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    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    A frequent contributor to NewAgeIslam.com, Muhammad Yunus, is an Engineering graduate from IIT Kharagpur (1966) and retired as technical director, from a multinational company (1997) and later from a large industrial complex (2010). He has been engaged in an in-depth study of the Qur’an since early 90’s, focusing on its core message and co-authored an exegetic work, “Essential Message of Islam,” which received the approval of al-Azhar al-Sharif, Cairo in 2002, and following restructuring and refinement was endorsed and authenticated by Dr. Khaled Abou El-Fadl of UCLA, and published in 2009.

    Mr. Yunus has penned more than a hundred articles projecting Islam as an inclusive religion of peace, justice, and harmony, dismissing hatred, bigotry, and supremacist, exclusivist and misogynist notions. He has critically evaluated Islam’s secondary sources, advocated inclusion of secular subjects in the madrassa, framed exhaustive refutation of fatwas from leading terror ideologues, exploded the notion of political Islam and Pan-Islamism, and dispelled misconceptions about Islam and its Prophet using authentic sources. He has written a series of articles delegitimizing violent extremism on ideological and historical grounds, and soliciting national and international fatwas against Muslim terror outfits. He has also strongly denounced institutionalized gender injustice and discrimination – particularly against Muslim women. Last but not least, he has proposed an exhaustive package of reforms in populist Islamic thoughts, in tune with the pristine Qur’anic message to distinguish faith from culture and symbolism from the essence and to liberate Islamic societies from the shackles of the Medieval era and the domination of the clergy.


    Please read below the articles written by him for NewAgeIslam.com

     
    Islamic Sharia Laws

    ‘Gay Rights’ Versus The ‘Human Rights Of Gays’ – A Fresh Insight Into The Broader Message Of The Qur’an
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    As a first premise, the Qur’anic message admits of diversity in faith and worldviews as long as the diverse communities of the world vie with each other in good deeds – that is they do not indulge in activities that can directly or indirectly bring physical harm to other people. This principle is enshrined in its key verses on the divine criteria of judgment for all humanity regardless of faith (2:62, 2:112, 4:124, 5:69, 64:9, 65:11) and clearly stated in a key declaration (5:48) dating from its conclusive legislative phase....

    Islam and Politics

    Conspiratorial role of some Ulama in globalizing localised ethnic riots to instigate Muslim masses
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    A section of religious leaders (putatively Ulama) jointly with secular Muslim leadership coloured the recent localised riots in the region (Assam, Burma) as part of a global conspiracy to kill all the Muslims. This heightened the emotions of simple devotees attending mosques during the holy month of Ramadan and led to a massive gathering in the Azad Maidan, Mumbai. The Ulama, “for whom provoking religious sentiments is part of their orientation” reportedly made sensational speeches and instigated a large crowd outside the Maidan into violent demonstrations that included ‘torching OB vans, attacking media persons and the police, molesting women constables, snatching arms from the police.’ Thanks to the exercise of extreme restraint and a rare show of understanding verging on compassion, the Police brought the situation under control with far less damage to the demonstrators than could have potentially happened if they went by the book. The Muslim leadership of India ought to be ashamed for failing to pooling any donation for the victims of riots, and instead trying to create a serious law and order situation. The fault lies entirely with the sermon-happy Ulama who have drifted so far away from the Qur’anic message that they cannot differentiate haram from halal. The Qur’an declares:

    “Do not cause trouble (fasad) on earth after it has been reformed, but pray to Him (God) with fear and longing. Indeed God’s Mercy lies close to the compassionate” (7:56). 

    “And when it is said to them, ‘Do not cause trouble (fasad) on earth,” they say, “We are only reformers. In fact, they are the troublemakers, but they are not aware.’ (2:11-12).

    “…. God does not love trouble (fasad)” (2:205).

    “….God does not love trouble makers (mufsidin)” (28:77).

    Ijtihad, Rethinking Islam

    Why Are The Muslims Converting To Christianity - A Soul Searching Exercise?
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    In historical perspective farewell to Islam is a new phenomenon and a reflection of an abysmal state of its degeneration that renders it incapable to support the 21st century educated and even uneducated people. Those who suggest lack of love for the Prophet or commitment to religion as its reason fail to understand that what they are saying is the very result of the degeneration of Islam. Unless Islam is regenerated, people will have no love for its Prophet or respect for faith and leave this faith. This essay attempts to bring across the different facets of this pernicious phenomenon, point by point, lest it may be wrongly diagnosed to grave detriment of the global Muslim community. ...

