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Islamic Ideology (28 Mar 2019 NewAgeIslam.Com)

The Concept of God’s Sovereignty (Hakimiyyah): Extremist Islamists Vs Mainstream Muslims

By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam

28 March 2019

The extremist Islamists believe that Muslims have abandoned implementation of God’s Hakimiyyah (roughly translated as ‘dominion’ or ‘sovereignty’) in their countries, specifically the rule of Islamic law, and accepted implementation of man-made law; which is an act of shirk (polytheism). They hold the view that loyalty to any authority or sovereignty other than God’s Hakimiyyah is polytheism and paganism and that any Muslims supporting this ‘polytheism’ should be killed and defeated through ‘Jihad’. This idea resulted into mass destruction throughout Muslim countries, especially Syria and Iraq.

In his Arabic book titled “Al-Haqq Al-Mubin Fi al-Radd Ala Man Tala’ab bi Al-deen (The Lucid Truth In Refutation Of Those Who Manipulate The Religion)”, Sheikh Usama Al-Sayed Al-Azhari (an Azhari scholar, preacher, expert in Hadith, Logic, Islamic Creed, a Senior Fellow of Kalam Research and Media, and a teacher in the Faculty of Usul Al-Din and Da’wah at Al-Azhar University, Egypt) writes,

الفكرة المحورية التي تأسست عليها بقية مفاهيم التيارات الإسلامية هي فكرة الحاكمية، فإنها هي الجذر الذي نهضت على أساسه منظومتهم الفكرية بكل مقولاتها ومفاهيمها وفروعها ومنها تولدت بقية مفاهيمهم:  فانبثقت منها فكرة: شرك الحاكمية وتوحيد الحاكمية عند سيد قطب وأخيه محمد قطب ، وتولدت من ذالك فكرة العصبة المؤمنة وفكرة الوعد الإلهي لهذه العصبة المؤمنة وفكرة الجاهلية التي هي حالة بقية المسلمين ، وفكرة المفاصلة والتمايز الشعوري بين الفئتين وفكرة الاستعلاء من العصبة المؤمنة على الجاهلية وأهلها وفكرة حتمية الصدام بين الفئتين عند سيد قطب لإقامة الخلافة ، وفكرة التمكين إلى آخر شجرة المفاهيم التي نتجت من قضية الحاكمية والتي تتكون من مجموعها نظرية متكاملة داخل عقل تلك التيارات.

“The central idea on which the rest of the concepts of extremist Islamist movements were founded is the idea of Hakimiyyah. It is the root on which their intellectual system was established, with all its sayings, concepts and branches. It is from this idea that Sayyid Qutb and his brother Muhammad Qutb extracted the concept of Shirk al-Hakimiyyah and Tauheed al-Hakimiyyah. This idea gave rise to the necessity of “al-Usbah al-Muminah” (‘a selected body of Jihadist believers’) and the idea of divine promise [of victory] for this ‘Usbah Muminah’. It declared that the common Muslims are living in the state of Jahiliyyah (ignorance). This also led to the idea of separation and subliminal distinction between the two groups (Muslims and West), the idea of dominance of ‘Usbah Muminah’ over the people of Jahiliyyah, the idea of inevitable clash between the two groups at the time of Sayyid Qutb so as to establish the caliphate, and the idea of ‘tamkin’ associated with all other concepts that emanate from the concept of Hakimiyyah and that consists of a comprehensive theory integrated within the mind of these extremist movements”

The extremist movements held the concept of ‘Hakimiyyah’ to mean that dominance should be exercised over ‘the Muslims living in the state of Jahiliyyah’ and that fighting against such Muslims should be waged.

Where did this concept of Hakimiyyah come from and how it exacerbated other problems for Muslims? Sheikh Al-Azhari opines that such concepts came from Sayyid Qutb’s book of Tafsir, “Fi Zilal al-Quran” (In the Shade of The Quran) and other books of him, such as “Ma’alim fi al-Tariq” stem their roots from “Fi Zilal al-Quran”.

Dr. Yusuf Qardhawi also holds the view that the concept of doing Takfir of Muslims today does not emanate only from ‘Ma’alim fi al-Tariq’ but rather its foundational principle is deeply rooted in the books, such as ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’ and “Al-‘Adalah al-Ijtimaiyyah fi al-Islam” (Y. al-Qaradawi, Ibn al-Qarya wal-Kuttab, Malamih Sira wa-Masira, vol.3, p.69, Dar al-Shuruq, Cairo 2008)

Salih Sirriya, in his book ‘Risala al-Iman’, does takfir of the Muslim rulers, describes common Muslims as Jahiliyyah community and declares their state ‘Dar al-Harb’. He further says, “The present governance in all Muslim countries is undoubtedly the infidel governance and the communities in all these countries are Jahiliyya (ignorant).” This book stems its root from Sayyid Qutb’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’.

