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Islamic Society (22 Nov 2016 NewAgeIslam.Com)

How to Construct a Liberal Islam - Part Two

By Akbar Ganji


The Reality of Pluralism

According to the Quran, pluralism is the pillar of creations by God. Consider the following verses:

“O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted” (Al-Hujurat, 13).

According to this verse no person is superior to another person except for moral superiority that is a product of piousness, not any particular religion. Thus, no religion is superior over others, and a sort of pluralism has been accepted.

At the beginning of creation there were very few people in a unique group. But, as their numbers grew, differences developed between them, and the masses were divided into various groups.

“And mankind was not but one community [united in religion], but [then] they differed. And if not for a word that proceeded from your Lord, it would have been judged between them [immediately] concerning that over which they differ” (Yunus, 19).

This verse implies that the differences between people cannot be reconciled. Not only is an end to the differences not possible, it is also not desirable, because this is God’s wish. Thus, it is not clear which person or group of people is righteous, and which is not. In other words, pluralism is a required ingredient for this world.

God sent Prophets with [holly] books [Scriptures] to the people, but they could also not end the intellectual and practical differences between them.

“Mankind was [of] one religion [before their deviation]; then Allah sent the prophets as bringers of good tidings and warners and sent down with them the Scripture in truth to judge between the people concerning that in which they differed. And none differed over the Scripture except those who were given it - after the clear proofs came to them - out of jealous animosity among themselves. And Allah guided those who believed to the truth concerning that over which they had differed, by His permission. And Allah guides whom He wills to a straight path” (Al-Baqara, 213).

This verse states explicitly that being guided to the righteous path is unconditional. Thus, no group of people can claim that because they believe in a particular religion, they are righteous.

The Prophets and their holly texts transformed people into adherents of various incongruent religions. The Quran has emphasized numerous times that pluralism is natural, and God does not want the people to consist of only one group.

“And if your Lord had willed, He could have made mankind one community; but they will not cease to differ” (Hud, 118).

This is the most explicit statement by the Quran that it is not desirable for all the people to believe in the same religion. The following two verses also lend support to this:

“And if Allah had willed, He could have made you [of] one religion” (An-Nahl , 93).

“And if Allah willed, He could have made them [of] one religion” (Ash-Shura, 8).

The difference between the Quran’s view of accepting pluralism in the comprehensive and reasonable doctrines and John Rawls’ view is that Rawls believes that pluralism is the result of developed cultures of free societies, whereas the Quran considers it as part of God’s creation of mankind, and appropriate for human societies, the evidence for which is the Prophets and religions.

“To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you” (Al-Ma’ida, 48).

This verse emphasizes again that it is not desirable for all the people to believe in the same religion because, one, God has selected different ways for different groups of people and, two, the differences and arguments will continue until the Judgement Day. Thus, so long as people live in this world, they will have differences. In fact, right after thye above verse the Quran says, “Hurry to do good deeds. You will all return to God, and then He will make you aware of the [truth] about your differences.”

The intellectual and practical differences never end, the people will never reach complete consensus. The Quran describes monopolism and how adherents of any religion consider their beliefs as the absolute truth and those of others as void, and how they consider themselves as blessed and saved, going to heaven [after death], and others as damned. But, the Quran makes it clear that it will be God who will decide this on the Resurrection/Judgement Day:

“But Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ” (Al-Baqara, 113).

Thus, pluralism is a fact of this world. This reality implies nothing but peaceful co-existence of the adherents of various religions. It is for this reason that the Quran tells the Jews and Christian,

“Say, ‘O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you - that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah.’ But if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Him]’” (Al-i-Imran, 64).

Thus, monotheism is the only basis for peaceful co-existence of adherents of all the religions. Similarly, in the international arena, one must be at peace with all the people - Muslim or not, as well as those that are not people of the “book,” such as Hindus, and adherents of Confucianism, and secular comprehensive doctrines - except against an aggressor enemy.

“Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes - from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly” (Al-Mumtahina, 8).

One may ask why the Quran did not mention non-Abrahamic religions. The reason is that those who were originally addressed by the Quran did not know about non-Abrahamic religions and their adherents. They did not even know Sabians and Zoroastrians. When they became familiar with such religions, the Quranic jurisprudence became applicable to their adherents. When the original Muslims were introduced to Sabians, the following verse was revealed:

“Verily, those who believe [in the Quran] or those who are the Jews, the Christians and thye SAbians, and those who believe in Allah and the Day of Judgement and do righteous deeds shall have their rewards with their creator and nurturer, and there shall be no fear for them, nor shall they grieve” (Al-Baqarah, 62).

