New Age Islam
Sun Jul 14 2024, 07:13 PM

Islam and Sectarianism ( 6 Dec 2016, NewAgeIslam.Com)

Comment | Comment

Global Order: Ideologies, Religions, Sufism and Sindh-Balochistan – III

By Zulfiqar Shah

30 November, 2016

Sindh-Balochistan: Sociological polity and unexpressed aspects - Sindhi and Baloch today have transformed into modern social and cohesive entities, as they were historically. However, the linguistic, ethnic and sub-cultural additions that were resulted by the partition of British India, and after the creation of Pakistan, initiated the process of integration in the societies.

Politics is patchy social process, imbibed with the power; therefore state apparatus of Pakistan, like elsewhere in the world today, has particularly determined the social interdependence among and between the indigenous-aboriginal Sindhi and Baloch as well as the migrants, refugees, and immigrants between 1947 and 2016.

Nationhood, nationality, and identity today is a diversified, as well as a simple matter. This can only be described, determined, categorised and awarded on the grounds of aboriginality, indegenioushood, ethnicity, linguistics, ethnology particularly in the world of post-immigration and migration issues, social organism, United Nations instruments, the comprehensive laws, regulation, principles, and procedures practiced in the nation-states and federations across the globe and historical-cultural references as well.

In Sindh, Kolhi, Bhil, Meghwar, Rebari, Gurgla and Brahvi, the aboriginal Dravidians and Proto-Dravidians; and Sammat specifically and rest of original Sindhi are indigenous. Sammat mainly includes Arians, Brahman Hindus, various lineages of Rajputs, the communities associated with Indus and died River Sarswati, lakes and waters bodies, costal and island communities; and non-samat indigenous Sindhi include ethnic and/or linguistic Balochi who claims Sindhi identity are indigenous Sindhi that includes indigenous Siraki subculture of Sindhi as well.

This also includes those who settled in Sindh over one century ago. Indigenous Sindhi, who earlier were living in the 1700s borders of Sindh, and later on moved in the contemporary and Britain borders of Sindh, for examples Kutchi, and some other Zaats (the family lineage on the pattern of profession, topography, and iconic family backgrounds) are aboriginal or indigenous Sindhi.

Indigenous Baloch of Karachi that claim Baloch identity are also indigenous Sindhi with their Baloch identity. Baloch that have migrated to Sindh from 1890 to 1945 are submerged in Sindhi society, and cannot be thought of being non-indigenous. Thus, by every mean they are considered, thereby and are, indigenous and original Sindhi with their elders Baloch identity.

Punjabi migrants in the wake of Sukkur, Guddu and Kotri (Ghulam Mohammad Barrage) Barrages construction in Sindh have assimilated in Sindh; therefore they are Sindhi and can be said Sindhi of Punjabi origin. Some amongst them are still holding Punjabi sub-culture, especially those who migrated after Kotri Barrage and Guddu Barrage; however their large majority has submerged linguistically with Sindhi.

A smaller numbers of Rajasthani and Gujarati in various districts on the western bank of Indus as well as in the cities of Karachi, Hyderabad, Thatta, and southern parts of district Jamshoro that includes Memon of Okhai and Kutyana background, Silawat, and other Zaats are also Sindhi, and using either various dialects of Sindhi or a blend of Sindhi-Rajasthani or Sindhi-Gujarati.

Most of them, like Memon, are from within the historical borders of Sindh. Smaller groups like Silawat settled in Sindh on the invitation of Pir Pagar Surihya Badshah in 1900s, and other who either have migrated before the concept of border restrictions from the bordering areas, even in some cases from distant lands of South Asia, or during the Britain India, have not only assimilated in Sindh and Sindhihood, but also have been protecting, defending and contributing in Sindh. It is general unwritten rule of Sindhi that indigenous and migrant Baloch are Sindhi in Sindh.

Sindhi bordering with Rajasthan and Gujarat state of India in Sindh speak Sindhi, Datiki, Marwari, and Parkari. They are ethnic Sindhi, with linguistic variations and connectivity with Rajasthan with reference to Dhatki and Marwari. Sindhi in Rajasthan, India bordering districts of Sindh has desert diction. Dhatiki and Marvari in Barmer and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan, India, have ethnic connectivity with Sindhi in desert area of Sindh. Sindhi of desert diction is spoken in Barmer and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan, India.

