New Age Islam
Mon Aug 03 2020, 10:23 PM

Islamic Society ( 10 Jan 2009, NewAgeIslam.Com)

Comment | Comment

The problem of caste among Indian Muslims

The problem of caste among Indian Muslims is gaining increased scrutiny after a series of political and judicial events–the most recent being the Supreme Court's notice to the Union government on the status of 'low-caste' Muslims of Maharashtra. The traditional response of the Muslim community has been to shove the issue under the rug and charge those who dare to challenge the status-quo as indulging in anti-Islamic activity.

In the past decade, however, attempts have been made to shine the light on this uncomfortable aspect of India’s Muslim society.

 Two reviews by Ayub Khan and Arshad Amanullah of a New Urdu book:

1. Hindustan Me Zaat Paat Aur Musalmaan (Caste System In India And The Muslims)

Author: Masud Alam Falahi


New Age IslamIslam OnlineIslamic WebsiteAfrican Muslim NewsArab World NewsSouth Asia NewsIndian Muslim NewsWorld Muslim NewsWomen in IslamIslamic FeminismArab WomenWomen In ArabIslamophobia in AmericaMuslim Women in WestIslam Women and Feminism


Total Comments (12)

  • 12 .

    Literally meaning eligible/suitable/equal, the kufu in its hermeneutical sense, stands for the following: four castes of the ashrafs (Syeds, Sheikhs, Mughals and Pathans) are generally considered suitable marriage partners for each other [News Age Islam]


    Another slap on the faces of Mullahs and their Theory of Ashraf and Ajlaf:

    Prejudice is as old as the day Iblis [Satan] complained to Allah, subhana watala, that he was better than mankind.  He based it on the nature of his creation (jinn), claiming that jinn are superior to mankind, similar to racial prejudice today, which is based on the principle that, "whatever I am, is better than whatever you are."  

    Iblis made demands to Allah, subhana wat'ala, for the mere reason that he was made of smokeless fire and that Adam was made of clay.  Are we not doing the same today by thinking that our biological features, geographical location, financial status, or organizational ties, make us superior to others?  Beware of the shaytaan (satan) who feeds the people lies to cause division!

    (Iblis) said: "I am not one to prostrate myself to man, whom Thou didst create from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape." [Al-Hijr 15:33]

    (Iblis) said: "O my Lord! Because you misled me, I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead them all. "Except Your chosen, (guided) slaves among them." [Al-Hijr 15:39-40] 
    And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith. [Al-Baqarah 2: 34]

    Racial prejudice is by no means new. The Prophet  describes a long history (and future) of people finding fault in other's ancestry in the following hadith.  

    Abu Hurayrah reported that the Prophet of Allah  said, "There are two things of which my people will never tire:  wailing over the dead and finding fault with people's ancestry." [Bukhari , Muslim, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Jarud]

    Division is against Islam

    And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided. [Al-Imran 3:103]

    The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah - the which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him). [Al-Shura 42:13]

    As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in the least: their affair is with Allah. He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did. [Al-An'am 6:159]

    And obey Allah and His Messenger. and fall into no disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: For Allah is with those who patiently persevere [Al-Anfal 8:46]

    Even though some people encourage division, one thing that we all have in common and cannot escape, is that we all eventually return to Allah swt at the time of death, on the Day of Judgement, awaiting Allah's judgment on our souls!

    But (later generations) cut off their affair (of unity), one from another: (yet) will they all return to Us. [Al-Anbiyaa 21:93]

    See you not that Allâh sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of varying colours, and among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colours and (others) very black. And of men and AdDawâb (moving living creatures, beasts, etc.), and cattle, in like manner of various colours. It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allâh. Verily, Allâh is AllMighty, OftForgiving. [Faatir 35:28 ]

    The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islâmic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allâh, that you may receive mercy. [Al-Hujurat 49:10]

