By Francesco Bergoglio Errico
September 6, 2018
The concept of Takfir – declaring a Muslim
a disbeliever – is a very modern propaganda weapon of al-Qaeda and Daesh. But
its origins are to be found in distant times. Indeed, in order to better
understand this concept, it is essential to travel all the way back to the 7th
Century roots – the Khawarij and Murji’a groups.
The Khawarij emerged from the battle of
Siffin in 657 AD, where the fourth caliph ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and his successor
Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan clashed. During the battle, Mu’awiya’s troops,
outnumbered and facing almost certain defeat, called on ‘Ali and his troops to
accept arbitration between the two parties. ‘Ali took up the offer, but some of
his own troops rejected it. They thought that ‘Ali had been swayed by Mu’awiya
rather than divine guidance and that such an action should actually be seen as
an affront to God’s order. These troops then seceded from ‘Ali’s camp and
became the Khawarij group, the name they also applied to themselves.
The group’s first distinctive tenet
concerned the possibility of revolt against Muslim rulers who had been deemed
insufficiently pious. When ‘Ali agreed to arbitration with Mu’awiya, the
separatists, the people later known as Khawarij, reportedly shouted “La Hukm
Illa Li-Llah”, “judgement is God’s alone”. Only God has the authority to
arbitrate, they held, not human beings. Not even the caliph ‘Ali, in fact.
Later on, the slogan came to represent
their broad view that all judgements and rulings should be left to God.
Applying Qur’anic rulings very strictly, they fought Muslims who were deemed
guilty of major sins and expelled them from their community.
The consequences could not be more serious.
Since they believed sinful Muslims to be Kuffar (disbelievers), they
immediately applied Qur’anic lines concerning jihad against non-Muslims. This
meant that, according to the Khawarij, the application of jihad was not just
limited to ordinary people. If necessary, it could even include the caliph.
Indeed, they assassinated ‘Ali in 661 AD.
The second tenet of Khawarij ideology
addressed their conception of Iman (faith) and disbelief. In particular, what
is faith? And when does a Muslim become a Kafir, a disbeliever? One of the
greatest questions was whether A’mal, or deeds, acts or works, were an integral
part of the faith or not. Some theologians of Islam’s early years, including
Abu Hanifa, believed they were not a part of it. As a result, he equated Iman
with the belief residing in the heart and its profession by tongue.
Conversely, other scholars, including
Mu’tazilites and Hanabalites, believed that deeds, acts or works were indeed an
integral part of Iman and that this Iman would not be complete without them.
Among other outcomes, this dispute led to
what may be called the orthodox Sunni view, as well as almost all Salafi views,
according to which Iman consists of assent to the Iman in the heart, its verbal
confirmation by the tongue, and corresponding acts with the limbs.
Respectively, Tasdeeq Bi-L-Qalb, Iqrar Bi-L-Lisan and A’mal Bi-L-Jawarih
As for the Khawarij themselves, even though
they too believed that Iman consisted of these three elements and others, they
placed more emphasis on A’mal than mainstream Sunnism does.
The question of what actually constitutes
Iman is very important when defining enemies as unbelievers. On the one hand,
if A’mal is not an integral part of Iman, sinful acts cannot undermine that
Iman by themselves. On the other, if A’mal is an integral part of the Iman,
sinful acts can definitely compromise faith.
Moreover, while Sunni scholars have
separated major sins, Kaba’ir, from less severe ones, the Khawarij have
included A’mal among major sins, such as killing one’s child, adultery
and especially polytheism and idolatry, or shirk.
Scholars later separated shirk from other Kaba’ir,
establishing that only an act of shirk would immediately turn a Muslim into an
unbeliever, or Kafir, and therefore justify his or her excommunication from
Islam, Takfir. Additionally, any further proof of a person’s unbelief through
verbal confirmation was not necessary. Other major sins were certainly still
considered serious and deserving of punishment, but they were not enough to
turn a believer into a disbeliever – further proof was needed.
