with details of the Sahabah and Tabi'in who visited the country.

    The book is titled:

    العقد الثمين في فتوح الهند ومن ورد فيها من الصحابة والتابعين

    It could be downloaded from here:
    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 4/7/2015 1:44:59 PM

  • Dear B S Walia saheb,

    Thank you for sharing your reflection on this article. It will be translated into Urdu and Arabic soon and thus we will be able to acquaint the Islamic preachers and madrasa graduates and students with the messages meant for them.

    We do need to engage more and more madrasa graduates to combat the vicious Islamist campaign hijacking the true principles of Islam. Muslims in general and madrasas graduates in particular, need to wake up to this situation and defend their faith before it is too late. Thanks again for your kind piece of advice.

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 4/7/2015 12:30:21 PM

  • Dear Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi Saheb,


    As-Salaam Alay-Kum


    This brief note is to request for clarification about a group of Sahabis who visited Chittagong in 618 during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). The emphasis is upon, “during the lifetime.”   


    On glancing at another website – Islamic News, five more names of the respected Sahabis is also listed. My question to you is, “Which one is correct?”


    Before Conquest of Bengal - http://islamic-newsbd.blogspot.com


    People of this land were familiar with Islam before the conquest of Bengal. Arab merchants had links with Chittagong port since pre-Islamic period. It has been proven in recent studies that a group of Sahabis including Abu Oakkas Malik, Quyes Ibn Sairadi, Tameem Ansary, Urrah Ibn Assasa, Abu Quyes Ibn Harisa came to Chittagong in 618 during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (PUB). They preached Islam there for few years and then went to China.


    The following Sahabis came to Bangladesh through Chittagong seaport after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (PUB):


    - Abdullah Ibn Utban

    - Assem Ibn Amr Tameemi

    - Sahel Ibn Abdi

    - Suhael Ibn Adi

    - Hakim Ibn Abeel Assaqafi


    It will be much appreciated, if you can enlighten me on this subject matter.


    Thanks & Regards,


    Mohammed Rafiq Lodhia





    By Mohammed Rafiq Lodhia - 4/7/2015 12:29:11 PM

  • Janab Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi saheb,

    An excellent analysts. But your target audience has to be PREACHERS AND MADRASSAS. If your good views can bring them on board, most problems can be resolved.
    Kind regards,
    B S Walia
    By B S Walia - 4/7/2015 11:23:25 AM

  • The radicalization of Bangladeshi Muslims, as explained in the above article, holds vital relevance for contemporary international debates on religious tolerance and pluralism. Bangladesh experienced centuries of religious tolerance at a time when religious dissidents even in Europe were still being burnt on the stakes. The Sufi saints spread an Islam in Bengal that was strikingly tolerant. Starting with Sheikh Akhi Shiraz, the disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya, the Chishti silsila rapidly spread its all-embracing influence in the region of Bengal, in the 14th century. In fact, the Chishtis’ effectiveness was so large that within less than half a century from their arrival, the region’s rulers recognised these saints as spiritual mentors. But today radical Islamists are exerting feverish efforts to establish the rule of radical jihadism in Bangladesh, something that must pain every peace-loving moderate Muslim and non-Muslim of the world.

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 4/7/2015 11:05:27 AM

  • Dear jamir sheikh dhaka, I fully agree with your lamentation that "In the name of hefajate Islam, they are distorting Islam and thus turning people away from Islam.

    By  jamir sheikh dhaka - 4/7/2015 2:55:29 AM

    As a matter of fact, there are always mischievous intentions and dangerous designs of the extremist Islamist or jihadist organisations behind choosing such names.

    By choosing its name: Hefazat-e-Islam, meaning protection of Islam, this terror outfit has also done the same thing. We can clearly see what Islam do the Hefazat’s activists and supporters protect by demeaning and torturing women, besieging the capital, destroying the national properties, vandalising the holy mosque (Baitul Mukarram) and burning down the Holy Quran? These mindless acts of violence brazenly make a mockery of their tall claim of “protecting Islam”.

