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Islam and Sectarianism (28 Dec 2017 NewAgeIslam.Com)

Rights of Non-Muslims Living In Minority – Part 1 – Freedom of Religion


By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam

28 December 2017

Motivated by the aggressive behaviour of the radical Kharijite elements targeting non-Muslim minority, I have intended to write up a series of articles on the rights of non-Muslims living in minority in an Islamic country. By doing this, I aim at reforming the transgressing and radical attitude of members and followers of ISIS, Taliban and their like-minded extremist groups. In this regard my effort is limited to conveying the message of Islam to these groups, as I believe that the guidance comes as a blessing only from Allah Almighty to those who are sincere in their search for truth.     

This first part concisely and objectively reports on religious freedom granted by Islam to non-Muslims. Let us start it with what is the most quoted verse on the religious freedom for non-Muslims, in which Allah Almighty says, “There is no compulsion at all in Din (Religion). Surely, the guidance has become evidently distinguished from error. So he who rejects false gods and believes in Allah has grasped such a firm handhold that will never loosen. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.” (2:256)

This is the basic Islamic principle upon which the idea of non-compulsion is built, guaranteeing religious freedom for all non-Muslims including Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists and Jains etc. 

Occasions of Revelation of the Verse 2:256

There are three mostly narrated occasions of Revelation of this verse. But Al-Nahhas said, “The position of Ibn Abbas regarding this verse 2:256 is the best position because its isnad (chain of narration) is sound.” According to this position of Ibn Abbas, as reported by Abu Dawud (may Allah be pleased with both of them), this verse was sent down about the Ansar. There was a woman, all of whose children had died. She made a vow that if she had a child who lived she would become a Jew. When the Jewish tribe ‘Banu Nadir’ were exiled from the city of Madina after they were found plotting against the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him), there were many of the children of the Ansar.  These Muslim parents from among the Ansar questioned whether they should force their children to join the Muslim community. Then Allah revealed, “There is no compulsion in Religion. Verily, the right path has become distinct from the wrong path.” (See Tafsir al-Qurtubi and Tafsir al-Quran al-Azeem etc).

Some scholars argue that this verse 2:256 was abrogated by those verses that command Muslims to fight (9:5 and 9:73 etc). However this interpretation is not chronologically coherent with either of the narrated occasions of revelation (Shane Nuzul) for this verse. More significantly, compulsion in Religion contradicts the idea of responsibility before Allah Almighty (taklif), in which one is taken to account for one’s actions in both this life and the Hereafter (Imam Razi “Tafsir-e-Kabir”).

According to the overwhelming majority of classical Muslim scholars (Ulema-e-Jumhoor), this verse (2:256) is non-abrogated and was revealed in the Madani period, when the Muslims had attained political ascendance and were in a position of strength and not weakness. Sir Thomas Walker Arnold (1913) and many modern scholars including the orientalists also support the same view (See “Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith, p. 6.). There is a divine message in this verse that Muslims cannot force another’s heart to believe. The famous theologians belonging to different schools of thought, who consider this verse (2:256) to be non-abrogated are Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti (Al-Itqan Fi Ulum al-Quran vol. 2), Al-Nahhas (al-Nasikh wal Mansukh fi al-Quran al-Karim), Al-Jassas (Ahkam al-Quran), Ibn Ashur (al-Tahrir wat Tanwir), Al-Tabari (Jamiul Bayan An Tawil Al-Quran), Abi Ubayd (Kitab Al-Nasikh Wal Mansukh), Makki bin Abi Talib (al-Idah li nasikh al-Quran wa mansukh), Ibn Taymiyya (qaida mukhtasarah fi qitalil kuffar), Ibn Qayyim (Ahkam Al-Dhimma) and many others.   

Notably a famous classical jurist belonging to Hambali school of thought, Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi writes, (translation from Arabic) “It is not permitted to force a non-Muslim to accept Islam. Such a person would not even be considered a Muslim until it is confirmed that he accepted the Islamic faith by his own free choice.” He also says, “The reason for the prohibition of any compulsion or coercion is the Qur’anic verse, “There is no compulsion in Religion” (see al-Mughni-)).