    Islamic Ideology

    The Broader Notion of Din Al-Islam Is Inclusive Of All Monotheistic Faiths
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    In the Qur’anic vocabulary, the din al-Islam or the moral law (religion in popular vocabulary) of Islam has a specific (exclusive) as well as universal (inclusive) connotation. In its specific sense, it is the religion of the followers of the Prophet Muhammad. This is defined by one of the concluding revelations of the Qur’an: “…This day, those who reject (this Qur'an) despair of (ever harming) your religion. Therefore, do not fear them; fear Me. This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour on you, and have chosen Islam for your religion…” (5:3). ...

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    Defending The Hadith And Its Compilers – The Great Imams Who Are Sometimes Misunderstood And Even Reviled
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    There is a common knowledge that some of the ahadith (pl. form of hadith) are weak and fabricated. The bold and erudite critique Dr. Shabbir Ahmed refers to them as “bizarre, outrageous and awful statements” – an expression they aptly deserved, were they framed today. Their theme can range from a simplistic explanation of the cause of an illness as people thought in that era to highly preposterous positions like those abound on all Islam critical websites and are meticulously listed in Dr. Shabbir Ahmed’s publication, ‘The Criminals of Islam’, featured on this website....

    Islamic Ideology

    The Quran's Broader Notion of Taqwa – An Irrefutable Testimony To Its Universalism
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    Taqwa like good deeds (‘amale sualeha) and zakah is among the core functional trajectories of the Qur’an. As with good deeds, it assures those imbued with taqwa (muttaqi) of divine reward on Judgment Day. It likens the reward with Garden with spring and eternal delights and shade (13:35), gardens with streams of pure water, ever fresh milk, delightful wine, and purified honey (47:15), gardens and springs (51:15), gardens and bliss (52:17), gardens and streams (54:54), and shades and springs (77:41) – to quote a broad cross section of Qur’anic metaphorical allusions to the rewards of the muttaqin (pl. form of muttaqi). Accordingly, from the initial to the closing phase of the revelation (610-632), the Qur’an guides humanity, regardless of religion or non-religion, on the path of taqwa. Thus, a passage from early Mecca period (610-612/613) declares:

    “God has intricately balanced human ego (nafs) (91:7) and imbued it with (the polarity of) moral depravity and moral uprightness (taqwa) (91:8) Only those will attain to a happy state who attain to zakah (purify their nafs by curbing their lowly desires) (91:9).  And lost are those who corrupt it” (91:10).....

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    The Zakat – A Pillar of Faith, As Actualised Today Is a Grand Mockery, If Not Fraudulent Realization of Quranic Message on Wealth Distribution and Social Justice
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    The institution of Zakat is rooted in the Quranic ordinance on mandatory that declares: “Charities are for the poor Muslims (Fuqra), and the poor of any other religion (masakin) and the workers (who administer) them, and for those who have embraced faith*, and for (freeing) the slaves, and for (assisting) debtors, and (for spending) in God's way, and for the traveller (ibn al-sabil)2 – an ordinance (faridah) from God. (Remember,) God is All-Knowing and Wise” (9:60) It was established as part of state-controlled poverty alleviation measure at Caliph Umar’s time – almost fourteen centuries ago....

    Islamic Ideology

    The Muslims’ Ignorance /Disregard of the Qur’anic Guidance and Its Colossal and Recurring Cost
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    As the Islamic civilization was taking long strides of advancement, its orthodox theologians and ulema were striving unceasingly to freeze it at their era, in direct contradiction to the letter and spirit of the Qur’an. Thus, they set aside the guidance of the Qur’an and venerated theological discourses –notably the Hadith and the classical Islamic law as the necessary and sufficient vehicles for understanding and implementing the Qur’anic message. These were the ahl al Hadith - the orthodoxy. They advocated that all that had to be learnt had already been learnt during the Prophet’s time, and was contained in the Qur’an and the Prophet’s normative ways (Sunnah), and the posterity was expected to simply imitate them....

