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Much of the Chaos, Confusion, Violence, and Sectarian Brutalities Prevalent In Muslim Societies Are Due To Absence of a Tangible Definition of Islam

By Hasan Mahmud, New Age Islam

23 June 2022

Without Defining Islam, Heady Concepts Such As “Islamic Civilization,” “Islamic Law,” “Islamic State,” “Islamic Heritage,” “Islamic Society,” “Islamic Values,” The Profit-Making Business Of “Islamic Banking,” The Absurd “Islamic Medicine,” And Even “Islamic Interpretation Of Dreams” Have Been Established In The Name Of Islam

Main Points:

1.    Today the world at large looks askance at the Muslim society, confused and fearful with an undercurrent of hatred and mistrust.

2.    Failure to define Islam thus essentially means failure to define a Muslim.

3.    It is important to note that the Prophet Muhammad (S) left leadership to the people’s choice, exemplifying one of the basic elements of today’s democracy.

4.    Transforming the meaning of the Quranic word “Sharia” from “Moral Guidance” to “State Law” was one of the major conspiracies against Islam. 

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What Is Islam?

“Keeping in view the several definitions given by the Ulama, need we make any comment except that no two learned divines are agreed on this fundamental. If we attempt our own definition as each learned divine has done and that definition differs from that given by all others, we unanimously go out of the fold of Islam. And if we adopt the definition given by any one of the Ulama, we remain Muslims according to the view of that Alim but Kafirs according to the definition of everyone else.”

The excerpt above is from the Munir Commission Report (led by former Chief Justice Muhammad Munir) that was set up in Pakistan in 1953 to define Islam. The commission worked with top national Islamic scholars for more than two years to define “Islam” and “Muslim.” That was the only formal effort in history to define Islam. Maulana Mawdudi’s (the founding father of modern radical Islam in India in 1941) theist political party, Jamat-e-Islami, had been pressing the government to constitutionally declare the Ahmadi-Muslims as non-Muslims. In 1953, Mawdudi’s leaflet, “The Qadiany Problem,” led to the extermination of about fifteen thousand Ahmadi Muslims in Lahore in just three days. Mawdudi was tried and sentenced to death but was eventually “pardoned” due to Saudi-influence. We note that he stands as a mass-murderer forever because he was only pardoned from judicial execution, but was not acquitted from the charge of mass-murder.     

Much of the chaos, confusion, violence, and sectarian brutalities prevalent in Muslim societies were, and continue to be, due to absence of a tangible definition of Islam.  Today the world at large looks askance at the Muslim society, confused and fearful with an undercurrent of hatred and mistrust. On the contrary, the average Muslim stands much misunderstood by his peers, wringing his hands in perplexity and ignorance! That is why defining Islam is the very first order of things to undo the mischief and violence caused by radical Islam. The gap has deadly consequence. Without defining Islam, heady concepts such as “Islamic civilization,” “Islamic Law,” “Islamic State,” “Islamic heritage,” “Islamic society,” “Islamic values,” the profit-making business of “Islamic Banking,” the absurd “Islamic Medicine,” and even “Islamic interpretation of Dreams” have been established in the name of Islam. In the absence of a clear concept or definition of Islam, how do we define a Muslim? How does a Muslim view himself and on the flip side of the coin, what does the word Muslim evoke or engender in the minds of the non-Muslims? Failure to define Islam thus essentially means failure to define a Muslim.

Nonetheless, Mawdudi wielded such a great influence that some radical Islamists declared that criticizing their party (the political party created by Mawdudi) amounted to criticizing Islam itself. 

Almost all our past and present scholars, scientists and saints including the famous saint Abdul Kader Jilani have been victims of this dictum.   It is important to note that the Prophet Muhammad (S) left leadership to the people’s choice, exemplifying one of the basic elements of today’s democracy. Nevertheless, monarchy captured political power within the 31 years of the Prophet’s demise. The power grabbers knowing that their rules were illegitimate needed to create a distorted definition of Islam to legitimize their rule as Islamic.

So, what is the true Islam as defined by the Quran and the Prophet (S)? 