An influential scholar of the Shafi'i school, Ismail Ibn Kathir writes in his commentary on the verse 2:256,

يقول تعالى : ( لا إكراه في الدين ) أي : لا تكرهوا أحدا على الدخول في دين الإسلام فإنه بين واضح جلي دلائله وبراهينه لا يحتاج إلى أن يكره أحد على الدخول فيه ، بل من هداه الله للإسلام وشرح صدره ونور بصيرته دخل فيه على بينة ، ومن أعمى الله قلبه وختم على سمعه وبصره فإنه لا يفيده الدخول في الدين مكرها مقسورا . وقد ذكروا أن سبب نزول هذه الآية في قوم من الأنصار ، وإن كان حكمها عاما .

English Translation: “Do not force anyone to become Muslim, for Islam is plain and clear, and its proofs and evidence are plain and clear. Therefore, there is no need to force anyone to embrace Islam. Rather, whoever Allah directs to Islam, opens his heart for it and enlightens his mind, will embrace Islam with certainty. Whoever Allah blinds his heart and seals his hearing and sight, then he will not benefit from being forced to embrace Islam.” (Ismail Ibn Kathir “Tafsir Al-Quran Al-Azim” English and Arabic versions, 2:256).

It is reported that although the Ansar were the reason behind revealing this verse 2:256, the application of its message is general in meaning (Tafsir Ibn Kathir). Given the famous maxim "العبرة بعموم اللفظ لا بخصوص السبب", meaning, “Consideration is granted to the Generality of the Language, not to the Specificity of the Reason for Revelation”, it is proclaimed that this verse (2:256) is general in meaning and applies to all non-Muslims. Hence it means that none of the non-Muslims living should be coerced to accept Islam. The rationale behind this generality is explained this way that since the revelation has distinguished the path of guidance from the path of misguidance, it is now up to the will of people to choose the one or the other path and therefore accepting Islam because of compulsion would not benefit the convert in any way.

More significantly it is also reported that when Hadhrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) invited an old Christian woman to accept Islam, she said in reply: “I am an old woman nearing death.” Hearing this, Hadhrat Umar did not force her to come into the fold of Islam. In fact, he recited this very verse 2:256 “There is no compulsion in Din (Religion)” (Al-Nahhas “al-Nasikh wal Mansukh”)

Undoubtedly the idea of compulsion to make one accept Islam is not possible at all. This is because Islamic faith is not related to outward physical response, but rather it relates to the heart. (See also Tafsir al-Qurtubi)

Similar statements regarding the non-compulsion can also be understood from the following Quranic verses. Allah the Most High says, 

 “And had Allah so willed, certainly all inhabitants on the earth would have believed. Will you coerce the people until they become believers?” (10:99-100)

A great Hanafi scholar Imam Nasafi says while interpreting the above mentioned verses, “لو خلق (الله تعالى) فيهم الإيمان جبرا لآمنوا لكن قد شاء أن يؤمنوا اختيارا”, and similarly many other Muslim theologians argue that (translation) “if Allah the Most High wanted to compel all people to believe, then He would have done so and all the people would have believed in Him. But He has willed instead that they come to believe in Him by their own free choice”. (Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Nasafi, “Madarik al-Tanzil wa Haqaiq Al-Tawil (the Arabic book of tafsir)

The same message of non-compulsion in Islam is also mentioned in these two verses (73:19 and 76:29) in which Allah Almighty says, “This is indeed an advice; so whoever wishes may take the path towards his Lord.”

Forced belief is not sincere belief. As we have already seen in the above passages that Islamic faith is not related to outward physical response, but rather it relates to the heart. This is one of the reasons that Allah Almighty says, “The messenger’s duty is but to proclaim the message.” (5:99). Allah Almighty says, “If we had so willed, we could certainly have brought every soul its true guidance” (As-Sajdah 32:13). Since the Quran has distinguished guidance from error, as mentioned in the verse 2:256, it is now up to the will of people whether to believe or disbelieve.

