New Age Islam
Sun Jul 12 2020, 03:52 PM

Ijtihad, Rethinking Islam ( 25 May 2020, NewAgeIslam.Com)

Comment | Comment

Is Quran the Word of God or Sayings of a Great Reformer? A Study of The Most Authoritative Books of Quran Sciences, Ahadith And Tafaseer By Imam Ibn Hanbal, Imam Suyuti, Ibn-e-Kaseer, Etc


By Abdur Rahman Hamza, New Age Islam

 

 26 May 2020

  

(Revised with some additions on 8 June 2020)

  

“Every madrasa in the world teaches that Qurʾān is uncreated, like God. The implication is that the universality of any of the verses of Quran cannot be questioned, all of them have to be followed till eternity and every instruction remains applicable to Muslims for ever. Now, with this understanding, how can one question the motives of Jihadis when they quote militant, war-time verses of Qurʾān from Surah Tawbah, Surah Anfal and several others to justify their actions.”

  

This is what Mr. Sultan Shahin said in his speech at UNHRC, Geneva on 19 November 2019 entitled “Indian Muslim Clergy to Counter ISIS Propaganda: But they should go beyond rhetoric to a genuine counter-narrative that refutes Jihadism based on traditional Islamic theology” Though, I highly appreciate Mr. Sultan Shahin’s  tireless efforts for bringing a progressive change in the Muslim attitude in order to come out of the trap they are in and march towards a better future, after a thorough study of the Quran, I have reached the conclusion that if we sincerely and honestly want to bring about a meaningful change in the  Muslim outlook, we will have to, go even beyond the question of createdness and uncreatedness of Quran. We must first of all, ponder over the question whether Quran is really the word of God or Hazrat Muhammad just used revelation as a convenient way of carrying out his mission which he thought was necessary to reform the uncivilized Arab society. In the times and environment, he lived in, claims of revelation was perhaps the most powerful way of influencing the minds of illiterate Bedouins living in a desert 1400 years ago.

 

 Unless we tackle this basic issue first and reflect on it openly and frankly, no reform in Muslim worldview seems possible. The question of createdness and uncreatedness of Quran will stand automatically resolved if we accept Hazrat Mohammad as a great reformer of his time.

 

We find in the Quran many examples of the verses being produced as mere response to a particular situation after an incident had already occurred. They cannot be said to have been written in Lauh-e-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet, co-eternal with God, lying in an eternal divine vault in Heaven) from before the creation as is believed by majority of Muslims. This is not possible as some of the verses are statements of Hazrat Muhammad during verbal confrontations between him and his opponents while some others are desires, suggestions or statements made by his close friends, Sahaba and his wives which were immediately testified to by Allah (or Hazrat Muhammad) as a part of revelations. Here are a few such examples:

 Note: The occasions of the revelation of all these verses are mentioned in the most authoritative books on the study of Quran, taught in all madrasas, “Al- Itqan Fi Uloom-il- Quran (The Perfect Guide to the Sciences of the Qur’an) by Allama Jalaluddin Suyuti and Tafseer Ibne Kathir, etc. Interestingly, Maulana Maududi, Maulana Shabbir Usmani and many others have completely refrained from mentioning them in their discourses on Quran. The reasons are not difficult to imagine.

 

First example: Quran 2:125

وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَهِيمَ مُصَلًّى

 

2: 125 (And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning, they return to it repeatedly.’’ He then narrated that Anas bin Malik said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “I agreed with my Lord, or my Lord agreed with me, regarding three matters. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I wish you take the Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.’ The Ayah,

﴿وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَهِيمَ مُصَلًّى﴾

 

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)) was revealed. I also said, `O Messenger of Allah! The righteous and the wicked enter your house. I wish you would command the mothers of the believers (the Prophet’s wives) to wear Hijab. Allah sent down the Ayah that required the Hijab. And when I knew that the Prophet was angry with some of his wives, I came to them and said, `Either you stop what you are doing, or Allah will endow His Messenger with better women than you are.’ I advised one of his wives and she said to me, `O `Umar! Does the Messenger of Allah not know how to advise his wives, so that you have to do the job instead of him’ Allah then revealed:

﴿عَسَى رَبُّهُ إِن طَلَّقَكُنَّ أَن يُبْدِلَهُ أَزْوَجاً خَيْراً مِّنكُنَّ مُسْلِمَـتٍ﴾

 

(It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you. (66:5)

 

Tafseer Ibn Kathir further says: (at that time) Umar said:  "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, what trouble do you feel from your wives If you have divorced them, verily Allah is with you, His angels, Jibril, Mikal, I, Abu Bakr and the rest of believers are with you.' Often, when I talked, all praise is due to Allah, I hoped that Allah would testify to the words that I uttered. And so, the Ayat of option was revealed. Allah said,

(Maybe his Lord, if he divorces you, will give him in your place wives better than you,) and, (but if you help one another against him, then verily, Allah is his Protector, and Jibril, and the righteous among the believers; and after that the angels are his helpers.