The Quran’s Definition of Islam

The Quran provides only two methods to define Islam: (1) Defining itself, and, (2) Defining the life mission of all the Prophets.

Now, let’s define the Quran from the Quran itself. Let’s start by comparing the verses from Abdullah Yusuf Ali’s translation and their explanations from Mawlana Mawdudi’s Tafhimul Quran. 

1)       “Say: "That is a Message Supreme” (38:67).  Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

2)       "This is no less than a Message to (all) the Worlds”. (38:87). Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

3)       “Verily this is an Admonition” (73:19) -. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

4)       “This surely is an admonition”. (74:54). Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

5)       “We have made the (Qur'an) a Light”. (42:52). Mawdudi explained other verses but skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

6)       “Rejected apostles before thee, who came with Clear Signs, Books of dark prophecies, and the Book of Enlightenment” (3:184). Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

7)       “Blessed is He who sent down the criterion to His servant, that it may be an admonition to all creatures.” (25:1). Mawdudi says- “The warner may be AI-Furqan or the Holy Prophet to whom it was revealed. In fact, both were the warners because they were both sent for one and the same purpose”. -

8)       “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message.” (15:9). Mawdudi changed the word “Message” that has an established specific meaning to “Term” or “Expression” by saying, “it is We Who have sent this ‘Word.’

9)       “Yet there is among men such a one as disputes about Allah, without Knowledge, without Guidance, and without a Book of Enlightenment.” (22:8). Mawdudi says “Illuminating Book" is “Source of information gained from Divine Revelation”.

10)     “Allah has revealed the most beautiful Message in the form of a Book……. Such is the guidance of Allah.” (39:23). Mawdudi agrees that the Quran is “the best teaching, a self-consistent Book. That is Allah’s Guidance.” 

11)     “For it is indeed a Message of instruction” (80:11). Mawdudi explains – “The allusion is to the Quran”.  

 We now see that the Quran nowhere defines itself as a book of law or state-administration. Rather, it defines itself as: 

•        Book of Light,

•        Divine Guidance

•        A Message Supreme

•        Message to the Worlds

•        Book of Admonition

•        Book of Enlightenment

•        Criterion to His servant

•        Admonition to all creatures, and

•        Beautiful Message in the form of a Book and Guidance 

It is interesting to note that like all other radical Islamists, Mawdudi either skipped those crucial verses, or was forced to support them since the verses are so clear and precise that, unfortunately for the radicals, it left absolutely no scope for twisting or “improvement”! Dabbing the Quran with the brush of politics was one of the most serious betrayals to the Quran. Transforming the meaning of the Quranic word “Sharia” from “Moral Guidance” to “State Law” was one of the major conspiracies against Islam.  Imam Bukhari’s compilation of Sahib Hadiths—that stands next to the Quran in stature—proclaimed that the Quran was not a book of law. 

The Quran addressed numerous instances of real life issues pertaining to specific people, period, and the geographical location in which Islam was born. Prophets appeared among people who, far from being civilized, were essentially barbaric in nature. Prophets by their very nature are stern disciplinarians and bring winds of change in their wake, so it is not surprising that the vast Quran contains few verses of social rulings and crime-punishments. But does that make the Quran a book of State law? To be clear, the Quran also speaks of the stars and the earth, which does not make it a book of astronomy or geography, does it?

We can draw a parallel here. A history book may contain financial systems of by-gone societies, does that make it a book of finance? Thus, most of Quran’s and Prophet’s social rulings, chastisements or punishments are purely contextual and cannot be applied to present day society. The Quran, by its own definition, is much vaster in scope than narrow political or State rulings. Sharia-Stalwarts have abrogated or changed many such rulings; this will be discussed in another chapter.

Next, the Quran also consistently defines the mission of all prophets as only “preachers” and never as political rulers. Their political ruling or other activities were circumstantial, not part of their faith. Now, we will once again compare those verses from the translation of Abdullah Yusuf Ali and the explanations of the verses by Mawlana Mawdudi. We will see that just like he did with the Quranic verses defining the Quran shown above, Mawdudi had either supported or completely skipped explaining these crucial verses about all Prophets’ life-mission.  Indeed, there are some apparently contradictory verses that radical Islamists take advantage of; we will discuss those in the chapter on arguments of radical Islamists. 