Shukri Mustafa and his group of Islamicists “Al-Takfir wal Hijra”, which became a modern version of the Kharijites, took inspiration from Sayyid Qutb’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’.

Mohammad Abdul Salam Farag, who was one of the main figures of extremism and Jihadism and a former member of the Muslim Brotherhood, wrote a short book titled “Al-Farida al-Ghaiba” in order to strengthen his “Jihadist movement” against the modern Muslim state. Salam Farag was greatly inspired by Sayyid Qutub’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’.

Similarly the modern Kharijite outfit ‘ISIS’ got its inspiration from Sayyid Qutb’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’. Touching upon this subject, Turki ibn Mubarak al-Binali wrote a book titled “Al-Lafz al-Sani fi Tarjimat al-Adnani” about the second leading man of ISIS, Abu Muhammad al-‘Adnani. In this book al-Binali writes,

“Adnani took influence from Sayyid Qutb’s book of Tafsir “Fi Zilal al-Quran” which was one of his favourites. He studied it systematically for twenty years. During one of the lessons he went through the Tafsir of the Quranic verse, “Whoever does not judge with what Allah has revealed; those are the infidels” (Surah Maidah:44). He asked one of his colleagues, what are the sources of the Syrian constitution? What is the legislative authority? What is the executive and judicial authority? When the colleague replied, Adnani then asked: so our government is infidel? The cleric left. That was his way of debating issues”. Adnani later joined ISIS and became one of its leading spokesmen.

It becomes crystal clear from the above that ISIS is a new wave of Takfirism greatly inspired by Sayyid Qutub’s “Fi Zilal al-Quran”. Sheikh Usama Al-Azhari writes, “Sayyid Qutb took inspiration, while holding this concept of Hakimiyyah, intrinsically from the concept of Abul ‘Ala al-Maududi’ (the founder of Jamat-e-Islami). Sayyid Qutb dedicated all his efforts to promotion of this concept through his writings and speeches, and made it a complete ideology of Takfir”.

Sheikh Al-Azhari further writes, “Following in the footsteps of Sayyid Maududi, Sayyid Qutb established the concept of Hakimiyyah, as a result of wrong understanding of the Divine statement “Whoever does not judge with what Allah has revealed; those are the infidels” (Surah Maidah:44)”, From this verse, Sayyid Qutb deduced the meaning that the person who does not implement the Islamic Laws is a Kafir, even though he believes in the creed of righteousness of Islamic laws based on the Divine revelation and even though he is unable to implement them for any reason whatsoever.”(Al-Haqq Al-Mubin Fi al-Radd Ala Man Tala’ab bi Al-deen, Arabic, p.27).

In his book “Al-Adalah al-Ijtimayyiah (Social Justice)”, Sayyid Qutb writes, “Islamic society today is not Islamic in any sense of the word. We have already quoted a verse from the Quran that cannot in any way be honestly applied today: “Whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed is a Kafir (5:44)”

Thus, Sayyid Qutb and Sayyid Maududi set a dangerous precedent, rejecting the validity of a Muslim’s belief in Islam because one simply fails to implement the Islamic laws. Sheikh Azhari opines that this concept of Sayyid Qutb and Maududi is very strange and leads to extremism, narrowness and Takfirism, because it describes the implementation of Hakimiyyah as a new article of faith and does the Takfir of the people who simply fail to implement it for any reason; this is the theology of Kharijites.

In one of his comments, Mr. Sultan Shahin, Founding Editor of New Age Islam writes, “Even Sayyid Qutb was inspired by Maulana Maududi’s work on Hakimiyyah and his concept of Iqamat e Deen as an essential religious duty for Muslims. He used terms like Taghut and Jahiliyah too, which have both become very popular in Islamist extremist circles. He forced the secular modern state of Pakistan to say Shahada through the objectives resolution that was largely a fruit of his writings. He considered Irtidad (apostasy) as treason because he considers Islam as a State. For him Islam and State are synonymous. He became so influential that even a Shia society like Iran converted its state to Islam. Never before Pakistan and Iran has there been a tradition in Islamic history of calling a state Islamic. Now this demand is being made even in Malaysia and Indonesia quite vigorously”.