The Khawarij disagreed with this last point
since, according to their beliefs; a Muslim culpable of any Kaba’ir
should be avowed a Kafir, with or without further proof. This creed thus
heightened ordinary major sins to the level of Kufr, making its adherents
swifter to apply Takfir than those endorsing the movement later known as
The last relevant point about the concepts
of Iman and Kufr concerns the effects of sinful acts on a person’s Iman. Not
considering sins as equal to shirk, many scholars believed faith to be
diminished by sinful acts and increased by good ones. This led to an
understanding of Iman as flexible. The Khawarij, by contrast, believed that
iman could not fluctuate. It was either present or lost as a whole through
major sins. This made the Khawarij radically different from other groups, and
this was reflected in their use of jihad against other Muslims holding what the
Khawarij saw as aberrant ideas of iman, which made them legitimate targets, up
to and including the rulers and the caliph.
Another important group criticized the
beliefs of Khawarij – the Murji’a. According to most scholars, the genesis of
the Murji’a can traced back to the conflicts between the third caliph, ‘Uthman
bin ‘Affan, and his successor ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. At that time, the Murji’a
refused to take sides and opted for postponement of judgement, irja’, in such
matters. In their view, only God could decide on these subjects. Before taking
the name of Murji’a, this group were called Ahl-Al-‘Adl Wa-L-Sunna, or
“the people of justice and Sunna”.
The Irja’ “postponers” concept was later
dated back to the Qur’an itself by the Murji’a, in particular by referring to
Sura 9:106. This verse provided them with a conceptual basis for avoiding
taking sides in the conflict. In time, the Irja’ term became the most
important tenet of the Murji’a.
In that regard, there are two important
relevant points. The first is the development of the term Irja’. While
it was initially applied to political conflicts such as the battle between
‘Uthman and ‘Ali, between the 18th and 19th Centuries it acquired a theological
meaning. In particular, Irja’ was applied to people’s Iman; in
other words, judgments on anyone’s faith was postponed and left to God. For
that reason, unlike the Khawarij, adherents were generally loyal to rulers and
only rarely supported riots against them.
The second point regards their conception
of what constitutes faith and disbelief. Once again, unlike the Khawarij, they
felt that Iman only consisted of the belief residing in the heart and
its confirmation by the tongue, not concrete acts. Consequently, acts alone do
not establish whether an individual is a believer or a disbeliever. When the
takfir of such an individual was justified, then, they could ask.
In fact, from the Murji’a perspective, the Kaba’ir
intrinsically could not throw someone out from Islam, except in the case of a
sinner verbally confirming his disbelief, including shirk. Additionally, unlike
the Khawarij and orthodox Sunni, they didn’t believe that faith could be
altered by sinful acts and therefore excluded A’mal from Iman.
All of this contested history of the Takfir
concept flows down to our own times.
Al-Qaeda and Daesh both use the ancient concept to justify their goals
and their jihadi attacks on Muslims they see as disbelievers, including rulers.
In their view, these people are enemies who are destroying the true Islam and
the whole Ummah (community of believers), so jihad is warranted, indeed
mandated. They defend this position by manipulating many passages of the Qu’ran
It is very important to underline this,
because an increasingly high number of people now take the manipulations as
truth, radicalizing themselves, embracing jihad, and becoming fascinated and
indoctrinated by terrorist propaganda that promises salvation of the soul and
access to paradise to those who embrace the “true way” or the “true Islam”.
This makes it crucial to understand what Takfir
is and how the concepts of Takfir and jihad are used by the terrorist groups,
not only to better comprehend how they justify their existence and their
bloodshed, but also, above all, in fact, to improve strategies of disengagement
Kafir/ Mushrik/ Munafiq-Manufacturing Factories, Says Sultan Shahin, Defending
New Age Islam against Talibani Onslaught
The questions have never been answered nor can be answered since honest
answers incriminate Uncle Sam in the 911 plot.
The fig leaf that the US cannot harm its own citizens is blown away by
the Operation Northwoods plan.
What is truly insane and absurd, is to believe that
events took place that defy the laws of physics (unexplained and unexplainable cause of the
collapse of the three buildings at free fall speed), or that the terrorists had any chance of success in a plan that
required the following for its success:
1. The President being away. He alone could give
the order to shoot down a passenger plane as per a rule framed shortly before
911. Why this rule was made shortly before 911 is anyone’s guess. This order
was not given, according to the President himself, until after the third plane
had struck the Pentagon. Whether it was given at all or not we will never know
because no plane was brought down.