1.       “Apostles only to give good news and to warn.” Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

2.       “Therefore, do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish.” Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 88:21)

3.       “Thou art not one to manage (men's) affairs”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 88:22)

4.       Say: "O ye men! …. I am not (set) over you to arrange your affairs.".  Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 10:108)

5.       “Our Messenger’s duty to proclaim (the message) in the clearest manner”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 5:92)

6.       “The Messenger’s duty is but to proclaim (the message)”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 5:99)

7.       “But what is the mission of apostles but to preach the Clear Message?”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 16:35)

8.       ““verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way”.  Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.  (Quran 15:89)

9.       “He is but a perspicuous warner”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.  (Quran 7:184)

10.     “But if they turn away, thy duty is only to preach the clear Message”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 16:82)

11.     “It is not required of thee (O Messenger., to set them on the right path, but Allah sets on the right path whom He pleaseth”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 2:272)

12.     “Verily We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner”. (Quran 2:119) Mawdudi did not contradict it.

13.     “Verily We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner”. (Quran 2:119) Mawdudi did not contradict.

14.     “Messenger, who gave good news as well as warning, that mankind, after (the coming) of the apostles, should have no plea against Allah”. (Quran 4:165). Mawdudi did not contradict.

15.     “Truly We have sent thee as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner, And as one who invites to Allah’s (grace) by His leave, and as a lamp spreading Light.” (Quran 33:45 & 46) Mawdudi supported it.

16.     “We made thee not one to watch over their doings, nor art thou set over them to dispose of their affairs”. (Quran 6:107) Mawdudi also said, “It is emphasized that the Prophet (peace be on him) is only required to preach the Truth and try to call people to embrace it. His responsibility ends at that for he is, after all, not their warden”.

17.     “I am but a Warner open and clear." (Quran 46:9).  Mawdudi supports it by saying, “My only mission is that I should present the right way before the people, and should warn of an evil end those who do not accept it.”

18.     “But if any turn away, we have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds)”. (Quran 4:80) Mawdudi supports it. “The task entrusted to the Prophet (peace be on him) was merely to communicate to them the ordinances and directives of God and he acquitted himself of it very well. It was not his duty to compel them to follow the right way.”

19.     “Say: "Not mine is the responsibility for arranging your affairs.” (Quran 6:66) Mawdudi also says, “His task is merely to proclaim Truth as distinct from falsehood.”

20.     “Thy duty is to make (the Message) reach them: it is our part to call them to account.” (Quran 13:40) Mawdudi supported it.

21.     “'Only this has been revealed to me: that I am to give warning plainly and publicly." (Quran 38:70) Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.

22.     “Thou art no other than a warner.”  (Quran 35:23).  Mawdudi said, “Your only duty is to warn the people and nothing else.”

23.     “But thee We only sent to give glad tidings and admonition.” (Quran 25:56)

24.     “We only send the apostles to give Glad Tidings and to give warnings.”  (Quran 18:56). Mawdudi translates as, “The only mission for which We send the Messengers is to convey good news and stern warning.”

25.     “We have not sent thee as a guard over them. Thy duty is but to convey (the Message) …. “Verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way.”  (Quran 42:48 & 52) This chapter has 53 verses but Mawdudi’s Tafhimul Quran ends with verse 29.   

26.     “We made thee not one to watch over their doings, nor art thou set over them to dispose of their affairs.” (Quran 6:107). Mawdudi says, “the Prophet (peace be on him) is only required to preach the Truth and try to call people to embrace it. His responsibility ends at that for he is, after all, not their warden.”