    Racial Prejudice

    Narrated Abu Malik al-Ash'ariy

    "Four things are among my followers from the traditions of Jahiliyyah which will not leave: pride of lineage, slandering kinship, use of astrology for rain, and wailing" [Muslim] [similar to that is narrated from him by Ahmad, at-Tabaraani, al-Hakim, and al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan]

    Narrated by Abu Hurayrah 

    "Indeed Allah has removed from you the blind loyalties of jahiliyyah and the pride for ancestry. Either be a pious believer or a miserable insolent. (All of) you are children of Adam, and Adam is from dust. Let some men cease to take pride in others, who are nothing but burning coal for the HellFire, it will be easier for Allah to handle them than a dung beetle driving his nose into filth" [Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi]

    The Prophet  said on the authority of Ubayy Bin Ka'b: "If anyone proudly asserts his descent in the manner of the pre-Islamic people, tell him to bite his father's penis, and do not use a euphemism". [Mishkat Al-Masabih] 

    Prejudice Based on Financial Status [Read ASHRAF AND AJLAF]

    Your financial status does not gain you priviledges in Islam.  Some people hate the rich, while others despise the poor.  Neither is tolerated in Islam.  

    If you see your muslim brother giving favors to a person because of his wealth, kindly correct him.  Likewise, hatred or jealousy towards the rich is wicked and often involves "evil eye."  Meanwhile, the financially poor muslim is to be provided for through zakat as instituted in the Qur'an.  We must love for our brother what we love for ourself.  

    Excerpt - The Prophet's Last Sermon

    You know that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. You are all equal. Nobody has superiority over other except by piety and good action.

    Narrated Al-Bara' ibn Azib in Sahih Muslim

    There happened to pass by Allah's Apostle  a Jew blackened and lashed. Allah's Apostle called them (the Jews) and said: Is this the punishment that you find in your Book (Torah) as a prescribed punishment for adultery? They said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) called one of the scholars amongst them and said: I ask you in the name of Allah Who sent down the Torah to Moses if that is the prescribed punishment for adultery, which you find in your Book. He said: No. Had you not asked me in the name of Allah, I should not have given you this information. We find stoning to death (as the punishment prescribed in the Torah).

    However, this (crime) became quite common amongst our aristocratic class. So when we caught hold of any rich person (indulging in this offence) we spared him, but when we caught hold of a helpless person we imposed the prescribed punishment upon him. We then said: Let us agree (on a punishment) which we can inflict upon both the rich and the poor. So we decided to blacken the face with coal and flog as a substitute punishment for stoning.

    Thereupon Allah's Messenger  said: O Allah, I am the first to revive Thy command when they had cancelled it. He then gave the order and he (the offender) was stoned to death. Allah, the Majestic and Glorious, sent down (this verse): "O Messenger, (the behaviour of) those who vie with one another in denying the truth should not grieve you..." up to "is vouchsafed unto you, accept it" (v.41).

    It was said (by the Jews): Go to Muhammad; if he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging (as punishment for adultery), then accept it, but if he gives the verdict of stoning, then avoid it. It was (then) that Allah, the Majestic and Great, sent down (these verses:"...And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed, are indeed deniers of the truth" (v.44); "And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed--they, they indeed are the wrongdoers" (v.45); "And they who do not judge in accordance with what God has revealed--they are the iniquitous" (v.47). (All these verses) were revealed in connection with the nonbelievers.

    Do not Mock, Judge or Hurt Another Because You think You are Better than the Other

    O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: It may be that the (latter are better than the (former): Nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames: Ill-seeming is a name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he has believed: And those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong. [Al-Hujurat 49:11]

    And swell not thy cheek (for pride) at men, nor walk in insolence through the earth; for Allah loveth not any arrogant boaster. [Luqman 31:18]

    Discern People By Piety, Not Prejudice

    O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). [Al-Hujurat 49:13]

    Narrated Abu Dharr

    Allah's Messenger  said to him, "You are not better than people with red or black skins unless you excel them in piety." [Tirmidhi  and Musnad Ahmed Bin Hanbal]

    Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As,

    Allah's Messenger  said: The whole world is a provision, and the best object of benefit of the world is the pious woman. [ Sahih Muslim]

    The Believers are but a single Brotherhood: So make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah, that ye may receive Mercy. [Al-Hujurat 49:10]

    Narrated Ubaida:

    Ali (R.A.) said (to the people of 'Iraq), "Judge as you used to judge, for I hate differences (and I do my best ) till the people unite as one group, or I die as my companions have died." And narrated Sad that the Prophet said to 'Ali, "Will you not be pleased from this that you are to me like Aaron was to Moses?" [Sahih Bukhari]

    Spiritual Mentor of Wahabis Ibn Taymiyyah says:

    "Everything which is outside the call of Islaam and the Qur'aan, with regards to lineage, land, nationality, schools of thoughts and ways, then it is from the calls of jaahiliyyah [ignorance]. lndeed, even when the Muhaa jirs (those Companions who migrated from Makkah to Madeenah) and the Ansaars (those Companions who aided and supported those who migrated) argued, such that one of the Muhaajirs said:" O Muhaajirs! (implying; rally to my aid) " And one of the Ansaar said: "O Ansaar!" Upon hearing this, the Prophet  said: "Is it with the calls of Jaahiliyyah that you call, and l am still amongst you!" And he became very angry at that." [Al-Bukhari 8/137] {Majmoo ul-Fataawaa3/456}

    The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil: they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise. [Al-Tauba 9:71]

    Narrated Abu Huraira

    The Prophet  said, "Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, should serve his guest generously; and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, should unite the bond of kinship (i.e. keep good relation with his Kith and kin); and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, should talk what is good or keep quiet. " [Sahih Bukhari]

    You (O Muhammad SAW) will not find any people who believe in Allâh and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW ), even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kindred (people). For such He has written Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Rûh (proofs, light and true guidance) from Himself. And We will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein (forever). Allâh is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the Party of Allâh. Verily, it is the Party of Allâh that will be the successful. [Al-Mujadilah 58:22]

    Narrated Salman

    Allah's Messenger  said, "Do not hate me and so abandon your religion." He asked how he could hate him when he was the means by which Allah had guided them, and he replied, "By hating the Arabs and so hating me." [Al-Tirmidhi]

    By Aamir Mughal
  • 11 .

    Literally meaning eligible/suitable/equal, the kufu in its hermeneutical sense, stands for the following: four castes of the ashrafs (Syeds, Sheikhs, Mughals and Pathans) are generally considered suitable marriage partners for each other, making it a complete endogamous affair while the ajlaf (communities based on professions) can marry only among themselves, not the ashrafs. The arzals (the untouchables) form the socially and physically excluded lot of the Muslim society. Moreover, no Jadidul Islam (new converts to Islam) can marry a Qadeemul Islam (a person whose family has been within the pale of Islam for more than a generation), due to the temporal distance which comes to characterize their association with Islam.  [New Age Islam].


    Dear Shaheen Sahab,

    Here goes the Ashraf Theory of Sub-Continent Mullahs and their Fatwas and they as well in Gutter.

    AJLAF OR ASHRAF WIFE [Daughter in Law]

    Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) said:

    "A woman may be married for four reasons: her wealth, her lineage, her beauty or her religion; choose the one who is religious, may your hands be rubbed with dust! [Bukhari and Muslim]


    Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) said:  "If there comes to you one with whose religious commitment and character you are pleased, then marry your daughter to him; if you do not do so, it will be a cause of fitnah and widespread mischief on earth."[Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah]

    By Aamir Mughal
  • 10 .

    Literally meaning eligible/suitable/equal, the kufu in its hermeneutical sense, stands for the following: four castes of the ashrafs (Syeds, Sheikhs, Mughals and Pathans) are generally considered suitable marriage partners for each other, making it a complete endogamous affair while the ajlaf (communities based on professions) can marry only among themselves, not the ashrafs. The arzals (the untouchables) form the socially and physically excluded lot of the Muslim society. Moreover, no Jadidul Islam (new converts to Islam) can marry a Qadeemul Islam (a person whose family has been within the pale of Islam for more than a generation), due to the temporal distance which comes to characterize their association with Islam.  [New Age Islam].