These verses related to the scandal of Maria Qibtia.

 

Second example: Quran 33:35

 

إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

 

35. Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women, the Qanit: men and the women, the men and women who are truthful, the men and the women who are patient, the Khashi`: men and the women, the men and the women who give Sadaqat, the men and the women who fast, the men and the women who guard their chastity and the men and the women who remember Allah much with their hearts and tongues, Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.

 

The Reason for Revelation

 

Founder of the Hanbali school of Sunni jurisprudence, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded that Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet said, "I said to the Prophet, `Why is it that we are not mentioned in the Qur'an as men are.' Then one day without my realizing it, he was calling from the Minbar (a pulpit in the mosque) and I was combing my hair, so I tied my hair back then I went out to my chamber in my house, and I started listening out, and he was saying from the Minbar: Quran 33: 35

 

«يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ:

﴿إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ……﴾»


(O(O people! Verily Allah says: [For Muslim men and women,- for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in Charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise,- for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.]  Quran 33: 35 '')

This incident and Umm Salamah’s statement were also recorded by An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir..

 

(Note that “O people! Verily Allah says: “is not part of the Quran, though reported by Umm Salamah as part of revelation.)

 

Third example: Quran 2:97-98

 

قُلْ مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ٩٧مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ٩٨

 

97. Say (O Muhammad ): "Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'an) down to your heart by Allah's permission, confirming what came before it (i.e. the Tawrah and the Injeel) and guidance and glad tidings for the believers. 98. "Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.''

 

 The Reason for Revelation

 

Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari said, "The scholars of Tafsir agree that this Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response to the Jews who claimed that Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of the Jews and that Mika'il (Michael) is their friend.'' Al-Bukhari said, "Allah said,

 

Say (O Muhammad): "Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), 98. "Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.''

 

Allama Jalaluddin Suyuti writes in “Al- Itqan Fi Uloomil Quran” that it has been narrated that Abdur Rehman Bin Abi Laila said that one day a Jew met Umar Bin Al- Khattab and said to him. “Gabriel about whom your friend (Muhammad) often talks is our enemy. Umar replied, “Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.'' Abdur Rehman says Umars’s words were testified by Allah and this verse was revealed.

 

Allama Suyuti has also mentioned many verses which were actually words from the mouth of Sahabah (Hazrat Muhammad’s followers) and were later testified by Allah (or Hazrat Muhammad) and became part of the Quran. Apart from these, there are many examples of Hazrat Muhammad being rescued rather conveniently from one predicament or another by divine revelation about which Hazrat Aisha, his favourite wife, once commented, “I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires.

 

Fourth example: Quran 2:196

 

وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ۖ وَلَا تَحْلِقُوا رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَو

بِهِ أَذًى مِنْ رَأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِنْ صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُك ٍ

 

 2: 196. “And complete Hajj and `Umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady that you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either fasting or giving Sadaqah or a sacrifice.”

 

The Reason for Revelation

 

Al-Bukhari reported that `Abdur-Rahman bin Asbahani said that he heard `Abdullah bin Ma`qil saying that he sat with Ka`b bin Ujrah in the mosque of Kufah (in Iraq). He then asked him about the Fidyah of the fasting. Ka`b said, "This was revealed concerning my case especially, but it is also for you in general. I was carried to Allah's Messenger and the lice were falling in great numbers on my face. The Prophet said:

«مَا كُنْتُ أُرَى أَنَّ الْجَهْدَ بلَغَ بكَ هذَا، أمَا تَجِدُ شَاة»؟

؟: لَاقُلْتُ

(I never thought that your ailment (or struggle) had reached such an extent as I see. Can you afford a sheep (for sacrifice)' I replied in the negative.) He then said:

 

«صُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ أَوْ أَطْعِمْ سِتَّةَ مَسَاكِينَ، لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ نِصْفُ صَاعٍ مِنْ طَعَامٍ، وَاحْلِقْ رَأْسَك»

 

(Fast for three days or feed six poor persons, each with half a Sa` of food (1 Sa` = 3 kilograms approx.) and shave your head.)

 

So, this is a general judgement derived from a specific case.

 

We also find plenty of examples of just in-time revelations in the Quran. The following is one such example of the prophet of Allah being rescued rather conveniently from one predicament by divine revelation.

 

لَا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۚ

 

Q 4:95: “Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives.”