On the both side of the borders, people are indigenous in overwhelming majority. Hindu and Muslim on both sides of Thar Desert in Sindh and Rajasthan, India linguistically, dialectically and from the point of view of diction - Sindhi, Dhatki and Marwari - are indigenous to Sindh and Barmer and Jaisalmir districts of Rajasthan at least.

Meanwhile, districts of Kutch and Bhuj in Gujarat, India are ethno-linguistically Kutchhi Sindhi Muslims and are indigenous majority of the districts. Rest of Sindhi dictions and their spoken centers are Lari Lasi in Karachi; Lari and Lari Lasi Thatta; Lari in Badin; Mirpurkhas; Tando Allahyar, and Tando Mohammand Khan. Although Lari, but called literary Sindhi, is spoken in Hyderabad, and adjoining Jamshoror and Kori towns and villages, as well as in Matyari districts.

Lari Lasi is also spoken between river Indus to the borders with Balochistan downward Jamshoro and Kotri towns of district Jamshoro, and Jhirik of district Thatta. Wicholi, which has no popular name, is spoken in Nawabshah, Dadu, northern Jamshoro and Naushehro Feroz. Utaradi, is spoken in Khairpur, Larkana, Sukkur, Ghotki, Kashmore, Jaccobabad and Qambar-Shahdadkot districts of Sindh. Siraiki, is neither felt and nor has remained an alien language of Sindh. Sindhi rulers during first half of 1800s were Sindhi of Siraiki diction, until Sindh was invaded by Britain.

Linguistically Siraiki is diction of Sindhi, its name is acquired from Sindhi word Siro, the fringe, which means in Sindhi, a language that is spoken in the fringes of Sindh in north. Multan has once remained Capital of the Kingdom of Sindh. The ethnic composition of Siraki is like Sindhi and Baloch, a blend of ethnic Baloch, Sindhi of Samat (indigenous) and Dravidian (aboriginal) origin in association with the indigenous to the territory of which unofficially is called Waseb by Siraiki in Punjab, and forms ethno-linguistically roughly half of demography and population of Punjab. The lingual-cultural nexus of Siraki and Punjabi is also important through the history of shared borders.

Colonial Britain Indian Partition refugees, were refugees themselves, the immigrants; however their offspring are sons and daughters of the soil and are Urdu speaking, Bihari (Bhojpuri mostly), and Qaimkhani (Rajasthani) Sindhi. The process of cohesion, since integration is mostly a state supported feature across the nations today, is underway in Sindh, however in slow pace in terms of sociological inter-weaving.

In some cases, those ethnically or linguistically non-Sindhi, have migrated towards Sindh since 1990, and have become permanent residents of Sindh, have no intention to return to their previous lands, and have associated their interests and commitments with Sindh in terms of its sovereignty and security in all of its manifestations, can be said and claimed as Sindhi.

However, as rule of thumb with reference to various nation-state laws across the world, and in the light of United Nations instruments, the offspring of migrants are also Sindhi. It is a unwritten and consensual sentiment and expression of Sindhi that those who does not pour their commitment with the sovereignty, security and interest of Sindh, can never be accepted as Sindhi, whether they are aboriginal, indigenous, original or naturalized Sindhi.

In Balochistan, aboriginal and indigenous Baloch of Balochi group of languages that include Proto-Dravidian Brahvi inclusive of aboriginal, indigenous and resettled from Sindh centuries ago as well as recently; various versions, dialects and expressions of Balochi spoken in the cultural-topographical areas of Sarawan, Jhalwan, Makaran, and others, similarly to the other mountainous nations across the world, particularly in South Asia.

Aboriginal as well as indigenous Sindhi including Lasi Lari Sindhi, Utradi (northern Sindh) and other smaller variant linguistic groups of Balochi including Brahvi mostly dwelling at the borders with Iran and Afghanistan, and Siraki areas of Punjab, the dwellers of high rise mountains, dasht (arid plains) and arable plains, are the aboriginal and indigenous Baloch, Balochistani.