And, when the original Muslims learned about Zoroastrians, the following verse was revealed:

“Those who believe in Islam, and those who follow the Jewish Law and the Sabians, and the Christians and the Magians [Zoroastrians] and the polytheists, they all will be judged and decided for by Allah on the Day of Judgement. Verily, Allah is the Supreme Witness over all things” (al-Hajj, 17)

This verse indicates that the pluralism accepted by the Quran has gone even further as even polytheists will treated the same way as the adherents of various religions. The differences between the adherents of various religions and non-believers will persist. In other words, even nullity of atheism, which has been rejected by the Quran, will not be demonstrated definitively in this world, and the Quran has included it in its acceptance of pluralism.

Not only does the Quran recognize true diversity and pluralism, it also accepts, with one condition, diversity of religions. Consider the followings:

One, the Quran does not restrict salvation to Muslims only, but states that all adherents of various religions that believe in God, the Judgement day, and do good deeds, will be blessed (Al-Baqarah, 62, 112; Al-Ma’idah, 69; Al-An’am, 48; Al-A’raf, 53; and most explicitly, An-Nissaa, 124). The only unforgiveable sin is polytheism (An-Nissaa, 31, 48, 116), and even that can ultimately be forgiven if the sinner truly repents. But, even polytheism does not take away one’s fundamental rights, as the aforementioned verse from Al-Hajj, verse 17, demonstrated.

Two, the Quran has repeatedly recognized Judaism and Christianity as divine religions. In at least five verses, the Quran has emphasized that God made Jews superior (Al-Baqarah, 47, 122; Al-Jathiyah, 16; Al-Ma’idah, 20; Al-Dukhan, 32).

Three, Islam considers itself as the ultimate evolution of all religions. Hence, it considers itself as the truth. But, Islam is also religiously inclusive in that, it also recognizes the previous religions, which do not more or less have conflict with it, as the truth.

Four, regarding the truth, the Quran points out an important point, which is that the differences and conflicts between the people regarding what constitutes the truth are themselves symbol of the truth that will never end, and that God will judge them in hereafter and reveal the truth to them (Al-Hajj, 17).

Five, critics may point to the verse, “And whoever desires other than Islam as religion - never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers” (Al-i-Imran, 85), as the evidence against our argument. But, we should remember that in Islam’s logic, religion is unique and is called Islam, because all divine religions have the same roots: “Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam” (Al-i-Imran, 19). The Quran explicitly states that all the prophets had the same religion (Ash-Shura, 13), and that they were all supposed to confirm to each other (Al-i-Imran, 81). Abraham and Jacob were Muslim and invited people to Islam (Al-Baqarah, 128, 132, 133; Al-i-Imran, 67).

God asked Prophet Muhammad explicitly to declare that he was not a new phenomenon among the prophets (Al-Ahqaf, 9). The Quran considers all adherents of other divine religions as Muslim (Al-Baqarah, 136; Al-i-Imran, 84). In the Quran’s view all divine religions are one and the same, but depending on their era had different approaches and laws (Al-Ma’idah, 45-49). It also states that (Al-Hajj, 34, 67) God gave different rites for different religions.

Six, the Quran emphasizes that conversations with other religions must take place under the best conditions: “And do not argue with the People of the Scripture except in a way that is best, except for those who commit injustice among them, and say, ‘We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you. And our God and your God is one, and we are [all] Muslims [in submission] to Him’” (Al-Ankabut, 46), and, “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best” (An-Nahl, 125).

Most interestingly, even those who believe in no religion, i.e. the atheists, will not be harmed in this world, and only will experience losses in the hereafter. They are still included in the Quranic pluralism in this world, and it is only after they pass away that they will be judged by God.

Thus, the difference between Rawls and the Quran is that the former views pluralism as a result of judgement beliefs, whereas the latter considers it a result of lack of commitment to ethics of belief.

The Inherent Dignity of Human Beings

The Quran has spoken about the dignity of mankind: “And We have certainly honoured the children of Adam” (Al-Isra, 70). Based on this verse, some Muslim commentators have discussed the inherent dignity of human beings. On the other hand, the Quran considers God as the best creator because His creation, human beings, has inherent dignity (Al-Mu’minun, 14).

Respecting the inherent dignity, i.e. human being dignity is unconditional. Thus, being a human being is enough for being respected, and because this is so, all human beings, regardless of their ethnicity, gender, nationality, religion, race, and ideology possess inherent dignity.

There is an important issue that deserves separate discussion. To my knowledge, Muslim and non-Muslim scholars of Islam have never debated whether dignity is a factual or evaluative concept. In other world, is dignity a fact that only human beings deserve and have, similar to wisdom, free will, search for morality, etc., or is it an evaluative concept, implying that God likes human beings more than other creatures? It appears that Muslim and non-Muslim scholars of Islam view dignity as evaluative.