Interpretation of this verse in Sahih Bukhari:

 

حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ، قَالَ لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ ‏{‏لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ‏}‏ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ ادْعُ لِي زَيْدًا وَلْيَجِئْ بِاللَّوْحِ وَالدَّوَاةِ وَالْكَتِفِ ـ أَوِ الْكَتِفِ وَالدَّوَاةِ ـ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ اكْتُبْ لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ ‏"‏ وَخَلْفَ ظَهْرِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَمْرُو بْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ الأَعْمَى قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَمَا تَأْمُرُنِي فَإِنِّي رَجُلٌ ضَرِيرُ الْبَصَرِ فَنَزَلَتْ مَكَانَهَا ‏{‏لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {‏غَيْرُ أُولِي لضَّرَرِ‏}‏‏"‏

 

Translation:

 Narrated Al-Bara:

 There was revealed: 'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah.' (4.95) The Prophet () said, "Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the inkpot and the scapula bone (or the scapula bone and the ink pot)."' Then he said, "Write: 'Not equal are those Believers who sit..", and at that time `Amr bin Um Maktum, the blind man was sitting behind the Prophet (). He said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is your order for me (as regards the above Verse) as I am a blind man?" So, instead of the above Verse, the following Verse was revealed: 'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc.) and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah.' (4.95) - Sahih Bukhari 6:61:512

Note the sequence of events in the above hadith:

Prophet Muhammad receives a revelation, which is part of Sura 4:95 as it exists today.

Prophet Muhammad calls Zaid to write down the revelation and begins to recite it to Zaid: “All who fail to participate in jihad are viewed as inferior to those who do participate.”

A blind man asks how the verse applies to him, since he is blind and cannot participate in jihad.

Prophet Muhammad then conveniently receives a new revelation that adds an exception to jihad for the blind and disabled.

 The famous Pakistani Alim Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, the son of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi’s Khalifah Mufti Shafi Usmani, in his book, ‘The Chronology and Background of Quranic Revelation’ says  that “The  smallest portion of the Quran to be  revealed  was ” لضرر غيرأولى "...except those who are disabled” (al-Nisa’, 4:94) which forms part of a longer verse.


 In the light of the above verses, it is difficult to determine which verse is genuine (divine), which verse is altered and which verse is simply a human addition.


Before we reach a final conclusion, it would be appropriate for us to look at a few Islamic rulings which are open violation of human rights, but Islam retained some of them in their original form and some others with minor changes because these  were common among the Bedouin tribes of pre-Islamic Arabia and were not considered flawed. Here are some examples:


(1) Punishment for adultery: First the Qur'an commanded such women to be imprisoned in the house for life according to the old custom of the Arab society (4:15) and later according to the second commandment they are to be stoned to death which was the punishment in the Torah.


(2) Punishment for theft: Verse 5:38 “As for the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands. It is the reward of their own deeds, an exemplary punishment from Allah. Allah is Mighty, Wise”.

 

(3) Violence against women: The Qur'an allows the husband to beat his wife for disobeying and speaking out, although severe beating, that is, beating that causes injury is forbidden. The purpose of the permission for husband to beat his wife lightly is to force her to obey. Reference: Majmooa-e-Qawaneen-ne- Islami, Published by Muslim Personal Law Board Page 150 Section 214


(4) Arrangement of marriage of a minor by the father or grand-father: If the father or grandfather arranged with good intention, the marriage of the minor to a person who is not equal to her in the society, for example, the husband is illiterate, poor or illiterate  whereas the girl is from a civilized and educated family, then the marriage will take place and it will remain obligatory. In such a case, even after reaching puberty, the girl will not have the right to get the marriage annulled. In case the girl insists on annulment, she will have to prove to the Qazi the cruelty of the husband or that he is suffering from some communicable disease. Then, the Qazi will take the decision at his own discretion because in Islam, marriage is the slavery of the woman and after the marriage the husband becomes the owner of the wife's body just as the slave girl is his property. That is why the Mahr  (dowry) is called “Maal-e- Buza in Islam, i.e. the price of woman’s vulva  (her private parts). - Reference: Majmooa-e-Qawaneen-e- Islami, Published by Muslim Personal Law Board, Page 238 Section 323 with Arabic footnote.


Note: The custom of selling daughters by their fathers existed in the Arab society as one of four types of marriages before the advent of Islam with the exception that the mehr was then received by the father, not by the daughter).


(5) If a man remarries without the consent of the first wife and the first wife cannot bear the trauma and she only demands khula  (separation), still the woman does not have the right to khula on that basis. (when Ayyub Khan introduced family laws in Pakistan and gave this right to the first wife if she is unable to reconcile, the Ulema of that country vehemently opposed it by saying that it was un-Islamic).


(6) In the case of Qisas (retaliation in kind), Islamic law says that if a Muslim kills an infidel, the Muslim will not be killed in return, but the heirs of the slain person will be forced to take Diyat (blood money). And the amount of Diyat is also very discriminatory. For example, in Saudi Arabia, where Islamic law is enforced, the Diyat of the slain people belonging to different religions is like this.