This also includes, Baloch of linguistic Baloch and Jadgal / Sindhi and others, living beyond the borders of Balochistan outside Pakistan who have settled in Balochistan from Helmand and Balochistan adjacent areas of Afghanistan; Sistan-Balochistan, and adjacent areas of Iran, as well as Baloch that have resettled on the lands of Balochistan from Middle East, Sindh, and Siraiki area in Punjab provided that their settlement is permanent, and does not intend to return back to the respective lands.

Pashtun are aboriginal, indigenous, and refugees as well as migrant (from Afghanistan) Pashtu speaking Balochistani. Previously known as British Balochistan, the Pashtun area of Balochistan is topographically similar to Balochi. Almost similar in patterns, tribal construct and principles are shared by Balochistani of Baloch, and Pashtun origin. The historical affinity between Baloch and Pashtun has many examples like the one, marriage of a Khan of Kalat from the family of Prince in Kandahar, who gifted Quetta to her daughter as Shaal (a cultural gift).

Pashtu speaking subcultural areas of Balochistan includes, the Afghanistan-Pakhtunkhuwa-FATA bordering tribal, the high rise mountainous, and valley areas. Pashtu in Balochistan is linguistically associated with southern Afghanistan Pashtu with its own peculiarities, and dialectical waves amongst bordering tribal and valley Pashtun. Pashtun refugee influx from south-eastern Afghanistan particularly from the area that falls between Qandahar to Zabul during the cold war has been witnessed in various Pashtu speaking majority districts adjoining to Quetta.

Baloch and Pashtun share, historically, culturally and linguistically, one common city, the Quetta, where Pashtun are aboriginal, and linguistic Brahvi and Balochi Baloch are indigenous, besides the later settlers from within north-eastern and central-southern and eastern Balochistan. Khuzdar, the second largest city of Balochistan is Baloch of linguistic Brahvi, Balochi, and to certain extent Pashtu and Brahvi Balochistani.

During 1970s and later on, the anarchy in Afghanistan mainly became reason to larger migration of Persian speaking Hazara from central Afghanistan. Hazara, historically, are Mongolian ethnics. They almost are limited to Quetta city with a smaller number of populations in comparison with Pashtun and Baloch in Quetta. The settlement patterns of Pashtun, Baloch and Hazara are similar to certain extent; however the development and urbanization in Quetta, although slow paced, has changed the ethnic patterns of settlements.

Unlike the Pashtun residents of city, the oldest one, and the Pashtun and Brahvi Baloch settlers in the rural orchards of the urban Quetta, is now home to urbanized Baloch. The returnee of Balochistan Liberation War mostly from Helmand, who returned with the comeback of Nawab Khair Bux Murri, their tribal and political leader, are settled in the worst living condition outside Quetta on the sides of Ring Road. No displacement support has been tendered to them, over one decade, either from Government of Balochistan, Quetta Municipality, and the UNHCR. They live in the temporary hamlets.

The understanding, historically between the people from both lands, and officially between Governments of Sindh and Balochistan is that the rainfall on the mountains, if and where it drains towards Balochistan is the area of Balochistan, and if and where it drains to Sindh is the area of Sindh.

Baloch of linguistically Sindhi, resides in Lasbella where they are known as Lasi, and the language is called Lasi Lari, the Baloch of historical Magus area, called Jhil Magsi, mostly speak a Sindhi blended with Balochi or Balochi blended with Sindhi, the Baloch of Dera Allahyar, Dera Murad Jamali, Sibi and Bolan speak Balochi as well as Sindhi. This is also found to certain extent in the various pockets of Khuzdar and Qalat. Brahvi are Balochi Dravidians, who live in Balochistan and Sindh indigenously.

Linguistically Brahvi and Sindhi until mid 1980s shared around 30 percent vocabulary at least. Brahvi and Tamil language also share phonetics and considerable vocabulary. (A book by Haleem Brohi, author, social-science researcher and intellectual) Various dialects of Balochi are spoken according to the cultural-topographical areas of Balochistan, and have a better linguistic connectivity with Persian at the Iran borders particularly in southeastern Balochistan.