URL of the Part One: http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-society/akbar-ganji/how-to-construct-a-liberal-islam-–-part-one/d/109156

Source: huffingtonpost.com/akbar-ganji/how-to-construct-a-libera_b_12931992.html

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-society/akbar-ganji/how-to-construct-a-liberal-islam---part-two/d/109166


  • The literal meaning is one who covers up or hides. All the rest are meanings the word acquired through usage.

    When in every verse where the word is used the Quran describes the kufr of the kafir, there is no need to refer to any meaning outside of these verses to know precisely what is meant by the word in those verses. Nothing can be simpler or more direct than that! 

    It may be noted that Arabic was the language of the pagan Arabs for whom the concept of "disbeliever" did not exist.  "Disbeliever" was therefore not the meaning of the word in the 7th century.

    Moreover, I have cited several verses from the Quran in which the kafir referred to are Muslims and even Moses. If Muslims and even Moses who is a prophet to the Muslims are disbelievers, then who are the believers? In every verse where the kafir are non-Muslim or Muslim, the Quran refers to not all of them but to the kafir among them making it very clear that not all are considered kafir. The evidence that kafir does not mean "disbeliever=Non-Muslim" in the Quran is overwhelming and there isn't even one verse of the Quran where the meaning is "disbeliever=non-Muslim".

    It certainly refers to those who have rejected belief in God and the last day after the truth became manifest to them. Such people are ingrate rebels or kafir which is the true meaning of the word as used in the Quran.

    For example, Satan is kafir or an ingrate rebel since he disobeyed Allah's command. He is not a disbeliever since his rejection is with full knowledge of God, the hereafter, Heaven, Hell and even in the truth of Allah's curse on him for his disobedience. Satan is neither a disbeliever or without faith but on the contrary a believer with faith and yet an ingrate rebel.

    Moses is a kafir vis-a-vis Pharaoh since he stood up against his foster father. In the eyes of Pharaoh, Moses was nothing but an ingrate rebel or kafir to a doting father.

    The Meccans who fought against the Prophet and the Muslims rebelled against their own laws and tradition. The sacred mosque was a place of peace and sanctuary for all but they drove out the Muslims from it. They also persecuted the Muslims and drove them out of their home and were the first to assault/attack them in the three main battles. They rebelled against all notions of justice. Only such Meccans are referred to as kafir in the Quran and I have walked people through the verses of Surah Taubah which contain the so called "sword verses". Even in these verses kafir does not mean all the Meccan polytheists but only those who waged war.

    Over the centuries, the word has certainly come to mean non-Muslim as I have myself brought out in my comprehensive article on the subject:

    This is because, the Muslims have jumped to the conclusion that the truth of Islam is self evident and all non-Muslims are deliberate and willful rejecters of Islam and therefore kafir. However, there is no support from the Quran for jumping to such conclusions and the meaning of Islam in the Quran includes those who are not the followers of Muhammad.

    My efforts are to bring out the precise meaning of the Quran as made clear by the Quran itself. The hypocrites and those who wish to tinker with the precise meaning to suit their own agenda may take the help of lexicography.

    The dictionary is useful only for words that are used only once in the Quran and not for a word that is used 350 times! If one cannot understand the meaning of a word used 350 times without a dictionary, then there is something wrong with the person. However, if a person already knows the meaning which is not the correct meaning, then such a person needs to unlearn the wrong meaning to understand the Quran correctly. That is precisely the position of all the scholars of the Quran except a few. They read the Quran ascribing meanings to words which are not what these words mean in the Quran, but the meaning the words have acquired through the commentaries on the Quran by bigoted scholars of the past, many of whom are revered as imams.

    The Sunnis in India are all Muqallids or blind imitators of their imams. Their silence on a subject concerning the Quran is proof that they are not in disagreement. They cannot however agree and become "Ghair Muqallid".  That is their dilemma and reason for their silence. Having translated my articles in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic and French, it is clear that they have read and understood what is written.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 12/5/2016 2:12:24 AM

  • If believers are held to the literal meaning of what was written centuries ago, all religions would be rendered obsolescent. If an effort is made to tinker with lexicography to connote more benign meanings, enemies of religion will go hoarse crying foul. The best course is to discard words and concepts which are dissonant with enlightened understanding of religions. The less we hear words like kuffar and jihad, the better.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 12/4/2016 12:51:40 PM

  • a kuffar is a "unbeliever" according to most of the online arabic dictionaries. anyone who tells us otherwise has provide the proof.

    unbeliever means he who does not believe in allah, the koran and the last prophet.

    no renowned islamic scholar has ever denied that the non-muslims are kuffar.