Mawdudi knew well that his political version of Islam violates the verses above, thus, he tried to defeat these verses by saying:

“Although this is a very simple and clear interpretation of verse 56 (and of similar other verses), yet some people erroneously conclude from it that the only duty and responsibility of the Prophet is to convey the Message and nothing else. They forget that the Qur'an has stressed over and over again that the Prophet is not only a giver of good news to the Believers but he is also their teacher, their lawgiver, judge and guide, a purifier of their morals and a model of life for them, and that every word which he utters is law which they have to obey and follow willingly in all walks of life and for all times to come”. (Explanation of 25:56)

Mawdudi never proposed a tangible rationale of the contradiction among these three identities of the Prophet: notably (1) as a preacher without force, (2) as a governor by the force of laws, and (3) as a model of life.

By saying, “obey and follow willingly in all walks of life and for all times to come,” he ignores that many of Prophet’s rulings are contextual, although in other places Mawdudi stressed on contextual nature of Quranic verses and Prophet’s rulings.  

In the minds of their followers, the image of the Prophets loomed tall and formidable as mighty preachers and not as Presidents or military generals. It is true that a few prophets like Prophet Yusuf and Prophet David did rule over kingdoms, but it was purely circumstantial. Prophet Yusuf was given a kingdom by the ruler of Egypt and King Talut of Bani Israel bequeathed a kingdom to Prophet David and his son Suleiman (Solomon) inherited it.  Conducting politics, waging wars, or running an administration are never conditions of Prophethood. Our early Imams knew it well; they did not assume political positions even after repeated propositions, pressure and even torture by the Caliphs. Imam Malik’s life illustrates this. He was approached by the Caliph with two proposals:

1)       To enact his Book of Law as State Law (Imam Malik wrote only few laws anyway).

2)       To hang his book of Law in the Holy Ka’aba.

His intentions were obvious. He wanted to legitimize his rule as “Islamic” since having it in the Ka’aba means to have divine sanction. However, Imam Malik never fell into the wily trap of the Caliph, and because of his refusals he was repeatedly persecuted. His visionary reply still can serve as a beacon of light to Muslims everywhere when he said, “I am Imam here. In other places, they have their Imams.” We must follow imams of our time, not copycat the past.    

All the four Sharia-Imams never claimed their laws as “Allah’s Law”. When Imam Shafi’i was asked about his legal opinion, he averred, “we are under obligation to arrive at the right answers according to us.”   He clearly implied that it is solely his judgment and not the word of God. It should also be noted that it was applicable to one particular issue confined to that period of time and place. That is why the social edicts of different Prophets were different as they lived during different time periods, as even Mawdudi admits. 

Prophet Defines Islam

Many myths entered Islam as it happened with other faiths. Many Muslims believe that Prophet (S) (1) was made of light, (2) didn’t have shadow, (3) could see behind, and (3) insects couldn’t sit on his body (among other qualities).  However, in many verses, the Quran, described all Prophets as human beings with some divine responsibilities that never included establishing a political state. Prophet (S) also supported it. Allow me to provide a quote to reference this:

Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him) happened to pass by the people who had been busy in grafting the trees. Thereupon he said: If you were not to do it, it might be good for you. (So they abandoned this practice) and there was a decline in the yield. He (the Holy Prophet) happened to pass by them (and said): What has gone wrong with your trees? They said: You said so and so. Thereupon he said: You have better knowledge (of a technical skill) in the affairs of the world. 

There are scores of documents in existence that show, without a shadow of a doubt, that Prophet himself defined Islam which unequivocally excluded political overtones or the idea of creating states in the name of God. In other words, an “Islamic State” was far from the mind of our Prophet as an essential part of Islamic faith. Given below are a few examples which amply exemplify the above.

1)       “He (angel Gabriel) said O Muhammad!  Tell me about Islam. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: Islam is to testify that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the Zakat (Islamic tax), to fast in Ramadan and to make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so.” 

2)       One day the Angel Gabriel came to Prophet and asked – “O Muhammad!  What is Islam?” He replied – “Islam is – worship Allah without any partner, establish prayer, observe the Islamic tax (Zaka’at).” 