From the above mentioned brief reports, it is clear that Islam grants right of religious freedom to non-Muslims living in minority. Hence they should not be forced to accept Islam, as forced belief will not benefit them. The forced-conversion will be tantamount to denying the Islamic right of religious freedom given to non-Muslims. With that I also do not deny this fact that the right to preaching has been given to the righteous Muslims. However the point to be noted here is that the Quran lays down guidelines for them when preaching Islam, as Allah Almighty says, “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best…” (16:125). It exhorts the preachers to use well-mannered advice and sound reasoning, rather than radical or physical aggression. After delivering the divine message, the preachers are not allowed to adopt the compulsive behaviour, because the guidance comes only from Allah, as the Quran says, (Say, “Then only Allah’s argument is the complete one; so had He willed, He would have guided you all) (6:149). The first part of this series can now be concluded with the established notion that Islam gives the religious freedom to non-Muslims living in minority.


A regular Columnist with  NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/islam-and-sectarianism/ghulam-ghaus-siddiqi,-new-age-islam/rights-of-non-muslims-living-in-minority-–-part-1-–-freedom-of-religion/d/113727

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  • My English is not good as you guys want. There are two problems.

    The gadget I use is very small hard to type, and autocorrect mess up even more, I try to see couple time before I post, but still it is not upto standard.

    But if my message is convey which mostly than it is ok.

    sorry for who are reading my comments.

    By Aayina - 1/3/2018 12:14:26 PM

  • The author must explain who introduced the concept of jaciya and dimmitude.If there is no compulsion in Islam, which Jaciya and dimmitude is enforced on Non-Muslims. Quran advocates Kumushood for Non-Muslim women and Muslims women are not to be subjugated as Kumushood.  why such absurdities exists ?

    By dr.A.Anburaj - 1/3/2018 9:01:48 AM

  • More significantly it is also reported that when Hadhrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) invited an old Christian woman to accept Islam, she said in reply: “I am an old woman nearing death.” Hearing this, Hadhrat Umar did not force her to come into the fold of Islam. In fact, he recited this very verse 2:256 “There is no compulsion in Din (Religion)” (Al-Nahhas “al-Nasikh wal Mansukh”) It is not the whole picture.Umar took military action against Egypt and destroyed its native culture and impose Arab culture/Islam on it.The Arabian conquest of Islam is bloody one.
    By dr.A.Anburaj - 1/3/2018 7:44:00 AM

  • Mr.Aayina's english is wanting.
    Islam promotes Arabianism in Muslim mind not spirituality .Hence all dirty scenes.yOU SEE Muslim countries are taking bath in human blood. Culturally Hindus are not trained properly, may be in the line of Swami Vivekananda.If Swami Vivekanda is taught to all Indians, Indian soil would be deprived of fanatics of all kind.

    By dr.A.Anburaj - 1/3/2018 7:41:07 AM

  • Royalj

     I am very Happy person, like all time smiling Budhha.

    I will still stand by my words, I use it for Hindu community as well, where I needed and that also public.

    May be you have cultural problem, India is diverse country so it may be in your part of India have little different cultural and may not be type of language we use. If you want to live in India enjoy diversity in languag also, let not be Urdu as Muslim and Hindi as Hindu and English as leftist&communist 

    If you are so sensitive than it will be hard for you to consider Kabir, Raidas and many more who loved god I their own spoken language, which look sometime silly languag, they gave examples by the daily tools they use in their work.

    Think if everybody had use sudh Sanskrit and Arabi than we would not have Kabir and Raidas and many more in this country(if you personally have respect for kabir or Raidas, because Muslims are shun on this shared(muslim and Hindu) saints of sub-continent.

    People earning livelihood in engagement with animals, their language and their probes will diffrent than people working with machine.

    May be person working with machine will say Robotic behaviour, if it is programmed for somethings that it will keep doing saomething even if reprogrammed for different work, than we will say it is Malfunctioning Robotic behaviour because the road it want to work in old programme.

    It is piety that if man behaviour analog with animal which is also God makhlukh(as per Muslim) but if you make analogy with machine(man made) it's little less hurtful.

    I know Muslims do not drink alschol, it is like cultural offence to ask Kay Teri daru Ki Dukan he, it is praiseworthy to ask kya Teri Liquor ki shop he. It doesn't matter rest conversation is in Hindi.