Baloch of Helmand, Afghanistan are Balochi speaking, while Baloch of Sistan-Balochistan, Iran and adjoining areas speak Sindhi blended with Persian influenced Balochi, and Iranian Balochi. Jadgal (linguistically non-Balochi, but ethnically Baloch, and indigenously non-Balochi linguistic) form majority in Sistan-Balochistan in Iran. They are recognized Baloch in Iran and in Balochistan.

Sindhi of all faiths and paths, reside in all continents. There are Sindhi that are historically submerged in some nations, like in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Sindhi who are now indigenized with the tribe or clan name Al-Sindi. Some Sindhi families are submerged in Java and Sumatra islands; and some are submerged in Russia, living in Moscow having combination of names and family names of Sindhi and Russian. They migrated from Sindhi in 1800s There are indigenized Sindhis in various African countries. Sindhi in Diaspora in the wake of Partition of united India, and thereafter during last seven decades are in Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, Africa, and North America.

Sindhi are indigenized in Afghanistan with 15000 population, some villages of Sindhi are there in Chittagong and Khulna Divisions of Bangladesh and are indigenized. Sindhi are second largest business community after Jews in the world, which includes those who directly migrated from Sindh to various countries, and those who routed the travel towards the final destinations. This still is happening. Besides, an exodus due to the harassment caused in 1948 by non-Sindhis, and thereafter a gradual exodus has been taking place since August 14, 1947 until October 12, 2016 from Sindh and Balochistan.

Dutch were the first among the European nations that colonized South Asia. Goa in India and Gundz between Gawadar and Pasni on the Balochistan coast were the first areas of this region in its hundreds years history after Alexander the Great from Greece that were invaded by a European country. Britain came later. Dutch colonizers settled in Gundz and submerged in Baloch nation, and are called Dutch Baloch.

Sindh and Balochistan have underwent a difference in polity and development between aboriginal-indigenous-indigenized Sindhi as well as Balochistani and the refugees, the immigrants, and their offsprings that are sons and dauthers of the soils today. There was a wave of violent conflict in Sindh, and conflict in Balochistan between both.

Sindh and Balochistan, for centuries, have remained one country, with combined Capitals and Headquarters in Kalat, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Brihamanabad and Multan during various periods of the history. Southern Punjab, the Siraiki land, has also remained part of that Kingdom for centuries, and shared common centre of Indus civilization, which earliest was centred in Mehar Garh (5000 BC). The adjoining districts to Meher Garh in Balochistan, are Balochi, and link Sindhi speaking Baloch plains of Balochistan. Later on, the first excellence in Urbanization of human history, Moen Jo Daro (3000 BC) is located in the centre of Sindh on the right bank of river Indus.

The civilization has its spread upto Tibet in China in the north, eastern Afghanistan down to the Kandahar, Gujarat and Rajasthan states of India with existence in Haryana, and has its borders in the west up to Combodia. Between Mayanmar to Combodia, it infuses with Yellow river civilization of China, therefore, historically and academically this area is called Indo-China. (Refer to Study of History, Arnold J. B. Toynbee)

The Indus civilization has another city Harappa, in Punjab of Pakistan; however the Capital of the civilization, Moen Jo Daro, because of being on the Banks of river Indus and near the Sea, is exceptionally urbanized due to being also trade centre of the civilization.

Indus civilization has hundreds of sites in Kuchh, Bhuj, and other parts of Gujarat State in India, "more than Sindh" (With reference to the discourse by Sain Atta Mohammad Bhumbhro, a historian and translator of numerous books on the history of Sindh). In that context, the hitherto held researches proves that Kuchh, Bhuj, and some other areas of Gujarat in India have more (hunders) Indus sites if compared with Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab, and other federating states in Southasian countries. In Gujarat new excavations of the sites were successfully undertaken by 2013; however the excavations in Gujarat are also under process. Besides, one Indus site was discovered by 2012-2013 in Haryana State of India. (The excavations during 2012-2014 held in India according the Indian and foreigner reaches and archaeologists, Daily The Hindu and its monthly publications in 2013).