    on the other hand no arabic knowing koranic scholars of NAI has said a single word in support of this new definition of kuffar.

    it can be lamely argued that "silence is acceptance". but that is exactly what the argument is - lame.

    no word can be defined arbitrarily by wild guesses and usage patterns. the meaning of words are generally taken from dictionaries.

    if the koranic violence and denigration of non-muslims (kuffar) turns out to be embarrassing to those who claim islam means peace (false. it means submission), they have to do their bit. sometimes by invective, sometimes by pleading sometimes by threats but always by false logic. but mostly by spin.

    when the arabic dictionary explicitly defines the word kuffar as "unbeliever", no amount of spin can whitewash the koranic hatred for polytheists, idol worshipers, jews and christians.

    anyone who has access to internet can verify the meaning of kuffar using online arabic dictionaries.

    in no case can the definition of the word be defined by a person who does not know the language from which the word is taken.

    like you can never prove the existence of god through either market research or null hypothesis.

    By hats off! - 12/4/2016 7:12:21 AM

  • Example of the most modern and liberal Muslim majority country : As defined by the Constitution of Malaysia, Malays must be Muslim, regardless of their ethnic heritage; otherwise, legally, they are not Malay. Consequently, apostate Malays would have to forfeit all their constitutional privileges, including their Bhumiputra status, which entitles them to affirmative action in university admissions and discounts on purchases of vehicles or real estate. 
    By Ashok Sharma - 12/4/2016 4:13:41 AM

  • There is no point in digging the medieval history. All religious societies had their share of persecution of other religions. The only difference is that the Muslim majority countries do not give equal rights to the followers of other faiths even in 21st century. They especially persecute those who refuse to believe in religion or, fairy tales. Hundreds of thousands of Muslims are migrating to Christian majority countries even though they have rich Muslim countries next door to go to. They are provided with shelter, money and all facilities available to local citizens in these Kafir countries and any politician speaking against these so-called refugees has to face wide criticism and can be prosecuted. What about Muslim majority countries ? Can they provide such facilities to welcome non-Muslims or, even the Muslims of another sect ? The maximum they do for refugees is that they provide funds for building mosques in these Kafir countries so that the locals could also be emancipated by the message of God through conversion or, otherwise. Even in countries like Indonesia, non -Muslims do not have equal rights. Malaysia by constitution has declared all non-Muslims as second class citizens. Only Malay Muslims can be treated as sons of the soil. All Malays have to declare themselves as Muslim. The moment they say that they are not Muslim, they lose their status as a Malay and also face charges of Apostacy. All Malays were not Muslims but they were declared to be Muslims to make Malaysia a Muslim country. This kind of fanaticism will never win the trust of non-Muslims and non-religious people and Islam will continue to be viewed as a dangerous ideology & an existential threat to modern human civilization.
    By Ashok Sharma - 12/4/2016 4:05:13 AM

  • Secularlogic,

    When the verses tell you clearly that only the kafaru will be punished and explicitly mention the kufr of the kafaru which was religious persecution and explicitly leave out the peaceful polytheists from any punishment, can the meaning of kafaru be made clearer? Whether the Quran is in Arabic or whether such a Quran which makes its meaning clear was in Sanskrit or German or any other language, it would not have made any difference. The beauty of the Quran is that it is easy to understand because it makes its meaning clear. And yet if it is misunderstood, it is because people read it with pre-conceived notions about the religion as well as the history of Islam based on their reading of the ahadith or whatever. I am sure, you found it easy to follow and understand when I walked you through the verses but it does not suit your agenda to acknowledge it. You have chosen to believe what you will believe and reject what you choose to reject even if that goes reason and the evidence.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 12/4/2016 2:56:07 AM

  • It is you who is ignoring the truth and making insupportable claims about Islam, Mr Ahmed. 

    You may have walked through chapter 9, I was not walking with you. I was watching you navigate the pitfalls and plastering the infirmities. 

    I have a simple reason for not believing you. You say the misunderstanding is because of wrong translation. But tell me - the Quran is written in Arabic. You dont know Arabic. You are also basing your 'study' on the translations, but looking for convenient synonyms to aid your whitewashing agenda. Those who know Arabic are not coming out in support of your theses. In countries where Arabic is the native language, the Quran is understood and practiced very differently from what you tell me it is. In history, when invaders came from Arabia, presumably reading the Quran in Arabic, they indulged in the worst Kafirism, destruction of places of worship, enslavement and reducing local population to dhimmitude. Did they also not understand Arabic? 

    It is to the credit of Hindus and their maturity that they have not allowed collective memory of persecution, humiliation, destruction and genocide to demand an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth from current day muslims. 

