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Radical Islamism and Jihad (11 Jul 2018 NewAgeIslam.Com)

Reasons for the Cancerous Spread of Takfirist Ideology in Parts of the Muslim World

By Habib Ali Al Jifri

February 26, 2014

Takfir, the act of accusing a Muslim of apostasy, has become an ideology embraced by extremist movements to justify the killing of anyone who does not fulfil their criteria of “true” belief.

There are two main reasons for the cancerous spread of Takfirist ideology in parts of the Muslim world.

The first one is the rejection of the diversity of opinions. This diversity is often a result of the application of scholars’ independent legal judgement (Ijtihad) to religious textual evidence that is non-definitive in its meaning. This leads to two things: an increased inability for the representatives of religion to embrace changes in the world from one perspective, and an expansion of the spheres of war in the Muslim world from another.

The second reason is the association of “non-belief” with killing and deviancy. Such tendency fails to recognise the Sharia’s legal distinction between a combatant disbeliever and a civilian disbeliever.

A combatant disbeliever can be legitimately fought by the state, while the civilian cannot be prevented from his or her rights despite their non-belief, as is declared in the Quranic verses: “For you your religion and for me mine” and “Whomsoever wills may choose faith, and whomsoever wills may choose non-faith”.

Throughout history, people have suffered from the bloodshed and oppression that ensued from religious zealotry emanating from political battle grounds.

A number of religious scholars have expended efforts in creating initiatives that deal with the threat of Takfirism. Among them is Sheikh Abdullah bin Bayyah, a renowned jurist and scholar from Mauritania.

He convened the Mardin Conference in 2010 in Turkey, which had two primary purposes: to carefully examine and review Islamic law’s traditional classification of the world into “domains” (Diyar) and how this pertains to the concepts of jihad, loyalty and enmity (Al-Wala Wa Al-Bara), citizenship and emigration.

The second purpose of the conference was to discuss the “Mardin Fatwa” of the 13th century scholar Ibn Taymiyya, in which he deduced a new ruling based on the Islamic jurisprudential classification of the world into domains of “non-belief”, “Islam”, and “covenant”. Ibn Taymiyya considered the city of Mardin to belong to both a domain of non-belief and domain of Islam at the same time – non-belief due to its being ruled by the non-Muslim Tartars, and Islam due to its residents being Muslim.

During the conference Sheikh Bin Bayyah proposed a re-evaluation of this classification. International relations of that time were primarily determined by warfare and conflict with cordial relations being the exception.

Today, however, with peace being the norm and war and conflict the exception, the classification no longer applies.

He also brought attention to methodological flaws in how sacred texts are meant to be understood and interpreted and how the various independent legal judgements of jurists are meant to be adopted. For example, he mentioned how Takfirists used the Mardin Fatwa to justify their own agendas.

When printed editions of this edict were compared with its only available manuscript, a printing mistake was discovered which changed a word from “shall be treated” (Yu’amal) to “shall be fought” (Yuqatal). The text in question as found in the printed editions of the fatwa reads: “(Mardin is of a third category) in which the Muslim shall be treated as he merits, and in which the one who departs from the sacred law (Sharia) shall be fought as he merits.”

Whereas the text in the manuscript read: “(Mardin is of a third category) in which the Muslim shall be treated as he merits, and in which the one who departs from the sacred law (Sharia) shall be treated as he merits.”

This distortion has been printed for over 100 years and been the cause for much unlawful bloodshed.

Despite these efforts and others, institutions and organisations – faith-based or not – as well as Sharia bodies and councils and the media are completely oblivious to them and their valuable outcomes.

The most pressing question today is whether there is a serious desire to confront Takfirist ideology.

Habib Ali al-Jifri is the founder of Tabah Foundation, an Islamic research institution in Abu Dhabi that offers faith-based perspectives on contemporary Muslim and global issues

Source: thenational.ae/why-is-there-no-serious-effort-to-counter-takfir-ideology-1.457996#ixzz2uRsR17eo

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/radical-islamism-and-jihad/habib-ali-al-jifri/reasons-for-the-cancerous-spread-of-takfirist-ideology-in-parts-of-the-muslim-world/d/115796


  • I agree! Islam is all about doing the right thing.
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 7/14/2018 12:57:29 PM

  • What is Satan? He is the first kafir and the foremost among the kafir. Is he a disbeliever? No, he is much more than a Momin since he knows with certainty what a Momin only believes to be true. So what makes this greater than any Momin a kafir- the fact that he is not a Muslim meaning one who obeys the commands of Allah.
    Our beliefs help us solve life’s problems heuristically.  Holding correct beliefs is therefore important. Belief is however only an instrument to do the right thing, not an end in itself. It is our theology which has made belief the end-product and discounted the importance of doing the right thing. At the same time, it has corrupted those beliefs through bigotry. We therefore need to expose the harmful effects of the false beliefs and keep emphasising on doing the right thing.
    The Quran is categorical in stating that it is submission to the commands of Allah in willing obedience that alone matter. To do this, correct beliefs are important but the proof of those beliefs in your deeds and not in your reciting those beliefs.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 7/14/2018 12:44:29 AM

  • "This is a clear verse addressed to the Mominin who are informed that those who devour usury are kafir....."