    Islamic Ideology

    Literalist Comprehension Of, And Exclusivist Dedication To The Pillars Of Faith Purports To Reduce Islam To A Cult Of Five Pillars
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    The caption must be shocking to all the Muslims regardless of their sect and theological orientations as the Muslims world over conflate their universal religion of Islam with its five pillars. But as they read through the article, they will, if God may guide them, see how their literalist and obsessive devotion to the five pillars of faith has led to their detachment from the wellspring of Qur’anic guidance and virtually reduced them to a cult.

    During his lifetime, the Prophet took oath of allegiance from those who wished to enter Islam. The oath, crowned by faith in God and His Prophet, included a set of pledges that were tailored to the immediate priorities of the community. These pledges were regarded as the pillars of faith. They epitomized the essence of faith as well as the key duties of the converts as fresh members of the upcoming Muslim community. They, however, did not represent the summation of God’s word – the Qur’anic revelation that the scribes were recording and the huffaz were memorizing. As the priorities of the Muslim community were changing with time, the introductory pledges or pillars were also changing. ...

    Islam and Pluralism

    The Qur’an espouses harmonious inter-faith relations with Christians and Jews and all other faith communities
    Islamic scholar Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    Executive Summary: The paper begins with an introduction to the Qur’anic warnings against the Christians and the Jews (1) but without going into details, comes straight to its concluding exhortations on religious tolerance (2) and to its concluding message on religious pluralism (3). Sub-heading (4) captures the Qur’an’s approval of some of the People of the Book (Christians and Jews). The discourse then jumps to the Qur’an’s common criteria of divine Judgment for all believing communities, (5) and complements this with arguments that refute any Qur’anic basis for inter-faith enmity or hatred (6). Its concluding sub-heading (7) demonstrates that there is no Qur’anic basis to prohibit the construction of churches, synagogues or any houses of pure worship in Muslim countries – an issue that concerns all minorities in the Muslim countries today and conceivably results from a deep fear of the Muslim theologians and leadership of their youth abandoning an exclusive, atavistic and globally trivialized faith to live more comfortably in the pluralistic and progressive society of the secular world without the tag of Islam branding them as anything but noble. The sub-headings speak for themselves and conclusively establish the theme of this article.

    Islamic Sharia Laws
    Love, Sex and Marriage in the Quran
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    Love, Sex and Marriage in the Quran
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    The Qur’an treats sexuality as a divine bounty. It recognizes human impulse of love and mercy for the opposite sex (30:21), allows the members of either sex without specifying any age to have admiration for a believing member of the opposite sex (2:221). Its verses directly relating to sexuality also invoke divine mercy (7:189) and heedfulness of God (taqwa) (2:223) thereby precluding any notion of sexual abuse or coercion as widely practiced in many Muslim lands and committed by some Muslim husbands against their wives. Sexual intimacy is however forbidden during the fasting hours in the month of Ramadan (2:187) and with the wives who are in their monthly courses (2:222)....

    Islamic Sharia Laws
    Gender Equality in Islam
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    Gender Equality in Islam
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    Historically, jurists have insisted that the lay Muslims lack the scholarship to interpret the Qur’an, and must therefore belong to a Sharia law school (mathhab) for their proper guidance in religious matters and conformity to a given legal system. This led to the institutionalization of ‘Sharia law’ as the taproot of Islamic civilization and its veneration as the word of God, whose rulings could not be breached or challenged. The truth, however is, the Islamic Sharia Law is a cumulative juristic tradition that circumscribes the views, opinions and rulings of Islam’s jurists and doctors of law and their interpretation of the Qur’anic ordinances pertaining to the different facets of life, including man-woman relationship....

    Ijtihad, Rethinking Islam

    Tracking the moral trajectories of the juz ‘amm (last one thirtieth part) of the Qur’an
    Muhammad Yunus, Islamic scholar, author, columnist

    A must read for all non Arabic Muslims on the moral paradigms of the Juz ‘amm of the Qur’an they read patiently and diligently in their childhood.

     A reminder to all humanity regardless of religion, of some of the fundamental moral imperatives intrinsic to all divinely inspired religions and upheld even by the conscientious irreligious/ atheist.