Indus, that begins in Tibet now in China, shares its name Sindhu with the land Sindh, which today is a federating state in Pakistan; albeit historically have remained a country for centuries. It is academically established that Moen Jo Daro is Capital of Indus civilization, led by the King Priest. Apart from so many heights of urbanization, the city was having covered drainage and sanitation, and also was having a swimming pool, called Great Bath. The structure there has also arrangements of bathing norms including dressing and other necessities.

It is shocking to see the civilization disconnect between Sindh-Balochistan of Indus civilization (Asia) and the West. Europe and North America, excluding the snowy regions, have a history of weekly bathing that was practiced until 1960s. Americans were first among the Westerns who started daily bathing in 1970s, and thereby rest of western societies followed American bathing routine.

Perfumes in Europe were necessity due to this delayed bathing; hence France did mastery in putting foundations of perfume and thereafter use of in the West. Perfumes for decades have remained an important source of exports for France in the European, and other markets in the world, particularly in the West, since the oriental societies in Southasia inclusive of Iran and Afghanistan, Tibet and China, and Middle East were using their traditional brands of non-alcoholic perfumes called Atar due to being tropical and semi-tropical regions, (hot summers), and even parts of autumns and winters.

"This probably is the reason for daily bathing in Indus and other civilizations in Asia." (By a Sindhi from Sindh in Pakistan, on October 16, 2016) Irony of the Indus Nations is (Empires of Indus -- well coined expression by prominent author Alice Albinia for giving such a title to her book) their civilization disconnect from Moen Jo Daro in certain aspects.

Sindh and Balochistan are thankful to the United States of America for its support to the Government of Sindh for being concerned and rendering support for the protection, renovation and preservation of archaeological sites in Sindh through its Islamabad Embassy and Karachi Consulate. Sindh and Balochistan, once Buddhist, are also grateful to Japan for its support to Sindh to protect Indus civilization through protecting its Capital, Moen Jo Daro by the means of coating it.

Unfortunately, the funds released to Government of Pakistan were no used for five years. Moen Jo Daro still requires appropriate initiatives for its protection. Both historical lands are also thankful to Russian Federation, which through Islamabad Embassy participated Moen Jo Daro initiatives by Pakistan People's Party (PPP) Chairman Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, son of great Sindhi leader martyred Benazir Bhutto.

Balochistan and Sindh are also thankful to the Italy for returning back the archaeological assets of Balochistan, which Italian authorities collected while acting against international mafia of archaeological smugglers. Sindh and Balochistan welcome previous US President Bill Clinton's remarks on Moen Jo Daro and the people of Indus civilization during his presidential address; and with reference to the US being concerned for civilization, culture and Sufism in Sindh and Balochistan, the mainland Indus civilization.

In Sindh, Urdu speaking Sindhi and Sindhi speaking Sindhi shared differences over development, which turned into lesser than five years in low-scale violence. Gradually, it started turning into tolerance, and between 2000 and 20012 it transformed into accommodation of both. With a polarization in the opinion only in 2014 on the issues of shares, it gave birth to demanded for the division of Sindh by the sons of soil who are offspring of 1947 influx from mostly a few states of today's India, and in reaction there were debates, discussions, even sharing of old wounds, as well as massive people outpour across Sindh against the demand.

It subsided and it gradually is pacing ahead after 2015 towards further maturity for positive cohesion. Government of Pakistan, and some quarters have been mentioning the acts of violence, which in common language are also said to be terrorism. However, the political party that has been referred to that has refused of its engagement with mentioned acts.

Sindh and Balochistan together like Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa have received Afghan refugee of cold war, who lived for over a couple of decades on the lands, and a large number of them is still staying in Sindh and Balochistan. Balochistan, recently through Sardar Mehmood Khan Achakzai said that Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa belongs to Afghan, and the Afghan refugees are rightful to live over there. The reconstruction of Afghanistan carried out by international community through ISAF and beyond, led and participated by the USA, and other UN Security Council members, although has created conducive environment that a considerable number of Afghan refugees returned until 2012.