    By secularlogic - 12/3/2016 7:29:54 AM

  • Secularlogic, I have walked you through the verses of Surah 9 (Taubah) and showed you that the Quran makes clear the meaning of kafir which in these verses only mean those who practised religious persecution and explicitly excludes the peaceful polytheists. Rather than accept the very obvious conclusion  that kafir does not mean non-Muslim, you ran away from the discussion. That is deliberate non-acceptance of a truth made clear to you.

    Now you quote the very same verses from an Islamophobic site to malign Islam which amounts to a deliberate attempt to spread falsehood. Every other point that you make has been rebutted in the past.
    Your behaviour is that of a die-hard enemy of Islam and Muslims and the truth to you is irrelevant

    By Naseer Ahmed - 12/3/2016 4:25:56 AM

  • One must go on jihad at least once a year. One may use a catapult against them when they are in a fortress, even if among them are women and children. One may set fire to them or drown them. If Jews and Christians are enslaved, their marriage is revoked. One may cut down their trees and must destroy their useless books. Jihadists may take as booty whatever they decide.
    The dhimmi is obliged not to mention Allah or His Apostle. Jews, Christians, and Majins must pay the jizya and on payment must hang their head while the official takes hold of his beard and hits him on the protuberant bone beneath his ear. Their houses may not be higher than the Muslims'. The dhimmi may not ride a horse or mule; he may ride a donkey only if the saddle is of wood. He may not walk on the good part of the road and must wear an identifying patch, even women. Dhimmis must hold their tongue......
    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
    (The most celebrated scholar in the history of Islamic thought)
    Islam for Dhimmis

    As Islam grew, the governance of the ‘conquered’ needed to be formalised. In the Qur’an and Hadith it is clearly stated by Muhammad that those (Jews and Christians) conquered should submit to Islam, or pay the Jizya protection tax or be killed.

    Q9:29 Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book (Christians and Jews), until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.

    For the Pagans (which included Hindus and Buddhists) however, the choice was reduced – submit to Islam or be killed. From the Qur'an we have the verse:

    Q9:5 ...fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war);... {This action could only be implemented if there was no valid truce existing between the Muslims and the Pagans}

    In other words Islam will tolerate the continued practice of Judaism and Christianity within its state, with the payment of a poll tax, but certainly not any religion involving polytheism or idol worship. As this theory was not practical with the conquest of India, though 70 million Hindus were killed during Islamic rule there, Hindus by and large were allowed to continue practicing their religion once their Jizya tax was paid.

    A non-Muslim in an Islamic society is referred to as a dhimmi (pl. dimam) living in a state of dhimmitude. A dhimmi is basically a protected person by dint of the fact that he pays his poll tax with humiliation. In essence it is a form of extortion on non-Muslims to subvert them and a method of raising funds for Islamic expansionism.

    Allah, in the Qur'an, has promised Muslims that they will become the rulers of the earth and will provide them with security and ensure no other Gods are worshipped. This promise must certainly have been an effecive catalyst for believers to go out with resolute zeal and conviction to conquer all nations; a task they came close to accomplishing within the first three centuries of the imperialistic ideology being born. The Qur'an tells us:

    Q24:55 Allah has promised to those who believe that He will most certainly make them rulers in the earth, and that He will establish for them Islam which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly give them security; they shall serve Me, not associating another with Me; If any do reject faith after this, these it is who are the rebellious and transgressors.

    Q35:39 He it is that has made you inheritors in the earth.

    As the earth becomes inherited by the Muslim rulers, those that reject faith, the rebellious must be appropriately dealt with. For this reason the concept of dhimmitude was initiated.

    As societies fall under the governance of Islamic rule, the life of non Muslims will be subject to dhimmitude with strict rules and regulations, as have been prescribed throughout Islamic history.

    The basis for life as a dhimmi was formalised under the caliphate of Umar, who when Syria was captured, drew up a pact with their leader to determine how their Christian population would exist under Islamic rule. These rules and regulations, based on the Qur’an and Hadiths, have become the norm in such societies for the last fourteen hundred years and formalised in a document known as the Pact of Umar.