2. The Défense Secretary remaining “out of loop” during
the most crucial 30 minutes while the third plane was tracked all the way till
hit the Pentagon.
3. The joint chief of armed forces was too busy in
his breakfast meeting to be disturbed
4. No attempt made to shoot down the plane using the
protective shield of the White House /Pentagon consisting of ever-ready ground
to air missiles. Since the capital is under the prohibited airspace, any
hostile aircraft is meant to be brought down but the Vice President, by his
very presence in the WH, prevented the shooting and confirmed that the “stand-down”
order stood. This after two planes had already struck their targets! It is not
the argument of the government either that this plane was not shot down because
they did not have the President’s clearance. No attempt was made to contact the
President and get his clearance during the 30-minute window available, because
such clearance was not necessary for shooting down a hostile aircraft violating
the capital’s prohibited airspace.
5. Four dummy exercises the same day and during
the same period involving all the available air force jets leaving only four
available in distant locations from where they could not have reached the
hijacked planes in time. The games were not called off until “Mission Hijack”
was declared closed!
6. The Dummy games added to the confusion and when
the hijack was reported, it was first thought that it was from the dummy
exercise causing precious loss of several minutes
7. Key members of FAA and NORAD were either new in
the assignment or missing without a replacement causing delay in issuing
necessary orders which added to the reasons why the four planes ultimately
scrambled, could not reach their targets.
8. The agencies (FBI,
CIA and NSA) turning a blind eye and deaf ear to the several warnings of the
imminence of such an attack.
The terrorists, on their own, would not have even succeeded in hijacking
the planes and would have been arrested much before. Even if they had succeeded
in hijacking four planes, they would have been accosted by an air force jet before
they hit their target. They would have only succeeded in crashing the four
planes with the passengers into some open field. Even if they managed to hit
WTC1 and WTC2, there is no way these two buildings could have fully collapsed,
leave alone WTC7 which could not be hit by a plane because it crashed in a
field before doing so. The plane crashing into the Pentagon is simply
So be my guest Ghulam Uncle Sam and believe in miracles.
Uncle Sam nor Uncle Sam can give honest answers to the following questions
without incriminating Uncle Sam. Their lies are exposed. GUS is a shameless denier
of the truth.
of Operation Northwoods plan, why do you consider the 911 plan as a crazy
conspiracy theory? Wasn’t the Operation Northwoods plan an equally crazy
conspiracy hatched by Uncle Sam involving hijacking of planes and acts of
terrorism and loss of life of its own soldiers and citizens?
Uncle Sam have plans that required a cataclysmic event like 911 and those plans
were speedily executed after the 911 event riding on people’s anger?
Secret Service knew about the incoming plane for 30 minutes before it hit its
target, was following it on radar, the plane was within 1 mile of the White
House before it turned towards the Pentagon, had the means to shoot it down and
should have done so in order to protect the capital. But they didn't. Why?
regards to the exchange between Cheney and the young man can you suggest
anything different from an order not to shoot down the plane, as it was
approaching Washington's protected airspace?
four different games of simulated hijacks being played out with all the available
air force planes leaving only four available at distant locations from New York
to deal with the real hijack? Why weren’t these games called off until the last
hijacked plane had crashed? When the President returned in the evening, there
were 300 air force planes in the air protecting the American skies. Where were
296 of them in the morning when they were needed? The answer is - they were
engaged playing 4 different games on the order of the VP!
merely a coincidence that the President was outside Washington on 911, the Secretary
of Defense Donald Rumsfeld claimed to be “out of the loop” during the crucial
30 minutes as the plane that hit Pentagon was tracked all the way until it hit
Pentagon, and Myers was not to be disturbed from breakfast with Max Cleland?