     A reminder and warning to the moulvis, imams and ulama who keep Muslim masses ignorant of the essence of what they recite to them of the Qur’an:  

    “And the example of those who are bent on effacing the truth (kafaru) is that of one (the beast) who, when the shepherd calls, hears in it nothing but shouts and cries. Deaf, dumb and blind - they do not use reason” (2:171).

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    A Fresh Insight into the Qur’anic Verses Quoted to Justify Unwedded Sexual Relation with Maids, Call Girls etc
    Muhammad Yunus is an Islamic Scholar and columnist for New Age Islam

    The Qur’an came to bring about an all round reform of human society that included, among other things,  phased abolition of slavery and empowerment of women  through the institution of marriage and other family laws. Therefore any suggestion to accommodate slavery or sex with captives, maids, call girls etc. in the fold of Islam will stand in stark contradiction to its universal message. It is conceivable that with time the gendered and historic-specific traditional translation of the Qur’an will be refreshed with the tabled universal rendition. …

    Radical Islamism and Jihad

    The Qur’anic Perspective on Jihad and Greater jihad: SOS to Global Muslim Community
    Muhammad Yunus is an Islamic Scholar and columnist for New Age Islam

    Languishing in stagnancy of Symbolism and Ritualism, deluded by a quixotic dream of world domination through  militant jihad  – the Muslims have turned misfit among the civilizations of the world and urgently need a major paradigm shift in their religious thoughts to the dynamic spirit of the Greater Jihad. “Jihade zindagi me surate faulad paida kar”: “Cultivate the strength of steel in the jihad (struggle) of life.” Thus, on the personal level, jihad is an ongoing struggle to face the hardships and challenges of life with patience and determination, or a sustained endeavor to accomplish a lawful goal.  …

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    Paramount Significance of the Behavioral Paradigms of the Quran
    Muhammad Yunus is an Islamic Scholar and a Writer

    The Qur’an sets out behavioral paradigms, which can help people to win friends, earn the love and affection of spouses, respect of colleagues, and avoid pinpricks and petty worries in day to day professional and conjugal lives. Not a part of populist Islamic discourses, they are tabled below with self explanatory captions for a quick reader-friendly reminder and deeper reflection. “The retribution for an injury is a similar injury - yet whoever forgives and reconciles has his reward with God for He does not like the wrongdoers” (42:40). …..

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    The Classical Sharia Law of Islam – a Western Perspective: the Diabolic Face of Islam
    Muhammad Yunus is an author whose works are approved by al-Azhar al-Sharif, Cairo.

    The article refers to the popular perception among the Muslims of the Sharia Law being a ‘word of God’ and traces its origin to the era of the Prophet Muhammad and the first four Caliphs. Following a brief commentary on the four law schools, it enumerates the following common laws of Islamic Sharia “which are regularly practiced in islamically ruled (Sharia-based) nations with some minor variations”… 

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    To be more explicit, there is an urgent need for a major paradigm shift in Islamic religious thoughts and the scope and curriculum of traditional madrasas: they should be converted to universal houses of learning like the Western missionary schools with the same curricula and education system as in civil schools – with the addition of a Religion class. The Muslim students may be taught the fundamentals of the Qur’anic message and the non-Muslims, the fundamentals of their faith.

    This definitely sounds radical if not revolutionary, as it purports to relegate the Hadith, now regarded as an eternal component of Islam like the Qur’an,  into its historical slot and bring to the fore, the Qur’anic message in its rightful place as a complete, universal, pluralistic and eternal font of guidance. What the Muslim elite and scholarship should be concerned is the truth – and this article has attempted to capture the truth in a very logical, systematic, unbiased and faithful manner drawing on most authentic resources. Hence it is worthy of serious evaluation and consideration. -- Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    The Qur’anic Sharia (laws) on Divorce, Triple Divorce, Temporary Marriage, Halala Stand Forbidden (Haram)
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam
    Some local customs such as Halala that allows a man to divorce his wife at the spur of the moment, such as in a state of anger or drunkenness and then force her into marriage and sexual intercourse with a Mullah or a friend and get him to divorce her to marry her back the next day or so totally disregarding the three month time for his divorce and that of his friend to take effect also stands utterly Haram and sexually shameful sadistic. These practices that remain part of the Classical Islamic Law have defiled and demonized Islam, no matter how few Muslims practice it, and how the Muslims glorify their faith, and reduced Islam to a medieval misogynist cult in the eyes of a section of Western people … It is time for the Islamic doctors of law to treat the Classical Islamic Law as a closed corpus - and draw a Modern Law of Islam based on its divine Sharia (the Qur’an) and not the Classical Islamic Law, which is not a word of God and contradicts the Qur’anic paradigms on many counts as detailed in a recent article. -- Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    The Quran was Never Edited and any Effort to Edit the Quran will be Self-Contradictory
    Muhammad Yunus is an Islamic Scholar and columnist for New Age Islam