Sindh, especially is facing serious crises of demographic pressure in the form of refugees from across the world because Government of Sindh is not entitled to legislate, play determining role and decide the refugee status, settlement as well as naturalization of the foreigners that are destined to live in Sindh. Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa are also undergoing the same situation. Punjab is the only province in Pakistan, which almost does not receive refugees.

Even due to the Operation Zarb ul Asab by Pakistan Army on the insistence of the USA; as well as US drone program in FATA to little extent has caused displacements, which were directed towards Sindh. Punjab refused receiving the internally displaced persons of flood in Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, like it did during concerning the settlement of Afghan refugees during cold war "Mujahideen" in and around the borders between the both sides of Pakhtun lands (Pakistan - Afghanistan border Khyber at Pakhtunkhuwa inclusive of FATA).

Sindh has cordially received Baloch displaced persons due to civil war in Balochistan. Sindh, like Balochistan, previously received Iranian refugees due to Islamist revolution in Iran. Africans including Sudanese, Nigerians, as well as Palestinians are living in Sindh including a limited number of far-eastern refugees.

Hundreds of Tibetan and a few thousand Poland (Polish) refugees got settled in Sindh between 1920 and 1940s. Tibetan live in Karachi and Hyderabad of Sindh commonly known as Chinese some of them are dentists, as well as there are also some original Chinese. Polish have naturalized in Karachi. Besides, due to security reasons, some of Jews of Karachi have preferred to claim Zoroastrian (Parsi) identity over leaving Sindh. They are not counted in census. There is only one Jews family, though, in Rawalpini, Punjab. Some Gorkhas from Nepal are also localized in Karachi.

Hundreds of thousands Bangladeshi illegal immigrants are living in Karachi. Until 2012, 200,000 ethnic Rohingyan Muslims have illegally entered Sindh and sought refuge. The worst aspect of this is despite documenting these illegal entrants; the National Data Base Authority (NADRA), a central government agency, issues them citizenship documents within shorter span of time. Government of Sindh is not consulted for that matter. Even some illegal Afghans including the very recent ones have sought Pakistani citizenship along with the travel documents.

Sindh is already undergoing demographic issues, and peopling of Sindh has become a real challenge with reference to the people's sovereignty for us as a nation. Taking care of hundreds of thousands refugees since three decades and receiving the new one, with swift citizenship facilitation, is an act of ethnic cleansing by tactically converting aboriginal, indigenous and indigenized majority into minority besides causing gradual exodus of Hindus from Sindh.

Moreover, cities of Sindh cannot afford further massive influx of refugees and illegal entrants because number of immigrants and settlers from within Pakistan come in hundreds of thousands every decade. This further is intensified when Pakistani armed forces entrepreneur sector has acquired hundreds of thousand acre lands in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and to limited scale in various districts to develop mostly high-rise buildings for accommodating hundreds of thousands more from outside Sindh. This no doubt includes various schemes especially Bahriya Town, the largest one in Karachi.

Entry of terrorists on the pretext of Islam associated with Al-Qaida, ISIS and other groups has remained frequent, identified in some cases and have always been posing security risk, and threat to considerable extent. Therefore exclusive authority for settlements from within Pakistan particularly in Sindh, along with Balochistan as well as in Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa and rest, including decentralization of the process of immigration, naturalization and refugee resettlement is required.

It is needed to mention that Punjab alone in Pakistan does not have considerable number of foreigners as well as internal migrants from Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa. And, Sindh alone, apart from world outside, receive hundreds of thousands from northern Pakistan, particularly from Punjab. Sindh and Balochistan demand the protection of their demographic sovereignties through legislation, and procedural empowerment.

Besides, Sindh is the only federating province in Pakistan, in whose legislature resent settlers are allowed to run elections, become member Sindh Assembly and also become cabinet ministers. Sindh and Balochistan demand for themselves, and for the rest provinces including Siraiki districts / land, Punjab as well as for FATA that a new legislation should be undertaken without delay for vote rights in the historical lands to those who have not got birth there.

The settlers' participation for the provincial and federal legislatures should be barred. They after the settlement tenure of ten years be given right to run elections for the local government, and those who get birth on the lands may be legitimize to become members of legislatures after process of elections. This does not only is in accordance with various United Nations instruments, but also prevailing practices in federations across the globe.