The VP prevented the plane from being shot down while it came within 1 mile of the
White House and when it turned towards Pentagon, the two people who could give
the order to shoot viz Donald Rumsfeld and acting chief Myers were in hiding,
although two hijacked planes had struck the WTC towers half an hour before!
are private investigators such as the insurers barred from their own
investigation which is normal whenever they are required to settle insurance
is the 911 Commission silent on the
collapse of WTC7. Why did NIST not explain how WTC1 and 2 collapsed beyond
saying what initiated the collapse? NIST simulation ignores observed, recorded
and admitted free fall in stage 2 of WTC7 besides fudging other data. It has
also withheld the data used for simulation. Why unless it fears that making the
data available would expose their manipulation of data?
does NIST not make its analysis with complete data available to the
Universities and let them learn how this extraordinary and miraculous event
defying the laws of physics took place? Why is it depriving the world and its
own universities from learning from this event?
the reports ignore the visual, audio and eye-witness evidence of melted steel,
secondary blasts and of explosives going off? Why did the NIST and the
911 Commission not ask questions to the witnesses to ascertain whether they had
seen or heard anything that would point to a Controlled Demolition? Why was
Controlled Demolition that was widely suspected not even the subject of
inquiry? Is it not because they went about establishing the lie rather than
trying to find out the truth? Neither body
examined the debris or visited the site before the debris was cleared.
the first responders, the affected and the family of the killed prevented from
speaking out, with clauses that prevent them for doing so as a condition for
availing compensation now or in future?
there such lack of transparency and a massive cover-up to prevent the truth
from emerging? Isn’t this the behaviour of a liar?
Watch this video from 40 to 55 minutes
for the complete testimony of Mineta and the blatant attempts of the
Commissioners to create confusion and discredit Mineta’s testimony. Not the
behaviour of an Inquiry Commission seeking the truth but the behaviour of fixers.
The Secret Service knew about the incoming
plane for 30 minutes before it hit its target, was following it on radar, the
plane was within 1 mile of the White House before it turned towards the
Pentagon, had the means to shoot it down and should have done so in order to protect
the capital. But they didn't. Why?
In regards to the exchange between Cheney
and the young man can you suggest anything different from an order not to shoot
down the plane, as it was approaching Washington's protected airspace?
Secretary Mineta recounted to the
Commission his experience on the morning of 9/11 from the time he was notified
of the first plane hitting the WTC, to his experience at the Presidential
Emergency Operations Center (PEOC) along with Vice President Cheney and staff.
Unlike Rumsfeld who claimed to be “out of the loop“, and Myers who was not
disturbed from breakfast with Max Cleland, and President Bush who was busy
reading a story to kids, Mineta was able
to provide a full account of his experience that morning. Mineta testified that
he arrived at the PEOC at 9:20 a.m. and that Vice President Cheney was already
present with his staff. 9/11 Commission Report states that Cheney himself
arrived at the PEOC at 9:58, a stunning 38 minute contradiction to Mineta’s
testimony and yet neither Cheney nor Mineta have been punished for perjury
since surely one of them was lying. Obviously, Mineta wasn’t lying and couldn’t
be punished and Cheney was giving the “official truth” which the Commission was
bound to uphold as the truth even if it was a lie.
Mineta responds to an opening question
by Commissioner Hamilton about the events in the PEOC and an alleged shoot down
order. He describes a conversation between Cheney and a young man:
Mineta: “During the time that the
airplane was coming into the Pentagon, there was a young man who would come in
and say to the Vice President…the plane is 50 miles out…the plane is 30 miles
out….and when it got down to the plane is 10 miles out, the young man also said
to the vice president “do the orders still stand?” And the Vice President
turned and whipped his neck around and said “Of course the orders still stand,
have you heard anything to the contrary!??”
Mineta explains that while he had not
known it at the time, he had surmised that the standing order the young man
asked about must have been a shoot down order. Hamilton, looking a bit
confused, seeks clarification about which flight the conversation was
regarding, and Mineta once again clarifies that it is the flight that hit the
Pentagon at 9:37 a.m. on September 11. There was good reason for the quizzical
expression on Hamilton’s face. Secretary Mineta had thoroughly trashed previous
accounts of the PEOC activities that had been published in the press. In a CNN
piece dated 9/11/02, the timing of events had been represented differently.
According to CNN:
“After the planes struck the twin
towers, a third took a chunk out of the Pentagon. Cheney then heard a report
that a plane over Pennsylvania was heading for Washington. A military assistant
asked Cheney twice for authority to shoot it down.”
In the CNN piece Cheney aid Josh Bolton
describes the same exchange between Cheney and the young man that Mineta did,
but Bolton ties the exchange to “a report that a plane over Pennsylvania was
heading for Washington”. This is the official White House legend, the one
adopted in the White House produced 9/11 Commission Report, the one exposed by
Mineta. Hamilton follows with a question about Flight 93:
Hamilton: “With respect to flight 93,
what type of information were you and the Vice President receiving about that
Mineta: “The only information we had at
that point, was when it crashed.”
