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Interfaith Dialogue ( 18 Jun 2021, NewAgeIslam.Com)

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Huquq-ul-Ibad or Human Rights: The Ethical Soul of Islam, Hinduism, Christianity and All Other Religions

By Arman Neyazi, New Age Islam

19 June 2021

Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, Judaism and All Other Religious Faith Have the Same Essence of Brotherhood and Love for Fellow Human Beings

Main Points

1.    In Islamic parlance, there are two kinds of rights human beings have to fulfil one of them is Huqooqul Allah (Rights of Allah) and the second is Huqooq ul Ibad (Rights of Fellow Beings).

2.    He sent His vicegerent to test their spiritual ability to understand what is good and what is bad.

3.    Let us use our wisdom to the best of our ability and prove that we are true to the vicegerency bestowed upon us by Allah the All-Knowing.

4.    It is in our favour that we follow the righteous path shown by our religions, other great men of wisdom and be ready for our heavenly abode.

5.    All the human beings, counting the atheist gentlemen, take the ‘interpersonal rights’ or the Huqooqul Ibad as the foremost duty of a sensible person towards society.

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Huqooq-ul-Ibad --- a person's duty towards humanity, being good to others (Photo Courtesy/Islamic City)

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Creator of this world and the skies is one. He created this world to be an abode of peace. He coloured the canvas of the world with various colours. He used the colours of love, compassion, brotherhood hatred, envy and supremacism. He sent His vicegerent to test their spiritual ability to understand what is good and what is bad. He did not keep His will as a secret. He let everyone know of His desire to test them as a nation, as a community with different religious scriptures and different religious ethos. But He kept the basics of all the religions the same.

Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, Judaism and all other religious faith have the same essence of brotherhood and love for fellow human beings.

In Islamic religious parlance, there are two kinds of rights human beings have to fulfil to be selected as Creator’s true vicegerent. One of them is Huqooqul Allah (Rights of Allah) and the second is Huqooq ul Ibad (Rights of Fellow Beings). No religion does not talk of both the rights given to the human being to fulfil to get to the Creator’s good books.

The divinity is all kind, gracious and compassionate hence the human being can have faith in God to be forgiven for his sins, performed knowingly or unknowingly. But for the ‘interpersonal rights’ Allah the Most Gracious says that the person whose rights have been abused has the prerogative and powers to forgive or not to forgive.

It is, therefore, in our favour to consciously fulfil our responsibilities towards our fellow human beings and more so keep asking for forgiveness for the wrongs knowingly or unknowingly guided towards them. It should be noted here that all the love and affection among human being is only restricted till they are alive. In life hereafter, every soul will be concerned only with the self. There will be no relationship of any kind, except that of husband and wife who will live together in heaven. This also will happen only after the fulfilment of their punishment, if any.

All the Abrahamic and other religions call to fulfil the rights of the fellow human being as the most heavenly act is a testimony of the religions being a way of peaceful and harmonious life. All the human beings, counting the atheist gentlemen, take the ‘interpersonal rights’ or the Huqooqul Ibad as the foremost duty of a sensible person towards society. Consider below the beautiful Quranic Ayaat, the Prophetic traditions, the Shlokas and the sayings of the religious leaders to decide to make our human society an abode of peace, brotherhood, humility and tranquillity for the old, the destitute.

Human Rights and Quranic Revelations

The believers are nothing else than brothers.... (Surah Al-Hijrat verse 10)

“and do good to parents and to kindred, and orphans and the needy and speak good to people (Extract from; 2/83).

“and gives his dear wealth for love of Allah to kindred and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and the beggars and for redeeming necks, and establishes prayer and pays poor due (Zakat); and the performer of their promises when make promise and the patients in tribulation and adversity and at time of crusade;- These are they, who proved truth of their talks and they are only Allah-fearing” (Extract from; 2/177).

“No doubt, the extravagant are the brothers of the Devils (Satan). And the devil is very ungrateful to his Lord” (17/27).

“If you turn your face from them in seeking the mercy of your Lord for which you have hope, then speak to them a gentle word” (17/28).

“The poor-due (Zakat) is only for those who are poor and needy and those who collect it, and for those whose hearts are to be conciliated for Islam, and for the freeing of slaves, and for debtors, and for spending in the way of Allah and for the traveller. This has been ordained by Allah. And Allah is Knowing, Wise” (9/60).