3)       “The representative of a tribe came to the Prophet and asked – ‘O Prophet! Please give us some instruction that will enable us to go to heaven’. He said – (1) Promise and accept that none but Allah is to be worshipped and Muhammad (SA) is His Prophet, (2) Establish prayer perfectly, (3) Pay the Islamic Tax (4) Fast in the month of Ramadan and (5) pay one fifth of war-booty. He also said – “Memorize these instructions well and tell everybody when you go back.”

Here is the path to Heaven clearly delineated by our Prophet. He underscores this by instructing the tribal representative to memorize these 5 dictums and to tell everyone!  Prophets, as you can imagine, are giants among men and thus natural leaders. So, it is not surprising, that it has been their lot to arbitrate among men, to chastise, or to pass judgments now and then. But, did the Prophet ever ask anyone to memorize his social or judicial decisions and convey to others?  The answer is an emphatic, “No!” This clearly indicates that some of the issues he dealt with, or on which he passed judgment, is true to that situation only and not universally applicable!

Fabricated Definition of Islam

As there was little scope for insertion of texts in the Quran, they did the next best thing. A vast swath of “Prophet’s examples” (Hadith) were fabricated to create and legitimize the fabricated Islam. It was a brilliant move actually. Our six Imams collected about 2.3 million such Hadiths, rejected about 98.98% of them, and aggregated only 1.02% (23,346 Hadiths) in six compilations.”  To demonstrate these fabrications, one glaring example should suffice. In the statement attributed to our Prophet in which he says that we would never go astray if we hold on steadfastly to what he is leaving behind, there is glaring evidence of these fabrications. There are three different reports of his last sermon about it.

1)       Prophet Left Behind the Quran and His Sunnah (Sunni Version):

“The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “I have left two things among you, as long as you hold fast to them, you will never go astray. They are the Book of Allah (Quran) and the Sunnah of His Messenger.” 

2)       Prophet Left Behind the Quran and His Progeny (Shiite Version):

“I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household.”

3)       Prophet Left Behind Only Quran:

“I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray.”

“I have left among you, which if you hold fast, you will not go astray. It is Allah’s Book (the Holy Qur’an).” 

“God’s Book is enough for us.” (Caliph Omar)

Clearly, all of the three cannot be true; either all or two of them are false. The Quran repeatedly proclaims itself as a simple, clear, and complete Book.  So, it does not take much contemplation to understand which of these statements is correct. I am not discarding Hadiths at all. Indeed, Hadiths are a unique literature of humankind. It is an important source of understanding the theological-social dynamics of that society. Many Islamic rituals came from Hadiths too, but that does not take Hadith to the level of divinity like the Quran, because there is no built-in mechanism to detect or stop the abuse of Hadiths.  

Had an Islamic State been a part of the Islamic faith, our four Jurist Imams  would certainly have joined the political power. Islamic preachers also knew this very well. They established Islam in vast areas of the world, albeit they refrained from establishing Sharia Law or Islamic State. Many of them were fantastic fighters. Moved by the people’s pleas, many of the preachers had fought and defeated torturous kings. Assuming political power could have helped them in the difficult task of preaching and spreading Islam, however, none, simply none of them, did so and it is generally the same story from Sind to Indonesia. Here are a few examples from the history of Bengal, a country in which about 89% of the inhabitants are Muslims. 

Preachers

Defeated Kings

Location

Shah Jalal

Gourh Gobinda

Sylhet

Shah Nekmordan

Veemraj

Dinajpur

Jaffor Khan Gazi

Man Nripoti

Dinajpur

Peer Badruddeen

King Mohesh

Dinajpur

Shah Badruddeen

Mog robbers

Chittagong

(A) Sultan Balkhi

King Balaram

Harirampur

(B) Sultan Balkhi

King Porshuram

Bogura

Kattal Peer

Mog Robbers

Chittagong

Borkhan Gazi           

King Mukut Roy

Jessore

Shah Mahmud

Bikrom Keshori

**place not confirmed

 

These early Imams and preachers strictly adhered to the definition of Islam given by the Quran and Prophet, and never subscribed to the radical Islam created through conspiracy. History is witness to the fact that people in countries from Sind to Indonesia enjoyed a peaceful state of Islam for centuries. If it was possible then, could it not be made a reality today?