Diyat (blood money) of a Muslim victim is 100,000 riyals
Diyat for a Muslim woman and a Christian man is 50,000 riyals
Diyat of a Christian woman 25000 riyals
Diyat of a Hindu man is 6,666 riyals
Diyat of a Hindu woman is 3,333 riyals

 

 (7) Apostasy: Apostasy is punishable by death or life imprisonment. A person is born in a Muslim home so he is called a Muslim without any reference to his will or consciousness. When he grows up and becomes an adult, he studies Islam honestly, reads the books written by his own elders and Islamic scholars and finds many things unreasonable or out of date. He is not satisfied with this religion and ultimately decides to leave it. Now, as per the Islamic law he will be given a chance to repent and come back to the fold of Islam within three days, but if he fails to do so in the stipulated period, he will be sentenced to death or life imprisonment. This practice is considered against the freedom of religion and freedom of conscience in today's world.


(8) If the father of a minor girl dies and she has no grandfather either, then her uncle or uncle’s son becomes her guardian. Now, if a situation arises when the minor girl is forced to be married , then her mother who gave birth to her, does not have the right to choose her daughter’s husband, instead, the uncle, and  in his absence,  the cousin of the minor girl will have the right to choose her husband.


(9) Marriage of a minor girl: Marriage of a minor girl is permissible in Islam. Even a three- or four-year-old girl can get married. Scholars advice the husband not to have intercourse with her until she becomes an adult, but if the husband does so and the child is injured or physically harmed as a result, then the husband, though, will be responsible for her treatment, but neither he will  be punished in this world, nor will he be sinful in the sight of God.

 

(10) If a father kills his son or daughter, retribution (Qisaswill not be taken from the father even if the mother of the slain son or daughter demands it.


(11)  Although slavery is now abolished, it is not without interest to know that if a master kills his slave, the master will not be killed in retaliation. This was the custom in the Arab society even before the advent of Islam. This practice continued in Islam.


(12) Offensive Jihad: The jihad movements being waged by ISIS, Boko Haram and various Islamic organizations in fact represent the true teachings of Islam, even though our scholars issue fatwas against it saying that their activities are un-Islamic. These are just rhetoric. After reading the commentaries of Maulana Abul-Ala Maududi, Syed Qutb of Egypt, Mufti Shafi Usmani of Pakistan and Allama Ibn Katheer etc, it becomes crystal clear that verse 193 of Surah Al- Baqarah demands from all Muslims to keep fighting for the world domination of Islam till the Day of Judgment. 


However, Islamic jurisprudence allows Muslims to extend a hand of friendship and peace to non-Muslims wherever they are weak and do not have the strength to fight and win, but it is mandatory for them to try their utmost to strengthen themselves within, and when they are confident of victory in any  part of the world, they must wage jihad under the leadership of a Khalifah and must reject the offer of friendship and peaceful coexistence and strive to enforce Sharia. This offensive jihad is farz-e-kifayah. ISIS and Boko Haram etc. are the true followers of real Islam. These organizations are citing the Qur'an and Hadith, particularly the war related verses of surah AL-Anfal, surah At-Taubah and surah Al-Baqarah (verse 193), as proof of their jihad being Islamic.


In fact, most of the above practices are those that were already prevalent in Arab society. The society in which Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) opened his eyes was a tribal society consisting of illiterate Bedouin tribes. Obviously, in order to reform such a society, it was possible to reform it only within the limitations of the same social structure. For this, it was necessary to take into account their temperament, beliefs and habits. Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavi writes in his famous book Hujjatullah -ul-Balghah that, when  prophets  legislate Shara’e ( plural of Sharia) laws, they take into account all the hidden beliefs and habits that are embedded in the people such as the disease, “ Maraz-e- Kalb” (Rabies) is embedded in a person.  Reference: Hujjatullah al-Balighah, Volume I, Page 224, Chapter 56.  

 

See also Hujjatullah al-Balighah, Volume I, Chapter-73, Page No- 32. For further details.

 

Note: Mufti Abdul Quddus Rumi Saheb Marhoom, the then mufti shaher Agra, had serious objection to Hujjatullh-ul-Balighah being taught in Darul Uloom Deoband, by Qari Tayyab Saheb Marhoom, the then rector of the madrasah.


In the light of the above facts, it can be rightly assumed that not all the rules of Islam are eternal and universal, but most of the rules could only apply to that generation and that also for a certain period of time.

 

However, the fact that most of the teachings of the Qur'an are useful and worthy of imitation for humanity is beyond dispute. But we must also realize that the changes that Prophet Muhammad brought to Arab society were merely an improvement for that region and society of that time. In his time and in his generation, Hazrat Muhammad was a great social reformer. He created a new system of social security and a family structure that improved the previous system. We can accept the good things out of it and let go of the things that are harmful to us in the 21st century, such as offensive jihad, underage marriage, violence against women, etc.