    Those who did not convert to Islam were forbidden from the following:

    ·   Building or repairing places of worship or monks’ residences

    ·   Closing doors to Muslim passers-by and travellers requiring board and lodging for up to three days

    ·   Sheltering or hiding anyone considered to be an enemy of the Muslims

    ·   Teaching the Qur'an to non-Muslim children. {because it would be taught incorrectly}

    ·   Displaying their religion publicly

    ·   Converting anyone to their religion

    ·   Preventing anyone from converting to Islam

    ·   Sitting should a Muslim wish to sit

    ·   Trying to resemble the Muslims by imitating any of their clothing or hairstyle

    ·   Mounting on saddles

    ·   Bearing or carrying any kind of arms

    ·   Engraving Arabic inscriptions on their seals

    ·   Selling fermented drinks

    ·   Displaying crosses or religious books in the roads or markets

    ·   Raising voices when following the dead

    ·   Burying their dead near the Muslims

    ·   Taking slaves who have been allotted to Muslims

    ·   Building houses taller than those of the Muslims

    ·   Striking a Muslim

    Agreeing to these terms many of which are still relevant in some of today’s Islamic societies, means that non-Muslims receive safety from the Muslims. Should there be any violations, the culprit forfeits protection as a dhimmi, and becomes liable to the penalties for contempt and sedition; in other words, death. Inability to pay the Jizya tax usually resulted in payment in the form of children, taken as slaves whose value would be deducted from the tax owed.

    The concept of blood money was advocated by Muhammad in the Qur’an (4:92) and many places in the Hadiths (e.g. SB 71:665). That is, in the case of murder the perpetrator would pay the victim’s family, money as compensation for the crime. To illustrate what life is worth in Islamic states, based on blood money, a review of compensation classified by religion and gender in Saudi Arabia, reveals the following disproportionate figures:


     Value (riyals)

     Muslim man


     Muslim woman


     Christian man


     Christian woman


     Hindu man


     Hindu woman



    As a dhimmi or even a Muslim woman under Islamic rule, you are basically a second/third/fourth class citizen. A Christian woman is worth quarter that of a Muslim man and it would take 33 Hindu women to equate to the value of a Muslim man or two Muslim women to be valued the same as her male counterpart. Muslim nations cannot accept the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, because much of it conflicts with their ideology of subjugation based on gender and belief in addition to its view that all non-Islamic nations as dar-ul-harb, awaiting conquest and conversion.

    But why should there be a need to treat non-Muslims as lower class citizens in an Islamic state? Do the scriptures indicate that those who do not accept Islam are not on an equal footing with those that do? The Qur’an itself is very informative regarding the nature of disbelievers and how they are to be treated.

    Allah says in Q8:55 Surely the vilest of animals in Allah's sight are those who disbelieve. Essentially Allah divides mankind in two groups placing the non believers in a position lower than even the vilest of animals. Muslims consider the pig to be a despicable animal and their God places those who do not accept him even beneath such a creature. What equal opportunity could possibly afford a non-believer in an Islamic society?

    In Q25:44 we are told by Allah that, They are but as the cattle - nay, but they are farther astray? Non-Muslims are even more astray in life than cattle.

    In many verses, persons not accepting Muhammad’s revelation are referred to as deaf, dumb and blind, Q6:39, Q2:171, Q2:18. In Verse Q 7:177 they are labelled as evil, Evil as an example are the folk who denied Our revelations.

    In Q7.179 Allah says those who disbelieved were created for hell. Therefore their destination already seems pre-determined at the time of their birth. Many are the Jinns and men we have made for Hell: They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle, nay more misguided: for they are heedless of warning. Such persons are more foolish than even cattle.

    Staying with the theme of animal analogies, Muhammad continues his tirades against the dhimmis by referring to them as dogs, Q7:176 His likeness is as the likeness of a dog: if thou attack him or leave him he pants with his tongue out. Such is the likeness of the people who deny Our revelations.

    In Qur’an 2:65 Muhammad states that because the Jews broke the Sabbath, Allah transformed them into apes and pigs. This punishment is again reiterated in Q5:60 where we read, those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil… Here Allah transforms those whom he curses into apes and pigs. Verse 2:88 informs us of whom Allah curses; Allah hath cursed them for their unbelief. Basically Allah curses everyone not obedient to him even those who use false hair SB 60:409. Those who partake in things forbidden by Allah are also subject to transformation into apes, Q7:166 So when they took pride in that which they had been forbidden, We said unto them: Be ye apes despised and loathed! In SB 54:524 Muhammad informs us that, A group of Israelites (Jews) were lost. Nobody knows what they did. But they were cursed and changed into rats. Essentially, once you are not a Muslim you are likely to be cursed and subsequently converted to some form of animal.

    Dhimmis in an Islamic nation must be treated harshly because they are destined for hell. In Qur’an 9:73 Allah tells us, Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites! Be harsh with them. Their ultimate abode is hell.

    Allah goes on to inform the Muslims in his Qur’an that the non-Muslims are unintelligent and should be fought against even if the Muslims are outnumbered, Q8:65 Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because disbelievers are a folk without intelligence. What equality can there possibly be for dhimmis if they are considered as being dummies (without intelligence) by Allah?