    Therefore: A Momin/Muslim seizes to be one and becomes a kafir if knowingly and deliberately rejects the given guidance.

    The term A'raab meaning "desert Arabs" it seems, is a dispensation given to the city Arabs by sympathizers/scholars. 
    Such transactions could not have been carried out in the deserts but among the sophisticated city dwellers, the commercial  city like Makkah.

    By Skeptecle - 7/13/2018 8:52:11 PM

  • “Momin” means believer

    “la Yuminun” means disbeliever

    A person may be “la Yuminun” because he is “la yalamun” (ignorant) and such a person is not kafir since his lack of belief is from ignorance and not from wilful defiance of Allah

    A momin could be a Muslim (one who submits to Allah) or a kafir (rebel) or a Muslim in some respects and a kafir in other respects.

    (3:130) O ye who believe! Devour not usury, doubled and multiplied; but fear Allah; that ye may (really) prosper.(131) Fear the Fire, which is prepared for the Kafirin:

    It is the believers who devour usury who are asked to fear the fire and such believers who devour usury are the Kafirin. This is a clear verse addressed to the Mominin who are informed that those who devour usury are kafir and will be consigned to Hell.

     A Muslim is one who submits to Allah in his practice and deeds. One could be a Muslim without yet being a Momin if he performs his ritual prayers and pays zakat which is the minimum requirement to be considered a Muslim. A non-practicing Muslim is an oxymoron.

     (14) The desert Arabs say, "We believe." Say, "Ye have no faith; but ye (only)say, ´We have submitted our wills to Allah,´ For not yet has Faith entered your hearts. But if ye obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not belittle aught of your deeds: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."

     Form the above verse it is clear that one can be a Muslim and not yet a Momin and will be rewarded for his good deeds.

    Who is a Muslim?

    (2:112) Nay,-whoever submits His whole self to Allah and is a doer of good,- He will get his reward with his Lord; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

    The journey as a Muslim begins with willing submission to the religion of Islam. Belief in Allah and the Hereafter develops over a period as a Muslim becomes acquainted with the attributes of Allah, His mercy, His Divine plan etc. and is a continuous process.

    What is the religion of Islam? It is submission to Allah (by whatever name) and doing righteous deeds.

    A practicing Christian, Jew, Buddhist and all those who satisfy the requirements in verse 2:112 cited above are included in the Quran’s definition of a Muslim. By practice, what is meant is following the moral code of their religion.

    We can always tell who is a kafir by the person’s deeds. The one who oppresses is a kafir even if he prays 5 times a day and recites the kalima shahada.

    A just person can never be a kafir no matter what his beliefs are. As explained earlier, a person could be a disbeliever from ignorance and rendering justice at all times is evidence of obedience to Allah or obeisance to something much higher than self.

    The meanings of words given above, are consistent with the way in which the Quran uses these words.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 7/13/2018 3:29:04 AM

  • In other words: All Believers (Momineen) are Muslimeen but NOT all Muslimeen are Momineen.
    So those Muslimeen who are NOT Believers are Kafir and/or Munafiq.
    But, who can tell?

    By Skeptecle - 7/12/2018 1:47:04 AM

  • What is wrong with a combatant disbeliever? More often, the combatant disbeliever is fighting oppression by the believer! There are more contexts in which the believer is the oppressor and therefore "kafir" and the disbeliever just and therefore submitting to Allah's laws of justice which in other words mean "Muslim".

    This however will not be accepted by the bigoted ulema for whom the definition of "Muslim" is one who recites the "kalima shahida" and the "kafir" are those who haven't. Their belief is against textual evidence from the Quran and based on textual evidence of the works of bigoted scholars.
    Textual evidence from the Quran is both precise and definitive. Doubt is created by the bigots to whom the clear and definitive evidence from the Quran is not acceptable.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 7/11/2018 11:57:06 PM

  • Does one need so much scholarship to know that coercion and compulsion in religion are wrong and that no one has a monopoly on truth? Is our common sense not a sufficient guide for us?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 7/11/2018 12:19:32 PM

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