Besides, Pakistan Rangers - Sindh, composed of Sindhi, Frontier Constabulary - Balochistan composed of Balochistani, and the rest should be authorized to not only protect their borders with the neighbouring countries, as in the case of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, and Balochistan is already being practiced, they should also be allowed to install at the communication and strategic entries and exists at the provincial borders because dozens of activities have happened during 2014 - 2016 on Sindh-Punjab borders in which borders of Sindh are violated by Punjab Police, Pakistan Rangers - Punjab and Pakistan Army based in Punjab, and especially on the orders of Government of Punjab.

This is a violation of territorial sovereignty of Sindh. In federations across the world, federating states or province do contribute their Sovereignty to create a Federation in the Sovereignty of Republics. There is no land or territory within Pakistan which is called Pakistan. Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa together, willingly or unwillingly, form the entity named Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Only Islamabad is martially Pakistan in terms of direct and physical territorial domain as 'Pakistan', if viewed beyond the federating provinces.

In 2013, Jammat-e-Islami Pakistan declared Mohammad Bin Qasim 'First Pakistani'. Later on in 2013, Pakistan Army Chief General Pervez Kiyani while addressing the army men said that Mohammad Bin Qasim is the 'First Pakistani'. Apart from the dissents concerning historical and contemporary narratives about Pakistan, it is established fact according to the official record; the name of newly found country was 'Pakistan'.

Since Pakistan had its first constitution by a military ruler General Ayub Khan in 1960s, therefore official addition of word 'Republic' was not part of it. Pakistan was officially named 'Islamic' Republic of Pakistan in 1973. It means Pakistan was not Islamic country or republic on August 14, 1947. This is also validated by the speeches by M.A. Jinnah after creation of Pakistan. If this is very same, the Pakistan of M.A. Jinnah, then why one needs to choose First Pakistani from among the Arab Muslims of invader origin? Was Jinnah not the First Pakistani?

Besides, how a General who leads an Army of existing country can claim term Hero a historical invader of almost half of that country? If it was M. A. Jinnah's Pakistan and according his first speech Pakistan was secular. In that case, can a general be allowed to claim Alexander the Great 'First Pakistani?' Sindh Balochistan together one country at that time under Raja Dasrath gave Alexander a tough fight; and ironically Punjab, having capital at that time between Taxila and Islamabad welcomed Alexander the Great without any fight.

If Pakistani armed forces are federal, can they claim invaders of any part in the federation of Pakistan as their hero in direct or indirect terms? Although as mentioned above, the Constitution of Pakistan is illegitimate on the valid grounds, if the Constitution is taken in practical terms as the book of superior law of the state, according Holy Quran, as mentioned above, religion is a personal matter of everyone. Why then, a Republic can and should be Islamic? Wasn't that reason that Holy Prophet chose word Khilafat, despite Islamic? God himself says in Holy Quran by mentioning word "nations" that waging war for the nation is appreciated.

However, Holy Quran never suggests military offense; and the wars waged during the period of Holy Prophet were not offensive. They were either defense or defensive offense. Why not, if unavoidable and enviable, with the consent of Sindh and Balochistan, and rest of the provinces and federating nations of Indus lands, Bibi Khudaijatul Kubra A.S., and Hazrat Ali Allaih Sallam (A. S.), chronologically first Muslim, be declared First Pakistani?

Pashtun Saduzai, Sindhi and Baloch Asehaba Akraam, even a Sindhi woman was Harem in the family of Holy Prophet, why then Hazrat Ali A. S, or Asehaba from the lands of Indus be made first Pakistani if ideological security of 'Islamic Republic' is valid from the point of view of Sharia? Pakistani passport carries word 'Pakistani' for the Nationality of the passport holders.

If nationality of the people in Pakistan is Pakistani, then why Muslim nation? If that is official position of Pakistan, then why to believe on Two-Nation theory? Is there any formal treatise of Two Nation theory because theories are always been expressed in treatise. Besides, If Islamic Republic of Pakistan's military wages war against another Islamic Republic's, for example Afghanistan or Iran? Both would be raising the slogan 'Allah o Akbar' (God is great). Whose God would be great? And, if soldiers killed, whose soldier would be martyr?