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 4/7/2015 10:54:20 AM

  • Bangladeshi Jamaat leader loses appeal against hanging
    Rejection of Mohammad Kamaruzzaman's final appeal sparks deadly clash between party supporters and police.
    06 Apr 2015 11:44 GMT | Asia, Bangladesh
    Share via Facebook  Share via Twitter Share via RedditAll SocialEmailPrintSend Feedback
    Kamaruzzaman was sentenced for war crimes including a mass killing at a site that has become known as the 'Village of Widows' [AP]
    Bangladesh's Supreme Court has rejected a final appeal by a Jamaat-e-Islami leader to overturn his death sentence for atrocities committed more than 40 years ago, clearing the last legal hurdle to his execution.
    Chief Justice S K Sinha ruled that the review petition was "dismissed", upholding Mohammad Kamaruzzaman's original death sentence for genocide and torture of unarmed civilians during the 1971 war of independence.
    Monday's ruling sparked clashes between Jamaat-e-Islami party supporters and police in Bangladesh's southeastern Noakhali district.
    Al Jazeera's Tanvir Chowdury reported that one person was killed and another was injured in the Noakhali riots.
    The party also called for a nationwide 48-hour strike from Tuesday to protest against the decision.
    Kamaruzzaman was sentenced to hang in May 2013 by a domestic war crimes court for crimes including a mass killing at a site that has become known as the "Village of Widows".
    An appeal court in November last year upheld the verdict, raising the prospect of his becoming the second Jamaat leader to be hanged for war crimes.
    Abdul Quader Molla was executed in December, 2013.
    'Notorious war criminal'
    Lawyers for Kamaruzzaman, who is the third most senior member of the Jamaat, made a last legal appeal arguing that there were "serious discrepancies" in the testimonies of prosecution witnesses at his trial.
    Secular activists who attended the brief court session were pleased with the verdict.
    "We're happy. He is a notorious war criminal. We made several attempts during the 1971 war to capture him. But finally he is caught by the court," Anwar Hossain, who fought in the independence war, told the AFP news agency.
    "We hope he'll be executed [in] the quickest time possible," he added.
    The 62-year-old's only chance of avoiding the gallows will be if he is granted clemency by the country's president.
    "He can now seek clemency from the president but it is up to him whether he wants to seek mercy or not," his lawyer Shishir Monir said.
    Attorney General Mahbubey Alam told AFP that prison authorities would now ask Kamaruzzaman whether he would seek clemency from the president.
    "If he refuses, he could be hanged at any moment," he said.
    Molla was executed just hours after his review petition was rejected by the Supreme Court.
    Under Bangladesh's law, the execution of the accused could be carried out within 21 days and before 28 days of the Supreme Court's upholding of a death sentence.
    The upholding of Kamaruzzaman's execution order could worsen the ongoing unrest in Bangladesh, which has been hit by deadly protests over the opposition's bid to topple the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.
    The country suffered its deadliest chapter of political violence in 2013 after the war crimes court handed down a series of death sentences to Jamaat leaders for their role in the 1971 conflict, which saw the then east Pakistan secede from the regime in Islamabad.
    Opposition parties say the war crimes trials are politically motivated and aimed at settling scores, while rights groups say the trials have fallen short of international standards.
    Hasina's secular government maintains they are needed to heal the wounds of the conflict, which it says left three million people dead.
    Independent experts have estimated the death toll was much lower.

    By GRD - 4/7/2015 5:27:18 AM

  • Hefazat e Islam is nothing but a disguise of Jamat Islami Bangladesh. This organisation came up after the conviction of Jamat leaders in 71 massacre case. This organisation organised large scale protests against teh conviction of jamat leaders. In the name of hefajating Islam,they are distorting Islam and thus turning people away from Islam.
    By jamir sheikh dhaka - 4/7/2015 2:55:29 AM

  • This interview might interest you. I do not know where it was published though. 

    Islamists tell me Avijit Roy was killed; you are next: Imran H Sarker | Public death threats issued on social media, and carried out soon after. That is chilling reality of bloggers in Bangladesh who are speaking out against religious extremism. In February, US blogger Avijit Roy was murdered with a machete on a busy road in Dhaka. A month later, it was the turn of 27-year-old Washiqur Rahman to be hacked to death.

    In an interview on Skype, Imran H Sarker, head of the Blogger and Online Activists Network in Bangladesh and a spokesperson for the Shahbag Movement of 2013 talks to Indulekha Aravind about why bloggers are targets of deadly attacks, the fight against fundamentalism and the government's failure to bring the perpetrators to justice. Edited excerpts:

    Why are bloggers being targeted so viciously?