    No Mullah and his Fatwa is Proof [Hujjat] for Muslims when Zainab Bin Juhash {May Allah be pleased with her} who  was paternal cousin of Mohammad {PBUH} and her first marriage was with a freed servant of Mohammad {PBUH}, Zaid Bin Haris {May Allah be pleased with him}. [{Ref: JILA UL IFHAM FIS SALAT WASSALAM ALA KHAIRUL ANAM BY IMAM SHAMSUDDIN ABU ABDULLAH IBN QAYYAM AL-JOZIYA translated by Qazi Muhammad Suleman Salman Mansoorpuri, Fomrer Session Judge Patyala India}

    Allah says...

    And it becometh not a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His messenger have decided an affair (for them), that they should (after that) claim any say in their affair; and whoso is rebellious to Allah and His messenger, he verily goeth astray in error manifest. And when thou saidst unto him on whom Allah hath conferred favour and thou hast conferred favour: Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear Allah. And thou didst hide in thy mind that which Allah was to bring to light, and thou didst fear mankind whereas Allah hath a better right that thou shouldst fear Him. So when Zeyd had performed that necessary formality (of divorce) from her, We gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth) there may be no sin for believers in respect of wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them. The commandment of Allah must be fulfilled. There is no reproach for the Prophet in that which Allahmaketh his due. That was Allah's way with those who passed away of old - and the commandment of Allah is certain destiny - Who delivered the messages of Allah and feared Him, and feared none save Allah. Allah keepeth good account. Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is ever Aware of all things. [AL-AHZAB (THE CLANS, THE COALITION,THE COMBINED FORCES) Chapter 33 Verses 36, 37, 38, 39, 40] That Rascal Sufi Ali Hajveri aka Data Ganj Bukhsh [through the source of notorious Tabari who in his Tarikh al-Tabari (History of the Prophets and Kings) and Tafsir al-Tabari - Commentary on Quran cocncocted this lie of Love Story between Mohammad and Zainab (Perish the thought)] of Lahore in his book Kashf al Mahjoob ("Unveiling the Veiled") has repeated the concocted tale of love story of Mohammad and Zainab [Perish the thought] that is being propagated by all an sundry. This Rascal's Shrines is visited by the so-called Muslims of Pakistan to get their work done. Clarification:

    There is no such thing as adopted son or daughter in Islam. Zaid and Zainab had differences with each other like normal couple but they couldn't live as happy couple therefore Zaid divorced her. Mohammad tried to intervene for compromise b/w husband and wife but Zainab was not ready to compromise therefore the Allah ordered in Quran {Verse: 37 Soorah Al-Ahzab-The Confederates} to marry with Zainab, then Mohammad married with Zainab. It is further mentioned here that Zainab marriage with Zaid was itself conducted and arranged by Mohammad {PBUH}. [{Ref: JILA UL IFHAM FIS SALAT WASSALAM ALA KHAIRUL ANAM BY IMAM SHAMSUDDIN ABU ABDULLAH IBN QAYYAM AL-JOZIYA translated by Qazi Muhammad Suleman Salman Mansoorpuri, Fomrer Session Judge Patyala India}
    By Aamir Mughal
  • 9 .

    Literally meaning eligible/suitable/equal, the kufu in its hermeneutical sense, stands for the following: four castes of the ashrafs (Syeds, Sheikhs, Mughals and Pathans) :


    Dear Sultan Sahab,

    What a Tragedy for Muslim [who at the drop of hat claim Paradise and give Tidings of Hell to Non-Muslims]

    Let me Unveil this Muslim Ashraf [Elite] Class of United India

    Let me start with Mughals.