The Concept of Hakimiyyah among Mainstream Muslims

The doctrine of mainstream Muslim scholars of all generations including the holy companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is contrary to that of Sayyid Qutb, Sayyid Maududi and Kharijite groups. The Muslim scholars, Sheikh Azhari opines, went through a number of statements and directions in order to understand the Quranic verse (5:44). He says, “The most preferred and accepted view with regard to implication of the verse is that ‘whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, denying its divinity, faith and truthfulness is indeed a Kafir. As for the Muslim who believes that this verse is truth, divine revelation and divine command but fails to implement its message, he is not a Kafir.

Imam Fakhruddin Razi said in “Al-Tafsir al-Kabir”, “Ikrimah said, the ruling of Takfir, as mentioned in the divine statement “whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed is a Kafir”, applies to the one who denies the truth of the revealed law of Allah in his heart and by his tongue.  As for the person who believes in the truth of the revealed law of Allah in his heart and acknowledges by his tongue that it is the revealed law of Allah, however he acts against it, he will be regarded as the believer of what Allah revealed, but he will be known simply as a non-practicing believer in this case, and it is therefore he will not be considered a Kafir according to this verse”. After quoting this statement, Imam Razi said, “This is the correct answer”. (Imam Razi, Al-Tafsir al-Kabir, 5:44)

The similar answer has been given by Imam Ghazali in “Al-Mustasfa” and by Imam Abu Muhammad b. Atiyya al-Andalusi in “Al-Muharrir al-Wajiz”. Sheikh Usama Al-Azhari writes, “Having studied the explanations of mainstream jurists, we come to know that Ibn Masu’d, Ibn Abbas, Barra bin ‘Aazib, Huzaifa bin al-Yaman, Ibrahim al-Nakh’I, Al-Sudai, Al-Dahhak, Abu Salih, Abu Mujlaz, Ikrimah, Qatadah, ‘Aamir, Al-Sha’abi, ‘Ataa, Taaus and then Imam Tabari in “Jami’ al-Bayan”, Imam Ghazali in “Al-Mustasfa”, Ibn Atiyya in “Al-Muharrir al-Wajiz”, Imam Razi in “Mafatih al-Ghaib”, Qurtubi, Ibn Jazi in “Al-Tashil”, Abu Hayyan in “Al-Bahr al-Muheet”, Ibn Kathir in “Tafsir al-Quran al-Azeem”, Aalusi in “Ruh al-Ma’ani”, Tahir bin ‘Aashur in “Al-Tahrir w al-Tanwir” and Sheikh Sha’arawi in his Tafsir- all such Islamic scholars unanimously agree with the same commentary of the verse 5:44. (as mentioned above with reference to Imam Razi’s Al-Tafsir al-Kabir).” .”(Al-Haqq Al-Mubin Fi al-Radd Ala Man Tala’ab bi Al-Deen, Arabic, p.23)

On the contrary to these mainstream Muslim scholars, it is Sayyid Qutb who declared that the understanding of these scholars is deviant and concocted. Both Sayyid Qutub and Maulana Maududi played a pivotal role in restoring Kharijite theology according to which, Muslim rulers who did not abide by the Quran were disbelievers and because of their apostasy, they should be deposed. Azariqa, the most extremist sub-sect of Kharijites, which followed the leadership of Nafi’ Ibn Azraq, stressed that apostates should be killed. However mainstream Sunni theologians separated faith and works, responding to the Kharijite ideology by substantiating the view that a “grave sinner cannot be excluded from the community” even if his actions were sinful. Salah Nasr associated Sayyid Qutb’s ideology with extremism of the Kharijites, depicting him as a severe threat to the stability of state and its social well-being, as someone who fully disagreed with the wise consensus of Muslim generations.

A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar), with a Sufi-Sunni background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator. He has also done B.A (Hons.) in Arabic, M.A. in Arabic and M.A in English from JMI, New Delhi. He is Interested in Islamic Sciences; Theology, Jurisprudence, Tafsir, Hadith and Islamic mysticism (Tasawwuf).