 

Therefore, the change of time and place demands that Islamic jurisprudence be revised and amended so that it can meet the requirements of the 21st century.
In the light of the above facts, some people would be right in concluding that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was a great social reformer and that he adopted the method which was most appropriate at that time for the betterment of his uncivilized society. It seems that he himself may have felt that he was chosen by God to do this job. This is also conceivable in the light of the rational explanation offered by Shah Waliyyullah when, after mentioning Hazrat Muhammad and Hazrat Maryam seeing Hazrat Jibril and Hazrat Muhammad’s Meraj (ascending to heavens) experience and some other similar incidents, he has written, that  all  these things can also be considered as sensory existence, which means that it was merely a feeling of the person concerned  i.e., Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and Hazrat Maryam as is the case with a person in a state of sleep or illness when he  visualises strange things and hears terrible voices which are his own feelings while in reality, they do not exist outside in  the real world.

 

It is tragic, that all this information is contained in the writings of our elders. Allama Suyuti's al-Atqan Fi Uloom-il-Quran is available for external study in all Islamic madrassas including Darul Uloom Deoband, Mazahirul Uloom, Saharanpur, And Brailvi madrasas, all over the country and is part of the curriculum of Islamic studies at Jamia Millia Islamia and Aligarh Muslim University. Hujjatullah Al-Balgha is being taught in the specialization curriculum after Faraghat in Darul Uloom Deoband.

 

 It is written in the same book, “Al-Itqan Fi Uloom-il-Quran that Hazrat A’esha said  that after  the death of the Holy Prophet, when People were busy preparing and burying his dead body,  many verses of the Qur'an, including the verse of stoning and many verses of surah Al-Ahzab which were written on leaves and were placed under the pillow were eaten by the animal of the house (goat). Therefore, a large part of the Qur'an has now disappeared from the Qur'an. If so, what about God's promise to protect the Qur'an?  

 

On his part, Shah Waliyyullah has written in Hujjatullah-ul-Balighah, “It was the duty of the prophet (Hazrat Muhammad) to establish the domination of Islam over all other religions and not leave anybody outside its domination whether they accept it voluntarily or after humiliation. Thus, the people will be divided into three categories. 

 

“1) Those who follow the religion of Islam inwardly (sincerely).  

“2) Those who follow Islam outwardly because they have no other option and no capability to resist.

“3) Lowly Kafir (unbelievers), who have to be tasked with lowly labour works like harvesting, threshing, carrying of loads, for which animals are used.  

 

“The messenger of God also imposes a law of suppression and humiliation on the kafirs and imposes jizya on them in order to dominate and humiliate them …. He does not treat them as equal to Muslims in the matters of Qisas (Retaliation in kind), Diyat (blood money), marriage and government administration so that these restrictions should ultimately force them to embrace Islam.”

 

Now, our claim of Islam being a religion of peace and “la ikraha fiddin” (there is no compulsion in religion) becomes meaningless.  It should have happened that these books would not have existed in the first place, or if they had, they should have been burnt in the beginning if our Ulema wanted to protect the Muslims’ aqeedah (faith) in prophethood.  


The questions that naturally come to mind after reading these books have no satisfactory answers. Instead, the questioner is only asked not to let these questions prop up in his mind, lest the faith in prophet-hood should be lost. How is this possible?

 

درمیان قعرِ دریا تختہ بندم کردئی ۔۔۔۔ باز می گوئی کہ دامن تر مکن ہشیا ر باش

Translation: "I have been tied to a plank in the middle of the river and then it is said to me, "Look, don't get wet, be careful.”

 

How can this be?

 

URL: https://newageislam.com/ijtihad,-rethinking-islam/abdur-rahman-hamza,-new-age-islam/is-quran-the-word-of-god-or-sayings-of-a-great-reformer?-a-study-of-the-most-authoritative-books-of-quran-sciences,-ahadith-and-tafaseer-by-imam-ibnhanbal,-jalaluddin-suyuti,-ibn-e-kaseer,-etc/d/121950


New Age IslamIslam OnlineIslamic WebsiteAfrican Muslim NewsArab World NewsSouth Asia NewsIndian Muslim NewsWorld Muslim NewsWomen in IslamIslamic FeminismArab WomenWomen In ArabIslamophobia in AmericaMuslim Women in WestIslam Women and Feminism


Compose your comments here

Total Comments (75)


Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the articles and comments are the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect that of NewAgeIslam.com

Total Comments (75)