    Late. Agha Shorish Kashmiri  had written a book [I am forgetting the name of book it was either Us Bazar Mein ya Uss Kochay Mein] about Brothels [Kothas] in the Sub-Continent and he had written that Mughals promoted this Chakla [Brothels Culture in India] wherever they established their Forts and Palaces.

    This Khota Culture was further promoted by the Muslim Elite Class of Uttar Pradesh specifically Lucknow and Dehli as well [Lahore in Pakistan is not far behind] in the garb of Institutions of Etiquette [Yaani - Tehzeeb O Tammadun Ga Gehwara]

    Let me remind you about two books [fine books you must read them]

    1- Yadoon Ki Baraat [Memoirs by an Indian then Pakistani Poet] by Late. Josh Maleehabadi [Urdu]


    2- Lihaf [Quilt] by Late. Ms. Ismat Chughtai [Urdu]

    Last chapters of Yaadon Ki Baraat carry numerous love affairs of Shabbir Hassan Khan aka Josh Maleehabadi where in he gave a very grpahic description of love with at least two boys and several married and unmarried ladies. Josh Sahab Romanticised Brothel/Kotha Life of UP and Delhi in his memoirs saying that


    These institutions are the citadel of culture and etiquette. We send our younger male to learn etiquette.


    Now tell me is it allow in Indian or Pakistani Culture? Would Josh Sahab or any other honourable person would have sent his younger son to learn etiquette in Brothel. If that is so then why this honour was just restricted to Male Member of Nawab Class of UP, they should have sent their Mother, Daughters and Sisters there to teach all and sundry the etiquette. Do read a book on this Filth [Kotha Culture and Brothel Culture] Us Koochay Mein by Agha Shorish Kashmiri.

    Lihaf [Quilt] by Late. Ms. Ismat Chughtai is written on Lesbianism amongst Nawabzadis [Elite in Lucknow, UP India] and Homosexuality amongst male Nawabs of Lucknow. Now tell me is it allow in Indian and Pakistani culture to even discuss these issues.

    Mughal Dynasty instead of giving Universities and Education gave the gifts of Shrines [EVEN WORST THEN PROSTITUTE'S DEN no matter Ajmer or Nizamuddin Awliya ot millions of others both in Pakistan or India - please justify their existence in the light of Islam even the most redundant and Anti-Islamic Fatawa-e-Alamgiri cannot justify these Mazars], Forts, and Palaces to Indian Sub-Continent they also gave gifts of Brothels [Chakla/Kotha] to Indian sub-continent.

    Do read an indepth book Tareekh-e-Owadh [Lucknow] by Hakeem Muhammad Najamul Ghani Kaanpuri and it will open your eyes as to what had been going around in the so-called Palaces of Nawabs in UP in 17 and 18 Century. Then tell me was that allowed in Indian and Pakistani culture as far as Islamic Point of View is concerned.

    Regarding Ashraf of Pure Islamic Race [in their myopic and tunnel vision bloodline of Turks, Mughals and Arabs was the criteria]

    And if we accept the criteria of Piety [as per Ashraf Theory] where will we place Lofty and Noble Companions [May Allah be pleased with all of them] of the Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] who were Non-Arab like Persian Hazrat Salman Farsi [May Allah be pleased with him], Roman Companion Hazrat Suhaib Rumi [May Allah be pleased with him] and last but not the least Ethiopian Companion Hazrat Bilal Ibn-e-Rabbah [May Allah be pleased with him]. If we apply your Racial and Extremely Prejudiced logic above then we will be denying Quran and Hadith too. I wonder what the Mullahs and Elite Ruling Class were Smoking when they Concocted the Claptrap of Ajlaf and Ahraf.

    O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware. [AL-HUJRAAT (THE PRIVATE APARTMENTS, THE INNER
    APARTMENTS) Chapter 49 Verse 13]

    Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] said in his last sermon:

    "All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black has any superiority over a white except by piety and good action "

    [Last Sermon of Holy Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmed Bin Hanbal (by the way Imam Ahmed was pure Arab and amongst the teachers of Imam Bukhari]

    By Aamir Mughal
  • 8 .

