By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
is the fourth part of Refutation of Jihadi Ideology That Uses the Verse, ‘Kill the
Mushrikin Wherever You Find Them’ To Justify Terrorism in 21st Century.
Supported by the Hanafi principle ‘Dalalat Siyaaq al-Kalam’, this part of
Refutation is purely based on the contextual and structural analysis of the
verse “Kill the Mushrikin wherever you find them” (9:5).
to the Hanafi Principles of Jurisprudence, one of the five situations in which
the literal (Haqiqi) meanings are not taken is due to the ‘Dalalat Siyaaq
Hanafi principle ‘Dalalat Siyaaq al-Kalam’ refers to the situation where
the literal meaning of any word is dropped due to the context and structure (Siyaaq)
of the speech (Kalam). There are some clues, in such a situation, which
indicate that the literal meaning of the word is not meant.
example the Arabic word “Rajul” literally means ‘an adult human male’.
If anyone says to his enemy during war, “come to face me if you are a man (Mard)”—the
prevailing situation indicates that it is not reference to his gender, but to
his bravery. Here the literal meaning ‘a male human being’ is omitted due to
the ‘Dalalat Siyaaq al-Kalam’, that is, due to the context and structure of the
if a person narrates the story of anyone’s bravery and says, “A man was
fighting during a war. He was a lion”—here due to the context and structure of
the sentence, the word ‘lion’ would not be taken for the literal meaning. It
would not be said that the man was “a large wild animal of the cat family” but
it would mean that the man was brave like a lion.
on this Hanafi-jurisprudential principle of ‘Dalalat Siyaaq al-Kalam’,
let us understand the word ‘Mushrikin’ mentioned in the verse “kill the Mushrikin
wherever you find them” (9:5).
literal meaning of the word “Mushrikin” means those who commit the acts of
Shirk, that is, those who worship other than Allah Almighty and attribute an
equal partner to Allah in His Essence (Zaat) and Attributes (Sifat).
literal meaning of the word ‘Mushrikin’ mentioned in the verse 9:5 demands that
all those who commit shirk should be killed. But the context and structure of
the full relevant text of the verse 9:5 demands that only those who are
religious persecutors, violators of peace-treaty and have restored the war
should be killed. So based on the principle of ‘Dalalat Siyaaq al-Kalam’,
the literal meaning of the word ‘Mushrikin’ would be dropped here.
for the context of the verse 9:5, we have discussed it in the previous parts
along with some explanatory notes from the classical scholars. Briefly speaking
here, the Mushrikin of Arab mentioned in this verse were those who had
persecuted the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his followers for as long as 14
or 15 years in the city of Makkah. The Muslims continued to suffer heartless
oppression, torture and abuse for thirteen years, yet they were not allowed to
exact a measure of retaliation. Initially they were commanded to persevere
patiently. During the thirteenth year after the declaration of his
Prophet-hood, Allah commanded the prophet (peace be upon him) and his
companions to migrate. They carried out Allah’s command worshipfully and
migrated to Madina –nearly 300 miles away from Makkah. Still the animosity of
the inveterate Mushrikin of Arab had not subsided. They inflicted fresh
injuries on the Muslims; robbed them of the peace of mind and heart. When the
aggression and ruthlessness of the Arab Mushrikin grew more hotly than
ever, Allah granted permission to the believers to take up arms in their own
regards the structure of the verse 9:5, we should understand it from the verse
9:1, which reads “Absolution (i.e., renunciation) is declared from Allah and
His Messenger to those Mushrikin with whom you had made a treaty of peace (but
they breached the truce and restored the state of war)”. In the context
discussed above we have seen the Mushrikin of Arab were the religious
persecutors with whom, according to the verse 9:1, the peace-treaty was
established but when they breached this truce, a divine “renunciation was
declared”. Here an exception was also made to those who did not breach the
truce as mentioned in the verse 9:4, “Except those Mushrikin with whom you made
an agreement, who then did not show any latitude (in executing the truce) and
who did not support (or reinforce) anyone against you. So fulfil the treaty
with them till the end of the term. Surely, Allah loves those who fear Him”.
This indicates that those who did not breach the truce were not commanded to be
fought against. From the structure of all this divine speech it can be easily understood
that they were fought not because they were Mushrikin but because they were the
persecutors who even after making the truce breached it. This understanding is
also supported by the verse which reads, “And if any of the Mushrikin seeks
asylum with you, provide him with protection until he listens to the Words of
Allah. Then escort him to his haven. This is because these people do not
possess the knowledge (of the truth)” (9:6).
the context and structure of the divine speech, the literal meaning of the word
“Mushrikin” would not be meant. Rather its literal meaning would be dropped and
interpreted with explanatory notes that the Mushrikin mentioned in this verse
were the Mushrikin of Arab who were religious persecutors and violators of
peace-treaty. For the same reason we also come across such explanatory notes in
the books of Tafasir written by the well-known classical scholars, Imam
Baydawi, Allama Alusi, Allama Jassas, Ibn Hatim, Ibn Munzir and Suyuti etc.
Baydawi says, “The word “Mushrikin” in the verse 9:5 refers to “Nakithin”
which means those who breached the peace-treaty and restored the state of war.
(Baydawi, “Anwar al-Tanzeel wa Asrar al-Taweel (The Lights of Revelation and
the Secrets of Interpretation, V. 3, p. 71, 9:5- trans. from Arabic edition).
In the same way, Allama Alusi also dropped the literal meaning of the word
Mushrikin due to the context and structure of the divine speech and thus they
interpreted the word “Mushrikin” as “Nakithin” (Alusi, Rooh al-Ma’ani, v. 10, p.
50, - 9:5, trans. from Arabic edition). Imam Suyuti writes, “Imam Ibn Munzir,
Ibn Abi Hatim and Abu Shaikh (may Allah be pleased with them) have quoted
Hazrat Muhammad bin Ibad b. Jafar as saying “These Mushrikin are Banu Khuzaima
b. Amir who belong to Bani Bakr b.
Kananah” (see Suyuti, Durr-e-Manthoor,
V.3, p.655- translation from Urdu version). In the words of Allama Abu Bakr
al-Jassas, “The verse (Kill the Mushrikin wherever you find them) was
particular to the Mushrikin of Arab and does not apply to anyone else” (Ahkam
al-Quran lil Jassas, V. 5, p. 270, translation from Arabic edition)
Parts of the Article:
Refutation of Jihadi Ideology That Uses the Verse,
‘Kill the Mushrikin Wherever You Find Them’ To Justify Terrorism in 21st
Century: Linguistic Analysis of the Word ‘Mushrikin’ Part-1
Refutation of Jihadi Ideology: Who Are The Mushrikin
Mentioned In The Quranic Verse 9:5? - Part 2
Refutation of the Jihadi Ideology Through the
Principle of Zahir and Nass Related to the Quranic verse 9:5 Quoted To Justify
Acts of Violence In 21st Century- Part 3
A regular Columnist
with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil
(Classical Islamic scholar), with a Sufi-Sunni background and
English-Arabic-Urdu Translator. He has also done B.A (Hons.) in Arabic, M.A. in
Arabic and M.A in English from JMI, New Delhi. He is Interested in Islamic
Sciences; Theology, Jurisprudence, Tafsir, Hadith and Islamic mysticism
New Age Islam, Islam Online, Islamic Website, African Muslim News, Arab World News, South Asia News, Indian Muslim News, World Muslim News, Women in Islam, Islamic Feminism, Arab Women, Women In Arab, Islamophobia in America, Muslim Women in West, Islam Women and Feminism