Sindh declares if Mohammad Bin Qasim is the first Pakistani, Jinaah is the last.

Sindh and Balochistan do not believe in Two Nation theory. Besides, in 1971 East Pakistan became Bangladesh on ethnic-national bases, which need no translation into end of the concept of Muslim nationhood of a few united Indian states, which in itself is deceptive if Muslims of other province of united India were not included in Pakistan, if seen on the theoretical disposition of those who believed, and profess it.

Sindh and Balochistan have expressed themselves by participating Second World War for the freedom of Sindh; 1946 British Indian provincial elections; in 1948, and in almost all of decades within Pakistan through either popular will in the case of Sindh, and through resistance as well as popular movement in Balochistan. After dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971, Sindh and Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa also were not sought their Will (election for the Constitutional Assembly) for the federating states that are called provinces in Pakistan, to become part of remaining State of Pakistan, through the instrument of the peoples' will.

Thus, Sindh and Balochistan ascertain that their being part of State of Pakistan is violation of universal will and right, which was not sought from 1947 to 1971 and from 1973 to 2016. Sindh and Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, and Siraiki southern Punjab through their elected political representations, however their participation in Pakistan Armed Forces was negligible, never gave consent, opinion or suggestion for waging war on East Pakistan.

Thus, if the wrote to be federation, declare and wage the war on its own citizenry and federating state/province by the majority decision of ethnic Punjabi (in terms of districts, half of Punjab) dominated armed forces, it is declared that 1971 War was on East Pakistan and on its people -- men, women, and children.

Hence, Sindh and Balochistan in terms of any action by the forces of the State on the political dissent and difference on federalism is considered war against historical homelands and their people in Sindh, Balochistan or elsewhere. Sindh and Balochistan re-ascertain their sovereignty in terms of territory, people, political will, and governance including economy.

Government of Sindh and Balochistan, through their Assemblies, Chief Ministers, Cabinet Ministers, political leaders, religious scholars and persons of opinion have time and against protesting and expressing their will against armed forces and services actions against people and the lands.

The collective will by the legislatures, governments, political and social leadership, and millions of peoples action for taking to the streets concerning broader sovereignty and security of Sindh and Balochistan, regarding issues ranging all fields of statehood of the federating states, including the armed forces and services actions, some of the matters out of which, while taken to the Sindh High Court and Balochistan High Court were favored as per their frame of justice.

Sindh and Balochistan officially, publicly and popularly; politically and socially have been mentioning the discrimination, humiliation, intrusion and non-cooperation by Punjab in terms of economic, social and political acts and actions. Chief Minister and representation of Sindh Government also have formally mentioned the colonization of Sindh by Punjab.

Government of Balochistan has time and again been expressing its opinion on Guwader and other matters and issues. This is nothing but seventy years long federal failure, to which seventy years long popular will has been expressed through all legitimate and recognized institutions and forums, and in last one decade reiterated in all forms as mentioned above.

Sindh and Balochistan, therefore, finally, give option to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan manifested and translating through the hierarchy of leadership to transform into a new statehood, a Union of Sates that falls around the Indus with the popular and constitutionally elected will of the historical lands, for ensuring sovereign autonomy and self rule for the historical nations and lands around the Indus.

Let the foundation of civilisation and urbanisation of humankind capitalised in Sindh and Balochistan, spread across the Indus, and beyond, contributes polity and culture of human interaction in Pakistan, South Asia and across the world.

Zulfiqar Shah is a Sindh civil and political rights activist, journalist and writer. Although UNHCR recognized refugee, he is still associated with historical Diyal Das Club located in Hyderabad, Sindh. He is virtually house arrested on the request of Pakistan authorities, with round the clock audio-visual monitoring by Pakistan, USA, and India. The references to the facts and opinions have mentioning and citation apart from those that are established facts. The facts concerning period of colonial Britain are in documents that available for Public in India Office Library, London, UK; as well as Government of India at Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata being Britain rule capital and sub-capital in undivided India. A word 'Personality' used in the write-up is suggested by a Sindhi from Sindh in Pakistan.