    They are being targeted because they are individuals. They never negotiate with anybody, or succumb to pressure unlike political parties or activists belonging to an organisation. And two, they cannot be controlled by radical religious groups, unlike political parties.

    After 1947, Islamic groups like Jamaat-e-Islami have tried to dominate this region. Jamaat-e-Islami is an organised terrorist group, wearing a mask of democracy. They believe in an Islamic revolution, and are preparing for that. It is also very strong financially and so they can manage any political party, even the secular ones. In 2013, when the Shahbag movement happened, Jamaat was faced with an existential crisis because young people had united agains the role of religion in politics.

    We called for a ban on Jamaat-e-Islami, demanded a war crimes trial and called for a boycott of the financial organisations controlled by Jamaat-e-Islami, which includes the largest bank in Bangladesh. But at the same time, the ruling party, the Awami League, encouraged opening branches of the same bank. This just showed that Jamaat could control everyone, apart from the youth, and bloggers. So they started killing them.

    Washiqur Rahman was posting anonymously. How did they identify and kill him?

    Good question. Even Ahmed Rajib Haider, who was killed in 2013, was writing anonymously. They have organised cells to identify and analyse those who are against radical Islamic groups and promote secularism. They identified them and began killing them one by one.

    Is it true that the people caught had never read the blogs?

    Absolutely. They don't even know what a blog is. But their terrorist mentor had ordered them to kill, so they did.

    Several bloggers are also reported to have died under mysterious circumstances recently, according to reports...

    Yes, it's not just the three bloggers we talked about. Others faced different kinds of attacks, including Shahbag activists -- deaths designed to look like road accidents or robbery. But how is it that it is only bloggers and activists who seem to be dying like this.

    Have you received threats?

    If you read some of the comments on my Facebook page or on my Twitter feed, you would be terrified. When the Shahbag movement began in February 2013, I used to get thousands of threats every single day. The threats were blatant, along the lines of “I will kill you tomorrow”. When we were protesting against the murders of bloggers, they would say things such as “Avijit Roy was killed. You are next” or “Washiqur Rahman was killed, you’ll be the next victim”.

    Has the government promised security?

    In the case of Avijit Roy, who was living in the US, threats were issued to him openly, with radicals saying they would kill him if he came to Bangladesh. The next time he came, he was killed. These extremists are going about the murders in a very organised manner, but the government has taken no action. If these radicals complain that what bloggers are writing is against Islam, the bloggers are arrested.

    For instance, in 2013, when a fanatic group raised their voice against four secular, progressive bloggers, they were immediately arrested. But till now, no one from the extremist groups issuing death threats have been arrested, though it is being done openly. So we know the government is not going to do anything. Even the political parties talking about a secular Bangladesh negotiate with fanatics for votes. And no one from the government has come forward to express solidarity with the victims, even though it is supposed to be a secular government.

    Have you tried approaching the police?

    Avijit Roy was killed in a public place, where there were a lot of policemen. His wife, who was with him, cried out to the police for help but they did nothing. They did not even care to take him to the hospital. So yes, you can file a complaint, but they will laugh at you. Nothing will come out of it.

    How is the blogger community reacting?

    We are determined to fight back. We have been fighting since 2013, especially those of us involved in the Shahbag movement. Some of those not involved, the common man, might be afraid. But the young people of this generation, especially students, are determined to free the nation from Islamist evils.

    Has the response of the international community been adequate?

    We are fighting a global terrorist group. Their names might be different but they are the same people destroying Afghanistan, Pakistan and Syria. They are patronised and funded by the same group of people. And those who believe in a liberal, secular state should fight them together. To fight them just locally is difficult.

    What is the way forward, for all of you?

    It's difficult because we are still fighting against these evils. But the government is not listening to us. A month has passed since Roy's murdered but there has been no progress in the investigation. The man who was arrested was someone who issued a threat on Facebook but no evidence has been found of his involvement in the murder.

    Bangladesh becoming one of the most dangerous places to be a blogger?

    It’s becoming a dangerous place for freedom of speech and for freedom of expression. We didn’t expect this because Bangladesh has a history of fighting radical groups. We have a secular constitution that guarantees the same right to freedom of speech to everyone, irrespective of religion, caste and colour. But with the lack of political commitment today, we are being killed, one by one. It’s as if we are fighting the same evil forces we fought against in 1971.

    By secularlogic - 4/6/2015 10:37:03 PM

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