    A pedagogic, rationalist, secular, historic, critical study that can overrule in any ontological argument secularist international debate and hold itself in the highest secular court of law and shut the mouths of the ignoramuses and the intellectuals skeptical of its integrity, says Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    Ijtihad, Rethinking Islam

    Intellectual Ambivalence of Educated Indian Muslims: the RTE versus the Ridiculous Fatwas
    Muhammad Yunus, New Age Islam

    A cursory scan of this day’s news bulletin on this website will show three focused English articles advocating the extension of RTE (Right to Compulsory Education) into the madrasas and one listing a set of preposterous fatwa. In terms of significance those on extension of RTE are paramount in that they advocate a way forward out of the Jahiliya that now stalks the Muslims while the one on fatwa is the reflection of this Jahiliya. Now look how these articles have stimulated the intellect of the educated Indian Muslims. .....

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    The Qur’an Prescribes Monogamy, the Social Norm for Humanity

    Bigamy/Polygamy are allowed only under exceptional and legally justifiable circumstances. These Qur’anic illustrations clearly demonstrate that the Qur’an espouses monogamy as a social norm. This view was propounded as early as the third century of Islam and is shared by many eminent Islamic scholars, notably Yusuf Ali [1], and Ameer Ali [2]. Muhammad Asad and Husayn Haykal refer to the conditional clause of the verse 4:3 and observe that such plural marriages are allowed only in ‘exceptional circumstances.’[3,4]

    If recommendation was ‘towards monogamy’, why wasn't it clearly spelled out?

    This question may arise in the mind of some people and needs answering.

    Strict monogamy would have resulted in increased suffering and exploitation of women both in the immediate context of the revelation and the broader historical context.  -- Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    Ijtihad, Rethinking Islam

    RESTRUCTURING MADRASA EDUCATION: Muslim Opponents of India’s 'Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act' are Enemies of Indian Muslims
    Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    The caption is as harsh as the truth bitter. Here is a brief glance on historical facts that reveal the bitter truth and support the harsh caption.

    As any educated Muslim should know, the first four centuries of Islam saw an effervescence of intellectual activity. This was marked by rationalism, universalism, and a spirit of enterprise that knew no geographical or religious boundary. The orthodox theologians had remained suspect of the rationalist school who advocated use of reason, universalism and material progress of civilization based on the liberating and dynamic paradigms of the Qur’an.

    Following a protracted doctrinal battle with the rationalist school, the orthodoxy emerged the sole custodians of faith. This was around the fifth century of Islam (11th/12th century CE). They abolished rationalism and critical thinking (Ijtihad) and use of reason (‘aql), canonized the Hadith as a form of divine revelation (wahi), reduced the juristic notion of taqlid (Precedence) to blind conformity with whatever had already been learnt during the Prophet’s time and in the first three generations of Muslims (salaf), and declared the consensus of the ‘Ulama (ijma) infallible. This brought intellectual activity in Islam to a virtual halt, and, with time, resulted in stagnancy of knowledge, abhorrence against any scientific advancement, and division of universal knowledge into Islamic and European categories. -- Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    Islamic Sharia Laws

    Any Fatwa Imposing Full/Face Veil (Burqa/Niqab), Headscarf on Muslim Women as a Religious Requirement is Anti-Qur’anic
    Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    “Children of Adam! We have sent you clothing to cover your nakedness, and for (your) beauty (risha),* but the cloak of heedfulness (taqwa) is the best. This is among the signs of God, that they may be mindful”(7:26). *[Lit., ‘plumage’ – metaphorically derived from the bird’s plumage.] The Qur’an expands on this in the Medinite period in a long and cryptic passage (24:30/31) asking both believing men and women to avert their glances (from what they should not see) in addition to covering their private parts (furujah). The passage also commands womenfolk to ‘draw their shawls (khimar) over their bosoms’ permitting a casual display of ‘what is (normally) apparent’ and forbids them from exposing their ‘charms’ (zinat)’ except in the presence of the immediate members of their household, and restrains them from walking in a provocative manner. The fuller interpretation of these injunctions, which will be contingent to the exact meaning of the word zinat, is evolved in the commentary following the rendering of the passage. -- Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    Islam and Science