Prophet Muhammad Pbuh and Huquq-ul-Ibad (Interpersonal Rights)

“There is a reward for serving any living being”. (Sahih al-Bukhari)

“While a man was walking along a path, he found a thorny branch of a tree on the way and removed it. Allah s.w.t. thanked him for that deed and forgave him”.  (Sahih al-Bukhari)

Prophet (PBUH) advised his companion, Abu Tharr: “If you cook something with gravy, increase the gravy and send some of it to your neighbours.” (Al-Bukhari).

Mu’adh bin Jabal reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “O Mu’adh, do you know what is the right of Allah upon His servants?” I said, “Allah and his messenger know best.” The Prophet said, “To worship Him alone and to associate none in worship with Him. And do you know what is their right upon Him?” I said, “Allah and his messenger know best.” The Prophet said, “Not to punish them if they do so.” (aī al-Bukhārī 6938, aī Muslim 30)

The Prophet (PBUH) said "Whoever touches the head of an orphan (with love), solely for Allah, a good deed will be written to his account for every hair over which he passed his hand, and whoever treated an orphan with goodness and kindness, he and I will be close to each other in Heaven as these two fingers and he held his two fingers together"

Prophet (PBUH) also said, "The best house among the Muslims is one where an orphan is well treated, and the worst house among the Muslims is one where an orphan is badly treated."

Abu Hurairah (RA) also reported that the Prophet (PBUH) was saying "Would you like that your heart becomes soft and that you get what you need? Be merciful with the Orphans, pat his head and feed him from what you eat. (Al-Bukhari)

Once Prophet Muhammad SAW was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! A certain woman prays in the night, fasts in the day, does pious actions and gives charity, but she injures and hurt her neighbours with her tongue.” The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “There is no good in her. She will go to Fire.” The Sahaba said, “Another woman prays only the prescribed prayers and gives very little as charity and does not injure anyone. Her neighbours happy with her attitude” The Messenger of God said, “She is one of the people of Paradise.” [Bukhari in Al-Adabul Mufrad]

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (R.A) mentions that Messenger of Allah SAW said, “Every Muslim has five rights over another Muslim i.e. (i) reply to Salam, (ii) visit the sick, (iii) attend funerals (iv) accept invitations and (v) respond to the sneezer (Sahih Bukhari).

"Every Muslim has five rights over another Muslim i.e. reply to Salam, visit the sick, attend funerals, accept invitations and respond to the sneezer (Sahih Bukhari).

Hinduism on the Importance of Human Rights

“By self-control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself.” (Mahabharata)

‘No one is superior or inferior; all are brothers; all should strive for the interest of all and progress collectively. (Rigveda, Mandala-5, Sukta-60, Mantra-5)

“Small and narrow-minded people look at the reality in terms of ‘this is yours and this is mine; for those of higher consciousness the whole world is a family”. (Ideal of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam)

Bhawan Shankar says, “O, Parvati, You bless those who serve their parents. Even Parabramha (Supreme God) is pleased with such a Jiva (embodied soul).”

The father, mother, teacher, elder brother and one's provider- these five are considered as one's superiors. He who desires prosperity should revere these superiors at all times by all means, even if he loses his life. (Kurma Purana 2.12.32, 33, 34)

No Deva can equal the mother and no superior can equal one's father. Hence, no son can get relieved of the debt he owes to them. (Kurma Purana 2.12.36)

Therefore, always try to do whatever pleases your parents and your teacher, because only then does any religious worship done by you will bear any fruit. (Manusmriti 2.227-228)

The lifespan, knowledge, glory and strength of him increase who pays respects to his elders regularly and serves them. (Manusmriti 2.121)

 He who serves his parents and teachers truly respects all the teachings of the scriptures. And the person who disrespects them will never get the fruit of any worship. (Manusmriti 2.234)

 “Let there be oneness in your resolutions, hearts and minds; let the determination to live with mutual cooperation be firm in you all”. (Rigveda, Mandala-10, Sukta-191, Mantra-4)

 “In the happiness of the subjects lies the happiness of the King; in their welfare his welfare. The King shall not consider what pleases himself as good; whatever pleases his subjects is only good for him” (Artha Shastra)

“All have equal rights to articles of food and water. The yoke of the chariot of life is placed equally on the shoulders of all. All should live together in harmony supporting one another like the spokes of a wheel of the chariot connecting its rim and hub”. (Atharva Veda – Samjnana Sukta)

Sikhism on Human Rights

If you honour your parents, your children will honour you. (Guru Granth Sahib)

The God-conscious being looks upon all alike, like the wind, which blows equally upon the king and the poor beggar.” (Guru Granth Sahib p. 272)

We are conceived and born from women. A woman is our life-long friend and keeps the race going. Why should we despise her, the one who gives birth to great men? (Guru Granth Sahib page 473)

Jainism Ideology on Human Rights

Ahinsa Parmo Dharma’ (nonviolence is the supreme spiritual value), ‘live and let live (Jiyo or Jine do) means compassion and forgiveness in thoughts, words and deeds towards all living beings.