    Think of everybody had to use Sudha Sanskrit or Arabic, we would not have saints from tribes

    Yes I am vegan, but I do not care what people eat. It is there personal matter, yes I will certainly hate you if you come and say me, I like beef to tease me, which Muslims do often.

    Anyway why you Muslims will follow your paigamber whose Hadis is there about cow, that it is not better to eat cow meat. We know Indian Muslims like the hurt doctrine of Shah-Waliulla.

    I have muslim friend from other country from social media,when I talk about cow meat,  he verified and appreciated and said he will take steps to stop it because it is childhood habit, but he said I will love my paigmaber aidvice more than any mulla and my nafs.

    Still I will say you are free to,what you want as Gandhi said, but Gandhi also said to stop eating beef it should come from heart, I would not mind even Hindu eat beef, all Indian Hindu restaurant abroad serves beef, Muslims are much better in that sense they do not sell pork.

    I also know my Indian Muslims friends who use to eat secretly pork, now I ask would you like that your friend comes and tell you that pork  test so nice(((I would like to have answer on this as Muslims you have so much expetections from Hindus to have our opinion on beef))).

    Another questions Muslim man comes in Hindu community meat eating Function and make GunGan of pork( remember it is not Muslim Jalsa) and video is made public, how you will feel.(( I would like to have answer for this)).

    Last Question of brainstorming, Is Quran useing filth nameing language by useing animal names.

    Al-Fil( Elephants)

    I think Quran surah name was given as per local language use. 


    I think I made it clear, I have written in my local khadi boil, to convince you and what exactly I mean, I have given example of Robot if you still have problem, I cannot control your feeling. The only chance I can give to offence me. Like Krishna took Srap from Gandhari let his Yaduvansh finished as finished Kauvrav. We Hindus punish God as well. Hahah...Smile please.

    By Aayina - 1/2/2018 1:51:04 AM

  • Aayina,

    Debating muslims is easy - just make them read their literature.
    Problem with muslims is that they have not read Koran properly and hence not understood it.
    Read Koran in chronological order + summary of Sira + summary of other islamic literature = and u r out of islam.
    In case you want the copies of above - email me at motorint (at) gmail (dot) com

    By Raman - 1/1/2018 10:35:30 PM

  • Aayina, are you a happy person? I have my doubts, since you are violating one the essential rules of life. “Every unkind word we use, will sonner or later comes backs on our face and make us stumble in the race of life”

    Will you get sweat under your collar if someone says “Hindus behave like animals, they lynch people who transport cows and those who eat beef”.  I eat beef. I know you, being a vegan, will hate me, but the Messiah says “The Kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking but righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit” (Romans14:17).

    Please learn to apply the Golden Rule in every situation. Have you ever astonished that a black President was at the White House for two terms?  It is because good seeds were already sown by another President Lincoln who said “As I do not want to be a slave to a master, I do not want to be the master to a slave” This G.R statement burnt the hearts of the slave masters. Similarly many Christians would say “As I do not want my child to do work in a house/workshop, I do not employ a child”

    Pope Francis said recently “IF I SPEAK OF ISLAMIC VIOLENCE I MUST SPEAK OF CATHOLIC VIOLENCE” These statements imply the Golden Rule of the Messiah when He said “Do to others what you want them to do to you” (Mathew 7:12) to summarize the teachings of all the prophets.

    Forgive me if I have hurt your feelings; sometimes truth hurts. I love you Aayina. Please don’t blush, because the Anointed One has given the most important commandment “Love one another as I have loved you” Yes the Son of God loves me and died for me, to obliterate my sins, on the Cross shedding His precious blood.


    By Royalj - 1/1/2018 9:31:35 PM

  • RoyalJ
    Thanks for reply, I would stand on my words.
    Keeping in mind and hearts are more problematic than just remain shun if you disagree.
    There is moderator appointed by Mr sultan Shain, so if it was filthy, he would have would have removed.
    I hereby say that if  Mr Sultan Shahin if you feel it is filthy to say " Animla behaviour" than I give you have right to remove my comment and or change the word.