    Furthermore the non-Muslim who do not remember Allah are each assigned a devil as a companion, solely for the purpose of leading them astray. Qur’an 43:36-7 provide the details, And he whose sight is dim to the remembrance of Allah, We assign unto him a devil who become his comrade who hinder him from the path. Basically each and every non-Muslim is walking around with a devil as a friend continuously being diverted from the right path. No Muslim, knowing the true devil infested nature of dhimmis, could possibly befriend, employ or place in a position of authority any one of them in an Islamic society.

    In fact Allah in numerous places throughout the Qur’an exhorts the Muslims to not take friends from among the disbelievers. A few of these are:

    Q3:118 O ye who believe! Take not for friends non-Muslims

    Q4:89 So choose not friends from the unbelievers

    Muhammad claims that the disbelievers’ ears, eyes and heart were not receptive to his message therefore he destroyed their townships to teach them a lesson regarding the superiority of his revelation.

    Q46:26-7 Their ears and eyes and hearts availed them naught since they denied the revelations of Allah; and what they used to mock befell them. And verily We have destroyed townships and displayed for them Our revelation.

    Here the Qur’an clearly reveals that the conquered dhimmis had Muhammad’s revelations forced onto them because they did not open their hearts (yes, no brains required) to Allah’s message. Either they accepted Islam or were conquered and lived as dhimmis - subdued, paying the extortion tax or choosing death.

    The equality of all human beings regardless of race, religion or ability is a given in any civilised community. However in a society under Qur’anic decree, this is not so. The verses above clearly indicate that. non-Muslims are the lowest and vilest of all creatures, who are deaf, dumb and blind. But there are some verses that directly indicate their inequality.

    In Qur’an verse 6:49 Allah says, But as for those who deny Our revelations, torment will afflict them... Say to the disbelievers: Are the blind man and the seer equal? Here Muhammad is asking, are the disbelievers who will taste the rewards of torment, equal with those who belief? He uses the analogy of a blind person to insinuate that disbelievers are blind but believers can see, hence they are not equal. Even more poignantly though, for Allah to consider the blind person less equal as a human, is sadly, very short sighted.

    Are the believers and non-believers alike? Muhammad asks, Q28:61, Are these two alike? One to whom We have made a goodly promise, and one to who on the Day of Judgment is brought for punishment? Again Muhammad suggests, by way of a rhetorical question, that believers are not comparable to the unbelievers who will be punished on judgment day.

    In verse Q38:28 we have Muhammad again asking a sly question as to the similarity of treatment deserved by those who believe as compared with those who do not. Shall We treat those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the same as those who do mischief on earth? Shall We treat those who guard against evil, the same as those who turn aside from the right? We know very well that the disbelievers turn away from the supposed right path and also cause mischief in the land. Therefore shall the disbelievers be treated similarly to the believers? The answer from the Qur’an is clearly, no.

    Allah confirms the superiority of Muslims over the rest of mankind. In verse 3:110 of the Qur’an, he clearly states that believers are the best community on earth, unlike the Jews and Christians who, because of lack of believe, are perverted transgressors.

    Q3:110 You are the best of the people raised up for the benefit of men; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in Allah; and if the followers of the Book had believed it would have been better for them; of them some are believers and most of them are perverted transgressors.

    Dhimmis and Muslims are subject to the same civic laws though the punishment will vary. This is particularly so in the case of murder where the blood money varies dependant on religion and gender of the victim or capital punishment is awarded only for the murder of a Muslim. A Muslim murdering a Kafir may have to pay blood money depending on the circumstances of the crime.

    A dhimmi man is not permitted to marry a Muslim girl because it is expected that the wife and the children will adopt the religion of the man. However a Muslim man can marry a dhimmi girl who must be converted to Islam and children raised to be Muslims. A female convert to Islam, getting married to a Muslim, cannot be given away by her non-Muslim father but must find a Muslim elder to perform the duty.

    Should the wife in a dhimmi family embrace Islam, she must divorce her non-Muslim husband, to avoid being reverted back to her previous religion and she is also granted custody of their children to ensure they are raised as Muslims.

    In an Islamic state, a Dhimmi can only testify against other dhimmis but not against Muslims. Their non-Islamic oaths cannot be accepted in an Islamic court and hence not viable as evidence. The testimony of a Dhimmi is not accepted because Allah will not let the kafir have an upper hand over the believers. However should the same Dhimmi accept Islam, his testimony will be accepted against both dhimmis and Muslims. By embracing Islam he has gained a new credibility which would enable him to witness.

    However on personal matters such as marriages, divorces, and inheritance where no Muslim is involved, dhimmis are allowed to appeal to their own religious courts.