  1. چند سال پہلے چار پانچ جلدوں میں ایک کتاب شائع ہوئی ۔ اس میں قرآنِ پاک کے بارے میں دورِ جدید کے صفِ اوّل کے مستشرقین کے منتخب مضامین شائع ہوئے ۔ ان مضامین میں بہت سی باتیں کہی گئی ہیں۔ ایک عجیب و غریب بات یہ کہی گئی ہے کہ قرآنِ پاک میں صرفی نحوی اغلاط ہیں۔ اس بات کو بہت زور و شور سے بیان کیا گیا۔
    کئی سال پہلے جب یہ کتاب نئی نئی شائع ہوئی تھی تو مجھے ایک مغربی ملک جانے کا اتفاق ہوا تھا۔ وہاں ایک صاحب جو مسلمانوں کے ساتھ دوسروں کے مقابلہ میں قدرے ہمدردی رکھتے تھے، ان سے کئی روز گفتگو رہی۔ انہوں نے ایک دن اس کتاب کا ذکر کیا اور زور دے کر کہا کہ قرآنِ پاک میں صرفی و نحوی اغلاط پائی جاتی ہیں۔ یہ بڑی عجیب بات ہے۔
    میں نے ان سے پوچھا کہ انگریزی زبان کی قدیم ترین گرامر کی کتاب کب لکھی گئی تھی؟ انہوں نے کہا کہ مجھے معلوم نہیں۔ میں نے کہا چلیں کسی اور سے معلوم کر لیتے ہیں۔ کسی سے پوچھا تو بتایا گیا کہ دو سو یا سوا دو سو سال پہلے لکھی گئی تھی۔ میں نے کہا اگر انگریزی گرامر کی کسی کتاب میں اور شکسپیئر کے کلام میں کوئی تناقض ہو تو آپ شکسپیئر کو نحوی غلطی کا مرتکب کہیں گے یا اس کتاب کے مصنف کو غلطی کا مرتکب اور اس کے بیان کو غلط قرار دیں گے جس نے گرامر کی کتاب لکھی ہے۔
    کہنے لگا کہ یقینا مصنف نے غلط لکھا ہو گا۔ میں نے کہا کہ عربی زبان میں گرامر کی جو قدیم ترین کتابیں لکھی گئیں وہ نزولِ قرآن کے دو سو برس بعد لکھی گئیں اور غیر عربوں نے لکھیں۔ اگر قرآنِ مجید میں گرامیٹیکل مسٹیک ہوتی تو کفارِ مکہ اور مشرکین اور پوری عرب دنیا خاموش نہ رہتی اور اس غلطی کا بتنگڑ بنا دیتی۔ وہ عرب فصحاءجو قرآن کے چیلنج کے جواب میں خاموش تھے، وہ اس غلطی کی نشاندہی کرتے۔ لیکن کبھی بھی کسی بڑے سے بڑے ادیب اور عرب کے بڑے سے بڑے شاعر نے قرآنِ مجید کے کسی اسلوب یا انداز کو عربی زبان اور گرامر سے متعارض نہیں کہا۔
    پھر میں نے ان سے عرض کیا کہ اردو زبان میں قدیم ترین گرامر ایک مغربی مصنف ڈاکٹر گِل کرائسٹ نے لکھی تھی۔ گل کرائسٹ کی گرامر اردو کی قدیم ترین گرامر ہے۔ میں نے کہا کہ اردو وہ ہے جو مرزا غالب نے لکھی ہے، خواہ گل کرائسٹ کچھ بھی کہے۔ مرزا غالب کی کوئی تحریر اگر ڈاکٹر گل کرائسٹ کے سارے قواعد کے خلاف بھی ہو گی تو یہی کہا جائے گا کہ گل کرائسٹ کی کتاب غلط ہے، اس نے اردو زبان کے قواعد کو غلط سمجھا ہے۔ گل کرائسٹ کے کسی بیان سے مرزا اسد اللہ غالب کا کلام غلط نہیں ہوگا۔ اور اردو وہ ہے جو ذوق نے لکھی۔ اردو وہ ہے جو میر تقی میر نے لکھی۔ اگر ان اساطینِ اردو کے بر خلاف اردو کے کسی بڑے سے بڑے ماہرِ صرف نے کوئی بات لکھی ہے تو وہ غلط ہے۔
    لہٰذا عربی زبان وہ ہے جو قرآنِ پاک میں بیان ہوئی ہے۔ عربی زبان وہ ہے جو حضور علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی زبانِ مبارک سے نکلی۔ جس کو دشمنوں نے، اپنوں پرایوں دونوں نے عربی زبان کا اعلیٰ ترین معیار قرار دیا۔ جنہوں نے قرآنِ مجید کے ادبی اعجاز کے سامنے سرِ تسلیم خم کیا۔ لہٰذا اس اصول کی رو سے قرآنِ مجید اور حدیث رسول کی زبان ہی اصل، معیاری اور ٹکسالی عربی زبان ہو گی اور اگر گرامر کی کسی کتاب میں اس کے خلاف لکھا گیا ہے تو غلط لکھا گیا ہے۔
    (از محاضراتِ سیرت۔ ڈاکٹر محمود احمد غازی، ص 715-716)
    By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi غلام غوث الصديقي 12/07/2020 11:03:34
  2. گرامر کے قواعد اہل زبان کے تعامل کو سامنے رکھ کر متعین کیے جاتے ہیں۔ ان کی صحت وعدم صحت اہل زبان کے عمل کی کسوٹی پر پرکھ کر طے کی جاتی ہے ان کی روشنی میں اہل زبان کو غلط قرار نہیں دیا جاتا۔ قرآن مجید میں کوئی ایک جملہ بھی ایسا نہیں ہے جو عربوں کے معروف اسالیب اور تراکیب کے مطابق نہ ہو۔ زمخشری ، سیبویہ اور ابن ہشام جیسے نحوی اپنے قواعد کے لیے سب سے محکم شاہد قرآن مجید کے جملوں کو قرار دیتے ہیں اور اعتماد کے ساتھ قرآن مجید سے مثالیں نقل کرتے ہیں۔ یہ اہل فن کے ہاں مسلم ہے کہ گرامر کی کوئی کتاب زبان کے تمام امکانات کا احاطہ نہیں کرتی۔ چنانچہ نئے ماہرین اس کمی کی تلافی کا کام جاری رکھتے ہیں۔ اگر کسی کو قرآن مجید کا کوئی جملہ اپنی مزعومہ گرامر کے مطابق نظر نہیں آتا تو اسے چاہیے کہ اسے اپنے علم کی کمی سمجھے۔ یہاں میں یہ بھی عرض کر دوں کہ آج تک نحوی غلطیوں کی جو مثالیں بھی پیش کی گئی ہیں ان کا تجزیہ کرکے بتا دیا گیا ہے کہ یہ دعوی درست نہیں ہے۔ 
    لہذا ان تجزیات کا پہلے مطالعہ کیا جائے تاکہ صحیح علم حاصل ہو 
    By GGS 12/07/2020 10:58:31
  3. The Quran isn't said to have correct grammargrammar is said to follow the Quran, that's how it goes. ... The Quran can't have grammatical errors because Arabic Grammar itself is based on the Quran. The Quran is the standard of Arabic Grammar, not the other way around.
    (Copied) 