    By Aayina - 12/31/2017 2:36:01 PM

  • Aayina, thanks, for your reply. However I don’t agree with your explanation. There is absolutely no reason to use filthy language in a forum like this. Anyway you are a grown up individual. Who am I to advise you? I like you, just because you follow Sanatana dharma, like Gandhi who is one of my mentors. 

    By Royalj - 12/31/2017 10:15:21 AM

  • Thanks Raman 
    For writing whole verse and not just quoting half.
    It reminds me my teenage, maternal uncle, he use to come and tell about the God of  sect he was following.
    He is use tell me that son my god is true God, but there is no compulsion to belive it, my God is so merciful that he will keep giving rebirth unless one of the birth cycle you will belive in him.
    I use to laugh at him and say wow so God has to keep this earth as long as I do not believe in him, is't good that it will give more souls to live on Mother Earth and get towards salvation who believes in your God, I will,make sure I will never belive in your God in every birth.
    Mr Raman this type of Ayat which looks like it is giving freedom will come with antidote of fear, this is enough to prove that it is manmade, like my maternal uncles words, so any sense of insecurity cannot be word of God. 
    Here is question, if God(Abrahmic God) is eternal cannot be made, he/her/.?? has no past, no future, than why he/her/??... is so unsecured, since start of revelations he/her/?? want to kill always human, it does not make sense that any eternal being is so insecure.

     It also does not make sense an eternal being who talks of killing and massacre of human is going to make humans also eternal, like Him/her/???. It also does not make sense that a eternal being through out human history had remain shortsighted on the earth and for heaven he/she/???will be large hearted and will make humans like him/her/??? eternal.
    Can moderator leave the space, I leave the space but everything is joined in one paragraph. Once it appears as public.

    By Aayina - 12/31/2017 1:33:08 AM

  • Thanks Raman for writing whole verse and not just quoting. It reminds me my teenage, My maternal uncle use to come use tell same thug for sect he was following, it your will son my god is true God, but there is no compulsion to belive it, my God is so merciful that he will keep giving rebirth unless in birth cycle you will belive in him. I use to laugh at him and say wow so God has to keep this earth as long as I do not believe in him, is't goof that it will give more souks to live on Mother Earth and get towards salvation. Mr Raman this type of Ayat which looks like it is giving freedom will come within antidote of fear, this is enough to prove that it is manmade, any sense of insecurity cannot be word of God. Here is question, if God(Abrahmic God) is eternal cannot be made, he/her/.?? has no past, no future, than why he/her/??... is so unsecured, since start of revolution he/her/?? want to kill always human it does not make any eternal being is so insecure. It also does not make sense an eternal being who talks of killing and massacre of human is going to make humans also eternal, like Him/her/???. It also does not make sense that a eternal being through out human history had remain shortsighted will be large hearted and will make humans like him/her/??? eternal.
    By Aayina - 12/30/2017 5:04:21 AM

  • Mr Ghulam Guss
    through centuries of harassment by Muslims to minority with the help of same books which you are using, it is the time to re-define not through Quran and Hadits.
    Through the atrocity history which was done by Muslims on minority.

    If the Muslim comite bad behaviour with minority than they should be punished more than even minority which will,stop Muslims from abusing minority.
    Muslims have not guts do that because they have to turn whole world into Darul-Harb. So minority has to be finished by harreshment and side by side lip service articles like yours to confuse minority living with Muslims and get killed or their women's hijacked.

    Good luck this type of articles, we will keep writing against unless we see a mass movement from Muslims across the globe and action which is visible,  for displaced minorities by Muslims.

    Lip service articles are useless, this type of movement is against you Mohmmad paigamber, because himself never fight for minority so did Quran does not have very good dealing with minority and we will not find a strong Hadees.

    You have to do this work on the atrocity history leaving Quran and Hardees aside, Muslims hearts are small they cannot do like Christians world who acknowledged holocost of Jews and find the solution on base of atrocities and not on the base of bible.

    In all christian world museum holocost section is their to remind their Christian that what inhuman act they did, and Muslim are busy in declaring holocst as conspiracy, Muslims have lost their human intellect.