Have compassion towards all living beings. Hatred leads to destruction. ~ Lord Mahavira

Respect for all living beings is non-violence. ~ Lord Mahavira

Just as you do not like misery, in the same way others also do not like it. Knowing this, you should do unto them what you want them to do unto you. ~ Lord Mahavira

One who cultivates an attitude of equality towards all living beings, mobile and stationary, can attain equanimity. Thus do the Kevalis say ~ Lord Mahavira

Buddhism

“Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.” (Buddha)

Biblical Ideology on Huqooq ul Ibad

“Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.” (Matthew 7:12)

“Love your neighbour as yourself. There is no commandment greater than these” (Mark 12, 31)

“But love your enemies, do good to them and lend to them without expecting to get anything back. Then your reward will be great” (Luke 6, 35)

“You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbour as yourself” (Leviticus 19:18)

Baháʼí Faith and Huqooq ul Ibad

“Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thou doest not.” (Bahá’u’lláh)

Beware lest ye commit that which would sadden the hearts of your fathers and mothers. Follow ye the path of Truth which indeed is a straight path. Should anyone give you a choice between the opportunity to render a service to Me and a service to them, choose ye to serve them, and let such service be a path leading you to Me. This is My exhortation and command unto thee. Observe therefore that which thy Lord, the Mighty, the Gracious, hath prescribed unto thee. (Bahá’u’lláh, Lights of Guidance, p. 230)

.... This bounty, however, will be vouchsafed only to such souls as having inflicted no harm upon Him Who is the Sovereign Truth nor upon His loved ones. (Bahá’u’lláh, The Compilation of Compilations vol. I, p. 386)

Say, O My people! Show honour to your parents and pay homage to them. This will cause blessings to descend upon you from the clouds of the bounty of your Lord, the Exalted, the Great. (Bahá’u’lláh, Lights of Guidance, p. 229)

When We learned of her sadness, We directed thee to return unto her, as a token of mercy unto thee from Our presence, and as an admonishment for others. (Bahá’u’lláh, Lights of Guidance, p. 229)

… Blessed is he who remembereth his parents when communing with God. (The Báb, Lights of Guidance, p. 230)

“The religion of God and His divine laws are the most potent instruments and the surest of all means for the dawning of the light of unity amongst men. (Bahá’u’lláh)

Vicegerents of God and the Interpersonal Rights

The first and the foremost duty of human beings is to fulfil the commands of the religions they follow and be sensitive to interpersonal rights as this is one thing one will certainly be punished in the life hereafter if one is not forgiven by the person whose rights are abused.

In a Hadees Prophet Muhammad Pbuh says, ‘“Not to punish them if they do so” (Sahih al-Bukhari 6938, Sahih Muslim 30)’, the ‘them’ here is a human being and it is the right of the mankind on Allah, ‘not to punish’. It is for sure that Allah, the Most Gracious will forgive His servants of their sins on the pretext of a minimum of good deeds, Insha’Allah. We, therefore, have to try our best and fulfil the rights of our brethren for a heavenly abode, forever.

Vicegerent of God, the Almighty has reached to the stars in the skies with the wisdom and intellect being bestowed upon him but is unable to perform his duties of interpersonal rights. He has individually as well as collectively reached the pinnacle of success but it is strange to note as to why he is unable to perform his interpersonal rights. Or is it that he does not understand its ramifications in his life hereafter. Both ways he is going to be a loser as all his achievements will remain here in this world for a few decades, perhaps, in his name and then he will remain in the dustbin of history forever. Let us use our wisdom to the best of our ability and prove that we are true to the vicegerency bestowed upon us by Allah the All-Knowing.

It is in our favour that we follow the righteous path shown by our religions, other great men of wisdom and be ready for our heavenly abode.

“Repay injury with justice and kindness with kindness." (Confucius)

“What is hateful to you, don’t do to your friend.” (Talmud, Shabat, 31, a)

And Allah Knows the Best.

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Arman Neyazi is a columnist with NewAgeIslam.com.

URL:    https://www.newageislam.com/interfaith-dialogue/huquq-ul-ibad-human-rights-ethical-soul/d/124993


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