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-ideology/ghulam-ghaus-siddiqi,-new-age-islam/the-concept-of-god’s-sovereignty-(hakimiyyah)--extremist-islamists-vs-mainstream-muslims/d/118154

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  • Now will be in their list.
    By KLD - 10/16/2019 7:40:02 AM

  • Recently, the Secretary of the Publications (Tasneefi Academy) at Jamaat-e-Islami Hind Maulana Muhiuddin Ghazi Falahi (graduate of the Jama’at-affiliated Jamiatul Falah, Balarya Ganj) delivered a Friday sermon at Masjid Isha’at-e-Islam, Markaz, Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, New Delhi on 23/08/2019. It was widely shared on Facebook with the title "Don't fear, Prepare” with 17,593 views as of now. In this Khutba, he attempted to instigate religious passions and 'power of faith' (imaan) in the worshipers to “prepare with all resources available”, though he did not dare to clearly state the purpose of the ‘desired preparation’. However, he has hinted at what Muslims ‘suffering cruelty’ in the present times should do: "prepare for winning the war with all resources available".

    By GRD - 10/16/2019 1:01:45 AM

  • mr naseer ahmed at last has come completely unhinged.
    with zero takers for his "logic", he is probably this close to prophethood.
    but today there are good medicines. they can help.

    By hats off! - 4/5/2019 5:12:19 PM

  • Naseer sb. is back on his soap box, peddling his usual distortions. He says, "If he obeys the commands of Allah, then by his own saying he is acting under compulsion." I was not referring to the commands of Allah but to threats of dire punishments, which would make religion a compulsion, hence rendering such threats to be not divine but man-made intrusions.
    Naseer sb. says, "He was trying to prove that there is compulsion in religion and Allah is wrong in saying that "there is no compulsion"."
    On the contrary, I do believe that the words "there is no compulsion in religion" are from God, hence all threats of punishments for one's beliefs or disbeliefs on the Day of Judgement are man-made elaborations that run counter to God's injunction.
    It seems your evasive tactics include systematic lying about and misrepresenting my comments. 

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 4/5/2019 12:26:06 PM

  • When GM sb is rendered speechless, he calls the other clever or whatever! He has no answer to my questions. And how can he answer them? If he obeys the commands of Allah, then by his own saying he is acting under compulsion, and if he does not obey, then by his own saying he is a disbeliever! He was trying to act clever and is caught in his own web. This is just a sample of what would happen on the Day of Judgment. Each sinner will be accused and condemned by his own self.

    He was trying to prove that there is compulsion in religion and Allah is wrong in saying that "there is no compulsion". What arrogance questioning the Ayats of Allah and how easily deflated!

    By Naseer Ahmed - 4/5/2019 3:45:29 AM

  • Naseer sb. has cleverly avoided answering the question that I had asked, which was: "What is more compelling than Allah Himself saying, 

    "Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief... ., upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment." 16:106"?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 4/3/2019 1:02:52 PM

  • GM sb asks "Does Naseer sb. think that the word "compulsion" means chaining a person, dragging him to a mosque and physically forcing him to pray? "
    Good question. So, now please answer the following questions:
    1. How many times do you offer salat every day (not necessarily in a mosque)?
    2. How many times do you visit a mosque to offer salat in a week?
    3. If you offer salat every day, is it because you feel compelled to do so?
    4. If you do not offer salat, is it because you are a disbeliever?
    What is Salat or Prayer? It is performed facing Kabaa (2:149 and 150), celebrating “Allah´s praises in the manner Allah has taught you, which ye knew not before” (2:239). Congregational prayer is implied in most verses “bow down with those who bow down in worship.” Obligatory prayers are to be performed at stated time (4:103). The prayer timings for regular prayers which are obligatory are contained in verses 2:238 (Asr), 11:114 (fajr, maghrib, isha), 17:78 (Zuhar +), 24:58 (fajr and Isha), 50:39 (fajr, asr, isha). Wudhu need to be performed in the manner described in verse 5:6 or Tayamum in 4:43

    The absence of prayer and charity will lead a person to hell fire.

    (74:41) And (ask) of the Sinners:

    (42) "What led you into Hell Fire?"

    (43) They will say: "We were not of those who prayed;

    (44) "Nor were we of those who fed the indigent;

    (45) "But we used to talk vanities with vain talkers;

    By Naseer Ahmed - 4/3/2019 1:08:15 AM

  • Does Naseer sb. think that the word "compulsion" means chaining a person, dragging him to a mosque and physically forcing him to pray? It does not! The dictionary meaning is, to "force or push towards a course of action." 
    What is more compelling than Allah Himself saying, "

    Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief... ., upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment." 16:106.