    By Aayina - 12/30/2017 4:35:45 AM

  • Make your own judgement :

    2:256- 257 :  There should be no coercion in religion. The truth stands out clearly from error. Whoever renounces idolatry and believes in Allah will take hold of a strong handle that will not be broken. Allah hears and knows all. Allah is the protector of the faithful, leading them from out of the darkness and into the light. As for those who do not believe, their protectors are FALSE idols who lead them from the light and into the darkness. They are prisoners of the Fire and will live there forever.

    By Raman - 12/29/2017 10:31:24 PM

  • RoaylJ I said behave like animals not they are animals. Behaviour can change which look like humans. Just see the constant debat going on the word Kafir On this website, some of the scholars except Nasser Ahmed are playing with words, this word has killed millions, not only it killed but displaced millions. It is samething like Baba Ambedkar said to Gnadhiji let's burn the manusmruti but Gandhi played with word, the Baba Ambedkar was wright, manusmruti has to be buried for the progress of Hindu but it did not happen and he became Buddist. I am in favour of burning,( means not considering part of Hindu ethos anymore). I Icome from upperclass( as per sick Hindu mentality) I just consider myself human and Hindu, only reason to consider my self Hindu, because it has open architectures in regards to connecting to God, which can allow to see God through Quran or Jesus even if I want, not because I was born in so ans so cast. I can consider my self Muslim if it has open architecture, which existed breifly in India for short period of time, so we get Ras khan, a person who devoted himself for Krishna, and wrote excellent poem. A Dara Siko and many more Muslims who was believer of open architecture. Again I say this was brief period, it does not became a culture ethos which would have survived more. I challenge you and Mr Sutlan Shain just bring one man or women Articles, poems or any good letrature by Muslim devotee of Hindu Gods, this Era is over. You will find many Muslims which match Advait philosophy of Hinduism that it, some after matching try to establish superiority of Islam. Do not teach us to became universal and to remain Muslim exclusive. You talking of Sanatan Dharm, which gave right to worship whatever way you want, and not be killed, does Muslims actions thought out centuries proved that they are like Snatanis, they finished open architecture in land of Arab, Jews were there, they never imposed, Christians were they never imposed, but this people came as Muslims on name of Islam and massacred and displaced millions. This same sanatan relgion is about to finish, becuse constant aggression from all over the world, towards Hindus, Chritians are doing by publishing filthy books, Muslims do not need books they openly hurtly in their speech and use swords, due you think Muslims will come to protect followers of Sanatan Dharm, the so called liberal Muslims will watch like Bhismapitama. If you see from world point of view the only land left is Divided India, do this Muslims on this website has guts to write articles on millions of Hindus displaced and killed since last 200 years,(history of Indian subcontinent) just read the Mopla massacre, just read of Razakar massacre, Just see the Hindus thrown, killed and raped out from the Himalayan valleys, people talks of Gujart how many percentage of Muslims have decreased , I do not want to displaced them. Is it they are displaced, no Mr Roylaj, so it more like riot than exodus. Have you ever seen rally for Kashmiri pandit by Indian Muslims to replace tham back. I do not want to carry baggage of history, but Muslims history of exodus of other is relgion minority is constant, there are peace peoried in between, but that is irrelevant because you see whole picture not part. This is the animal behaviour which has only one chip, if Muslims behaviour constantly same, they should be called people who have animal behaviour, because of only one chip, sing a song of own victimisation and remain shun on others relgion followers. I bet you to show me the case where displaced population of other relgion by Muslims that has brought back, by Muslims. Humans change animals not. Sorry if had hurt you, I said they behave like animal, if you feel like animal that is your own problem. I do criticism all relgions it is not only Muslims, this form is for Muslims so my context are more towards Muslims. Anyway human is animal first and human latter, if humans actions are not civilised and causing others life than I don not know what word I should use, it would be better to call animal than terrorist, a word coined by westerners, atleast their is chance animal behaviour can be human, terrorist is mostly killed.
    By Aayina - 12/29/2017 6:02:43 PM

  • It is they who are peace-demolishers. They oppress Muslims and make them terrorists and then mock Islam and Muslims and abuse Islam and again they make terrorists this way is prolonged and continued.
    By Zahid Ansari - 12/29/2017 11:01:41 AM

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