    Myth of Syedzada [Descendants of the Holy Prophet Mohammad - PBUH]:

    The lineage is not the criteria but the piety and what you do are the criteria.

    If the lineage is the criteria of piety then what would one say about Abu Lahab [Paternal Uncle of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH)]

    In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

    The power of Abu Lahab will perish, and he will perish.

    His wealth and gains will not exempt him.

    He will be plunged in flaming Fire,

    And his wife, the wood-carrier,

    Will have upon her neck a halter of palm-fibre.


    The Holy Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said: The people before went astray and were ruined because if a noble person committed theft, they used to leave him but if a weak person among them committed theft, they used to inflict the legal punishment on him. By Allah, if Fatima, the daughter of Mohammad, committed theft, I will cut off her hand. (Agreed upon Hadith).

    Narrated Hazrat Aisha [May Allah be pleased with her]

    Usama approached the Prophet on behalf of a woman (who had committed theft). THE PROPHET SAID, "The people before you were destroyed because they used to inflict the legal punishments on the poor and forgive the rich. By Him in Whose Hand my soul is! If Fatima (the daughter of the Prophet ) did that (i.e. stole), I WOULD CUT OFF HER HAND." [Bukhari]

    In Rajab [Tareekh Al-Islam 1/120], the tenth year of the Prophethood, Abu Talib fell ill and passed away, six months after leaving the confinement at Ash-Sh‘ib. In another version, Abu Talib breathed his last in Ramadan, three days prior to the death of Khadijah [R] . On the authority of Al-Musaiyab, when Abu Talib was on the death bed, the Prophet [pbuh] entered the room where he saw Abu Jahl and ‘Abdullah bin Abi Omaiyah. He requested his uncle:

    "My uncle, you just make a profession that there is no true god but Allâh, and I will bear testimony before Allâh (of your being a believer)".

    Abu Jahl and ‘Abdullah bin Abi Omaiyah addressing him said: "Abu Talib, would you abandon the religion of ‘Abdul-Muttalib? " The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] constantly requested him (to accept his offer), and (on the other hand) was repeated the same statement (of Abu Jahl and ‘Abdullah bin Abi Omaiyah) — till Abu Talib gave his final decision and he stuck to the religion of ‘Abdul-Muttalib and refused to profess that there is no true god but Allâh. Upon this the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] remarked:

    "By Allâh, I will persistently beg pardon for you till I am forbidden to do so (by Allâh)".

    It was then that Allâh, the Magnificent and Glorious revealed this verse:

    "It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allâh’s forgiveness for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh) even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief)." [Al-Qur'an 9:113]

    And it was said to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]:

    "Verily! You (O Muhammad [pbuh]) guide not whom you like." [Al-Qur'an 28:56] [Bukhari 1/548]

    It goes without saying that Abu Talib was very much attached to Muhammad [pbuh] . For forty years, Abu Talib had been the faithful friend — the prop of his childhood, the guardian of his youth and in later life a very tower of defence. The sacrifices to which Abu Talib exposed himself and his family for the sake of his nephew, while yet incredulous of his mission, stamp his character as singularly noble and unselfish. The Prophet [pbuh] did his best to persuade his octogenarian uncle to make profession of the true faith, but he remained obdurate and stuck to the paganism of his forefathers, and thus could not achieve complete success. Al-‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib narrated that he said to the Prophet [pbuh] "You have not been of any avail to your uncle (Abu Talib) (though) by Allâh, he used to protect you and get angry on your behalf." The Prophet [pbuh] said: "He is in a shallow fire, and had it not been for me, he would have been at the bottom of the (Hell) Fire." [Bukhari]

    Abu Sa‘id Al-Khudri narrated that he heard the Prophet [pbuh] say, when the mention of his uncle was made, "I hope that my intercession may avail him, and he be placed in a shallow fire that rises up only to his heels." [Bukhari]

    By Aamir Mughal