Chairman Kean then stresses that the Secretary’s
time is limited. He moves to Commissioner Roemer, who, immediately prior to his
questioning appears to be receiving counsel.
Tim Roemer seeks to discredit Mineta
Mineta responds to a condescending
greeting by Commissioner Roemer by giving a timeline for when he arrived in the
PEOC (9:20), and an estimate of when the conversation between the young man and
the vice president occurred (9:25-26). Roemer paints a picture of chaos and
conflicting decision making between the functioning of the Situation Room and
the PEOC and proposes a confused scenario of how a shoot down order might have
transpired, to which Mineta replies:
Mineta: “That would be speculation on my
part as to what was happening on that day.”
At this point Roemer appears to attempt
to discredit Mineta and imply that he, like Rumsfeld, was “out of the loop”:
Roemer: “I know. Because you had been
conducting official business and I’m sure you were hurriedly on your way over
Mineta: “As I was listening!”
Thwarted, Roemer then tries to clarify
how the order played out.
Roemer: “Would your inference be that
they scrambled the jets to shoot down the commercial airliner, it failed, and
the commercial airliner then crashed into the Pentagon?”
Mineta: “I’m not sure that the aircraft
that were scrambled to come up to the D.C. area…were under orders to shoot the
Mineta ultimately expressed the obvious,
that the standing order was an open question only Cheney could answer. The fact
that the 9/11 Commission Report discarded his testimony has never been
The incoming plane was
identified to be hostile (hijacked, switched off transponder, not in two way
radio communication, having reversed its flight path) and heading towards the White House/ Pentagon.
It was tracked all the way on radar for the last 30 minutes with foreknowledge
that two similarly hijacked planes were crashed into WTC and a young officer
desperately seeking the VPs orders. In the absence of the VP, they would have
acted once the plane entered the prohibited airspace S56. The presence of the
VP in the White House alone made them seek his orders, and it would appear that
the VP was there precisely to prevent the shooting down. Shooting down a plane
using the ground to air missile shield takes no effort or time once the
decision to shoot is taken.
case of allowing the plane to hit its target and clear proof that the 911
Commissioners were doing their best to do damage control and alter the clear import
and meaning of the Transport Commissioner’s testimony.
911 Commission Report and the NIST report raise more question than they answer
and are blatant attempts to cover up the truth and establish the official lie.
Why wasn't a ground to air missile fired to bring down the plane?
How can there be a ground for attacking Cuba if there are Cuban casualties
and not American? The Operation Northwoods had all the elements of the
Operation Northwoods was a proposed
false flag operation against the Cuban government that originated within the
U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) of the
United States government in 1962. The proposals called for the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) or other U.S. government operatives to commit acts of terrorism against American civilians and military targets,
blaming it on the Cuban government, and using it to justify a war against Cuba.
The plans detailed in the document included the possible assassination of Cuban
émigrés,sinking boats of Cuban refugees on the high seas, hijacking planes, blowing up a U.S. ship, and orchestrating violent
terrorism in U.S. cities.
The operation proposed creating public
support for a war against Cuba by blaming it for terrorist acts that would be
perpetrated by the U.S. Government. To this end, Operation Northwoods proposals
recommended hijackings and bombings followed by the
introduction of phony evidencethat
would implicate the Cuban government. It stated:
The desired resultant from the
execution of this plan would be to place the United States in the apparent
position of suffering defensible grievances from a rash and irresponsible
government of Cuba and to develop an international image of a Cuban threat to
peace in the Western Hemisphere.
What you said is repeated verbatim “the position of the civil society is to accept the official findings” and did not respond when I asked you whether the Civil Society should accept the official findings “even when it contradicts and/or omits the relevant evidence and defies the laws of physics”.
You haven't answered even one question, least of all why the Vice President did not order shooting down of the plane approaching the Pentagon although his orders were repeatedly sought as the plane was 50, 30 and then only 10 miles away.
If the 911 plan is crazy, it is only Uncle Sam’s admitted Operation Northwoods plan with a few changes. Uncle Sam is capable of doing crazy things beyond anyone's imagination and use their incredulity to its advantage