    By Zakir 12/07/2020 10:40:11
  4. وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ٤٤لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ٤٥ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ٤٦فَمَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَاجِزِينَ٤٧

    اس آیت کی ترکیب ملاحظہ فرمائیں تاکہ آپ کو اس کی صحت کا اندازہ ہو سکے

    واو حرف عطف، لو  شرطیہ غیر جازمہ ، تقول فعل ماضی اس کا فاعل مستتر ، علینا ظرف لغو ، بعض مضا ف ، الاقاویل مضاف الیہ ، مضاف اپنے مضاف الیہ سے مل کر مفعول ، فعل اپنے فاعل ، ظرف لغو اور مفعول سے مل کر شرط ، لام جواب شرط کی جگہ میں واقع ہے ، اخذنا  میں اخذ فعل ماضی نا ضمیر جمع متکلم ، من حرف جار ، ہ محلا مجرور ، حرف جار ، الیمین مجرور ، فعل اپنے فاعل اور متعلقات سے ملکر جملہ فعلیہ ہو کر معطوف علیہ ، ثم حرف عطف ، لام جواب شرط کی تاکید ، قطعنا فعل بافاعل ، منہ جار ومجرور متعلق بالفعل ، الوتین  مفعول ، فعل اپنے فاعل ، ظرف لغو اور مفعول سے ملکر جملہ فعلیہ ہو کر معطوف ، معطوف علیہ اپنے معطوف سے ملکر جواب شرط ،  شرط اپنے جواب یعنی جزا سے ملکر  جملہ شرطیہ

    اسی طرح آگے والے جملے کو بھی اسی ترکیب میں لا سکتے ہیں مثلا ، فا حرف شرط ، ما نافیہ ، من حرف جار ، کم مجرور ، من حرف جار ، احد مجرور، لفظا واحد لیکن معنی کے اعتبار سے جمع ہے ، عنہ اپنے ما بعد کے متعلق ہے اورحاجزین صفت ہو گئی احد موصوف کی

    عربی میں قاعدہ ہے موصوف اپنی صفت سے مطابقت رکھتی ہے

    اگر صفت، صفت حقیقی ہو تو بیک وقت چار چیزوں میں مطابقت ہوگی لیکن صفت اگر صفت سببی ہو تو بیک وقت دد چیزوں میں مطابقت ہوگی ،

    یہاں ہم دیکھتے ہیں احد موصوف ہے ، جو کہ (۱)مجرور ہے ، (۲) نکرہ ہے (۳) معنی کے اعتبار سے جمع ہے (۴) اور مذکر ہے