    Darwinism is Consistent with Qur’anic Insights on Man’s Origin

    The irony is compounded by the fact that their said assertion itself is in conflict with the Qur’anic message. That is to say, the classical Evolution theory pioneered by Charles Darwin is not outside the broad spectrum of the Qur’an’s creative insights. No doubt, as is well known, the Qur’an speaks of the creation of Adam and Eve in the primordial plane in several places, but it also features clear verses listed below that are in complete harmony with Darwinism.

    “He is the One who created you (khalaqnakum) from clay (tin) (inorganic matter), then decreed a term, and there is a determined term with Him. Yet you remain doubtful” (6:2). “He is the One who created (khalaqa) human being from water and established for him relations of blood and marriage...” (25:54). “What’s wrong with you: you do not contemplate the glory of God (71:13), who created you (khalaqnakum) in stages (atwara) (71:14). “... He (caused) you to grow (ansha-akum) from the earth (ard) and settled you in it...” (11:61). “Don’t those who deny (God) see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (before), and We split them apart? We made (ja‘alna) every living thing from water. Won’t they still believe” (21:30). “God evolved you (ambatakum) from the earth as a living organism (nabata) (71:17); then He will return you into it, and raise you again” (71:18).

    The truth is, the Qur’an does not restrict itself to a monolithic model of creation. Thus, apart from 1) the populist Creational and 2) the above patently evolutionary models, the Qur’an also offers other insights into God’s creative scheme. -- Muhammad Yunus, NewAgeIslam.com

    1 2 3 4 5 6  



    TOP ARTICLE

    Radical Islamism and Jihad
    Indian Muslim Clergy to Counter ISIS Propaganda: But they should go beyond rhetoric to a genuine counter-narrative that refutes Jihadism based on traditional Islamic theology

    The clergy is required to counter the exclusivist Jihadi theology of violence and supremacism which is primarily based on the traditional Islamic theology of consensus of all schools of thought. This has to be done through a counter-narrative based on a new inclusivist theology of peace and pluralism. But to do that the clergy will have to work towards evolving a new theology that is different from the traditional theology taught in madrasas. It is this age-old theology that is used by Jihadis to propagate their message. 

    It cannot be stressed enough that the reason Jihadis have been able to capture the imagination of thousands of our youth the world over is that they are not saying anything new. They are simply showing a way to practice what the ulema (religious scholars) have been preaching. The Jihadi narrative is the traditional Islamic theological narrative of Islam domination over all other religious beliefs, and eradication of what it considers the biggest crimes humanity can commit, particularly shirk, polytheism or idol worship, and kufr, rejection of the prophethood of Hazrat Mohammad (pbuh). All the most eminent scholars of Islam from Imam Ghazali (11th-12th century) to Imam Ibn-e-Taimiya (13th-14th century), Mujaddid Alf-e-Saani Sheikh Sirhindi (16th-17th century), Shah Waliullah Muhaddis Dehlavi (18th century) have shown a vision of political Islam that was finally given a more definite form in the 20th century by Maulana Syed Abul A’la Maududi, Hassan al-Banna, and Syed Qutb. The Jihadi ideologues of the 21st century may be stressing some parts of this traditional narrative more vigorously and downplaying some other aspects. But they are not saying anything that is entirely new or radically different.

    Jihadi literature has not dropped from the sky all of a sudden. This is not the creation of Osama bin Laden or so-called “Khalifa” Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Their narrative of world domination, fighting those who do not accept the message of Islam is basically what is taught in all our madrasas. The definition of Jihad as fighting those who do not accept the oneness of God and prophethood of Mohammad (pbuh) is found in books of every school of Sunni fiqh (jurisprudence), be it Hanafi, Malaki, Shafei or Hanbali. Indeed, even Shia theology does not differ much with Sunnis in matters of political Islam. They too want world domination for Islam and desire to subdue all non-Muslims.

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