    Since we all believe, "there is no compulsion in religion," many verses threatening punishment may have to be abrogated

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 4/2/2019 12:05:44 PM

  • GM sb continues to have a problem understanding the meaning of a simple word like compulsion! He is a person "who will not understand".
    By Naseer Ahmed - 4/1/2019 11:58:47 PM

  • Naseer sb. says God does not prescribe any punishment for such Kafirun, Zalimun and Fasiqun because Allah has decreed in the Quran "let there be no compulsion in religion". 
    But the Quran does say, "on them is Wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a dreadful Penalty." (16:106). Has 16:106 been  abrogated?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 4/1/2019 1:12:16 PM

  • It may be noted that while Allah clearly calls those who do not judge by their revealed scriptures  Kafir, Zalim and Fasiq, He does not prescribe any punishment for such Kafirun, Zalimun and Fasiqun because Allah has decreed in the Quran "let there be no compulsion in religion". Maududi, Syed Qutub etc. are right when they call their governments Murtad for not judging by the Quran, but wrong when they consider them worthy of the death penalty. However, they are not among the exceptions as every sect considers the apostate worthy of the death penalty relying on abrogated paradigms of the previous scriptures.

    The problem with "Islamic Shariat", is that it is not Quranic and  includes elements from the previous scriptures which are abrogated by the Quran such as the punishment for apostasy. Moreover, the Muslim fuquha, have also misunderstood several of the Quran's legislative verses, the most notable examples being the verses covering divorce, inheritance, evidence. jiziya (not at all  a religious requirement right from the days of the Prophet). 

    Judging by the Book is therefore not the same as implementing the defective "Islamic Shariat". Most notably, wherever the "shariat' is being implemented, it is driven by harshness and not compassion. The spirit of the Quran is to overlook faults, mentor, correct and forgive and punish only the incorrigible repeated offenders who are brazen and shameless in their crimes. If the letter and spirit of the Quran is implemented, we will have an honest society free of crimes. 

    By Naseer Ahmed - 4/1/2019 1:56:52 AM

  • So many labels to describe people! Surely God has better things to do than to create so many different labels for people.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 3/30/2019 2:55:46 PM

  • By the way verses 5:44 to 47 are about the People of the Book who fail to judge by their Books. The verses that are addressed to the Prophet/Muslims are:

    (5:48) To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the Truth that hath come to thee. To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute;

    (49) And this (He commands): Judge thou between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile thee from any of that (teaching) which Allah hath sent down to thee. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their crime it is Allah´s purpose to punish them. And truly most men are rebellious.

    (50) Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah?

    (4:105) We have sent down to thee the Book in truth, that thou mightest judge between men, as guided by Allah: so be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray their trust

    By Naseer Ahmed - 3/30/2019 8:42:33 AM

  • The correct way to say it is "some believers perform namaz and others don't".

    A Muslim is by definition one who obeys the commands of Allah and one who disobeys the commands of Allah is by definition a Kafir. Satan is the best example of a perfect believer who is also a perfect Kafir for disobeying the command of Allah and later resolving to rebel against Allah and misguide people.

    A Muslim is the opposite of Kafir and a non-Muslim is indeed by definition Kafir.

    Belief is a means to an end but not the end itself. Belief in the Quran/Torah/Bible/ the Scriptures helps us to be guided by Allah's revelations and do what Allah commands and avoid what Allah forbids or to become a Muslim.

    وَمَا أَنتَ بِهَادِي الْعُمْيِ عَن ضَلَالَتِهِمْ ۖ إِن تُسْمِعُ إِلَّا مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِآيَاتِنَا فَهُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

    (27:81) Nor can you be a guide to the blind, (to prevent them) from straying: only those will you get to listen who believe in Our Signs, and are Muslims ( Those who submit to Allah and His commands).

    A believer is one who listens or pays heed to guidance and believes in the Ayats of Allah and when the believer acts on the guidance, he becomes a Muslim.

    One who disregards the commands of Allah is Kafir/Zalim/Fasiq etc. even if he is a believer. The following verses are about believers who fail to judge by what Allah has revealed. They are Kafir/Zalim/Fasiq.

    (5:44) It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (aslamu) to Allah´s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah´s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah has revealed, they are Kafirun.

    (45) We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are Zalimun.

    (46) And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to the Muttaqin.

    (47) Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah has revealed, they are Fasiqun.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 3/30/2019 7:44:48 AM

  • Naseer sb. says, "He may be a kafir, hypocrite or an apostate but the Quran does not prescribe any punishment for them."
    But the Quran does say, "on them is Wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a dreadful Penalty." (16:106).
    We just love to label people, calling them believers, disbelievers, kafirs, mushriks, Momins etc! Let us just call everyone human beings. Let us not be so judgmental. 
    God wants us to be righteous, just, fair, compassionate and rational. Some of us are more advanced in this process than others.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 3/29/2019 12:26:03 PM

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