    اسی طرح حاجزین جوکہ احد کی صفت ہے اپنے موصوف سے چار چیزوں میں مطابقت رکھتی ہے  (۱)حاجزین  حالت جری میں ہے لہذا مجرور ہے ، اگر حاجزوں کہتے تو اپنے موصوف سے مطابقت نہ ہوتی (۲) نکرہ ہے ،  (۳) جمع ہے (۴) مذکر

    لہذا آیت کریمہ نحوی یعنی گرامر کے اعتبار سے بالکل درست ہے ۔

    عربی ادب آج اگر زندہ ہے تو اس کی وجہ قرآن و سنت ہے لیکن یہ حمزہ صاحب ہیں جو زبردستی بلکہ مستشرقین کی نام نہاد  تحقیق کو سپرد قرطاس وقلم کر رہے ہیں ۔اللہ تعالی ایسی اندھی تقلید سے امت مسلمہ کی حفاظت فرمائے ۔آمین بجاہ سید المرسلین صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم      

    By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi غلام غوث الصديقي 12/07/2020 10:19:07
  5. Mr Hamza writes, “And what about grammatical rules broken just for creating Rhyming words as can be seen in the following verses. Definitely, these errors cannot be said to be the errors of Katibs. For example: Quran 69 :44-47

    “وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ٤٤لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ٤٥ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ٤٦فَمَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَاجِزِينَ٤٧ “

    “In this verse, the grammatical rule has been broken just for creating rhyming words so that all the preceding and following sentences can end with similar sound.

    “The last word “ حَاجِزِينَ” (Hajizeen) should be Haajizun (It has two mistakes, one is that it is  in the form of declension called "nasab” while it should be in the form of “rafa” the second is that it is in plural form while it should be in singular form).

    “Rhyming words here are: yameen, wateen, Hajizeen.”

    By Abdul Rehman Hamza 14/06/2020 08:56:30

    …………

    Hamza sb, how can you say there are grammatical mistakes in this verse? Your knowledge is nothing but an idea borrowed from orientalists, missionaries who spent all their life in making baseless arguments about grammatical errors, religious borrowing, etc.

    Your comment shows your unawareness of Arabic grammar. Before I refute your mistakes, let me clear it to you that it is the Quran and the Prophetic Sunnah that has preserved the Arabic language, not the opposite.

    You should learn the rule of Tarkib by which you can know accuracy of Arabic sentences. I am presenting the Tarkib of the above mentioned verse in order to correct your knowledge.

    “وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ٤٤لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ٤٥ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ٤٦فَمَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَاجِزِينَ٤٧ “

    Waw is Harf Atf, Lau is Shartiya ghar jazima, Taqawwala is past tense, its subject is mustatar that refers to the Propeht (peace be upon him), Alaina is Zarf al-Laghwa, Baadh is Mudaf, al-Aqaweel is Mudaf ilaih which grammatically takes Kathra, and both Mudaf and Mudaf ilaihi will become Mafuool (object)

    Taqawwala-Past tense, with its Zarf al-Laghwa and Mafuool will become= Shart (condition)

    Then Lam is jawab al-shart, akhazna includes verb and subject, minhu is mutalliq of verb, Ba is Harf al-Jarr, al-Yameen is Majrur (you should know that when Harf al-Jarr particle comes on any word, the word becomes Majrur (with kasra known as Zer in India),

    Akhazna –verb with its Zarf al-Laghw = Jumla Feliya + Jaza

    Shart + Jaza = Jumla Shartiya (conditional sentence)

    Thumma is Harf al-Hatf, Laqatana minhu al-wateen is Matoofa on its previous sentence,

    Faa is Harf al-Atf, Maa is Naafiya, Minkum is Khabar Muqaddam, Min is Harf Jaar, Ahadin is Majrur which is here Mausuf, Anhu is mutalliq of what comes later, Hajizin is Sifat

    You should know that Mausuf and Sifat are in Mutabaqat of each other in four things at a time. Ahadin is here Mausuf and Haajizin is Sifat. Ahadin is Majrur, therefore its Sifat Hajizin will be in the same state i.e. Majrur. So it will be Hajizin and not Hajizun.

    Aqaweel is Majrur because it is Mudaf ilahi.

    Yameen is Majrur because it has Harf Jarr particle on it.

    Hajizin is Majrur because it is Sifat of Ahadin and in Arabic Mausuf and Sifat are in Mutabaqat of each other.

    All the words in the verse, Aqaweel, Yameen, Wateen and Hajizin, all are grammatically correct and not intentionally meant for creating rhyming words.

    Besides, you should also check the definition of Arabic poetry which is not only based on rhyming words or Qaafiya, but the intention of creating rhyming words is also required. The Quran has rejected the charge of poetry on the part of the Quran.   

    Not a single master of Arabic language will ever find any grammatical mistakes here in this verse.   

    By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi غلام غوث الصديقي 12/07/2020 09:42:43