Related Article:   Defeating Theological Construct of Radical Islam: Excerpts from the Book ‘How Sharia-Ism Hijacked Islam’

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Munir Commission Report 227, (1954) available at http://Hudud.thepersecution.org/dl/report_1953.pdf.  “Alim” means Islamic scholar (singular) while Ulama/ulema means Islamic scholars (plural). “Kafir” means Non-Muslim (author).

  S. Abul Ala Maududi, The Qadiani Problem, Islamic Publications, available at http://Hudud.scribd.com/doc/2591432/04-The-Qadiani-Problem.

  Report of the Court of Inquiry constituted under Punjab Act II of 1954.

  Meaning of Dreams in Islam, available at http://Hudud.experiencefestival.com/a/Meaning_of_Dreams_in_Islam/id/52705.

  Speech of late Matiur Rahman Nizami the ex-Ameer of Bangladesh Jamate Islami - The Daily Star 01 April 2005.

  He was declared an apostate by 2000 clergy led by Imam Houj- Preface of “Fathul Goyob” – a compilation of Sufi   Jilani’s speeches.

  QURAN 3:184, 6:90, 38:67, 87, 42:52, 73:19, 74:54, 15:9, 22:8, 25:1 and 39:23.

  QURAN JASHIYAH 18. See also Mayeda 48 and Ash Shura 13.

  Bukhari Al, ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, (1983). Imam Bukhari’s (810 – 870 AD) compilation of Sahi Hadiths is regarded as one of the most respectable Hadith collections.

  Quran Araf 7:184. See also e.g., Kahf 18:56; Ahzab 33:45; Gashiyah 88:21, 22; Anam 6:107; Ra’ad 13:40; Nisa 4:80, 165; Tawba 9:51; Bakara 2:119, 272; Nahl 16:82; Sa’ad 38:65, 70;  Fatir 35:23, 24; Ahkwaf 46:9; Anam 6:52, 66; Ash Shura 42:48; Yunus 10:108; Kwahf 29; Mayeda 5:92, 93; Hijr 15:89.

  Kasasul Anbia – Vol 1 – page 259; Vol 2 – page 62.

  Al-Shafii’s Risala – translated by Majid Khadduri.- page 292.

  Explanation of Quran 5:49, available at http://Hudud.tafheem.net/main.html.

  Sahi Muslim Book 030 – 5832.

  AN-NAWAWI’S FORTY HADITH, translated by Dr. Izzedin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson-Davies, Islamic Book Service, (2007).

  CODIFIED ISLAMIC LAW 498, (Vol. 2) – with reference to Sahi Bukhari, Muslim, and Miskat.

  Sahi Bukhari, No. 12, (translated by Hafiz Abdul Jalil).

  AKHTAR SHERAJI AND SAFDAR AGHA, THE QURANIC CONCEPT OF NIKAH (WEDLOCK) VS. RELIGIOUS PROSTITUTION 423, Quranic Education & Research, (2005).

  Tarikh Al Tabari Vol. 9 page 113.

  Sahi Muslim Hadith 5920, available at http://Hudud.iium.edu.my/deed/hadith/muslim/031_smt.html.

  Sahi Muslim, Vol. 7-2803 and 5922, available at http://Hudud.iium.edu.my/deed/hadith/muslim/007_smt.html.

  Sahi Ibn Majah, Vol. 4–3078. See also Muwatta 46/3; Muslim 44/4; Muslim 15/19.

  Sahi Bukhari, Vol. 1-114.

  Quran chapter Anam 59. See also e.g., Yunus 61; Nahl 89; Bakara 221; Kahf 1; Bani Israel 9, 41; Kamar 17, 22, 32, 40; Imran 118.

  Imams Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi’i, and Hanbal.

  The World Factbook, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, Hudud.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html, last accessed 15 April 2017.

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Related Article:   Defeating Theological Construct of Radical Islam: Excerpts from the Book ‘How Sharia-Ism Hijacked Islam’

 

URL:    https://newageislam.com/islamic-society/violence-sectarian-brutalities-muslim-definition/d/127299

 

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