    Management of Muslims by non-Muslims is not permissible because Allah will not allow infidels to have authority over believers (Q4:141). Muslims have been elevated to the highest rank over all men and hence cannot be subservient to non-Muslims. According to the Qur’an Might and strength be to Allah, the Prophet and the believers(Q63:8). The authority of non-Muslims over Muslims is therefore incompatible with Allah’s pronouncements and hence forbidden in an Islamic State.

    Dhimmis can only express or advertise their ideologies within their own private community circles. Signs of their faith cannot be made visible nor can practicing of any rituals be done in public. Broadcasting any negative points of view about Islam or the Islamic State is considered blasphemous and is subject to the death penalty. However, Muslims are allowed to propagate their faith among all religious sects without hindrance.

    The interaction between Muslims and dhimmis in an Islamic State is governed by strict rules. Both Muslims and kuffar must adhere to conventions that will ensure the superiority of the Islamic way of life whilst ensuring no credence or value is asserted for the dhimmis’ religion or culture.

    A Muslim is forbidden to behave or dress in a similar way to the non-Muslims or attend their festivals. He may sell land to a Dhimmi as along as its intended purpose is not for the construction of their places of worship or for promoting prohibited goods such as alcohol or haram meat. Muslims should not work for, give charity to or honourably address a dhimmi.

    A Muslim may financially assist a dhimmi however he must ensure the funds are not used for any venture that promote the dhimmi’s religion or encourage the violation of Islamic prohibitions. Muslims may eat the food of Christians or Jews as long as no pork or liquor is used but should not eat from other non-believers.

    A Muslim may attend the funeral of a dhimmi and can also offer condolences to the family; however he should not walk behind the coffin and must leave before the burial takes place.

    Under Sharia, dhimmis are not considered citizens, even if they are the original natives of the land. Their freedoms are curtailed, rights diminished, dignity usurped and culture marginalised until it becomes non-existent.

    True to its name, Islam, the religion of submission, applies all manner of burdens unto its unrighteous subjects until they succumb to the ways of Allah.

    The talk of Islam ruling peaceably and living side by side with non-Muslims throughout its history is nonsensical. Only if the conquered nation subjected itself to suppressive laws and payment of Jizya with humiliation or converted to Islam, could there possibly have been peace for non believers in an Islamic society.

    Source: ( islamophobic site analysing the Quran.) The verses are quite self explanatory, but still.  https://sites.google.com/site/islamicscripturesunveiled/Home/dhimmi

    By secularlogic - 12/1/2016 4:40:19 AM

  • Chapter 9: Repentance

    3 Give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom to those who disbelieve,

    5 Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. {This verse is commonly referred to as “Ayat al Sayf” or the “Verse of the Sword”. It is in essence a decree to Muslims recommending aggression, death and destruction to the idolaters not willing to accept Islam. Verse 29 of this chapter deals with the Jews and Christians.}

    14 Fight them! Allah will chastise them at your hands, and He will lay them low and give you victory over them, and He will heal the breasts of folk who are believers. {When you fight the disbelievers Allah will come to your aid to assist in their destruction and your victory.}

    17 It is not for the idolaters to tend Allah's sanctuaries, bearing witness against themselves of disbelief. As for such, their works are vain and in the Fire they will abide. 

    23 O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith. Whoso of you taketh them for friends, such are wrong-doers.

    26 Then Allah sent His peace of reassurance down upon His messenger and upon the believers and punished those who disbelieved. Such is the reward of disbelievers. 

    28 O ye who believe! The idolaters only are unclean. So let them not come near the Inviolable Place of Worship (the Kabbah). {Those who worship idols/deities are unclean and should not be allowed in Mecca. This injunction was later extended to include all non believers.}

    29 Fight those who given the Book (Jews & Christians) but do not believe in Allah, nor in the day of judgement, nor prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth (Islam), until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection. {This verse deals with the Jews and Christians. Unlike the idolaters who are to be killed unless they accept Islam, the Jews and Christians (People of the Book as Muhammad referred to them) were allowed the luxury of keeping their religion but forced to pay the Jizya (poll tax) with submission. If they were not willing to pay the tax they were to be killed. Living in subjection meant no open practicing of their religion, no construction of religious buildings no carrying of weapons or the riding of horses.}

    30 And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. Allah Himself fighteth against them. How perverse are they! {Muhammad incorrectly interprets the Jewish scriptures, which said that Ezra revealed the path of God once more to the people of Israel, by assuming Ezra was the Jewish son of God. Crucially though, Muhammad reveals that his Allah fights against the perverse Jews and Christians for having such blasphemous believes.}

    31 They take their priests and Christ the son of Mary to be their lords in derogation of Allah, yet they were commanded to worship but one Allah. Far is He from having the partners they associate with Him. {Here Christians are condemned for associating Jesus and priests (saints) with Allah who apparently has no partners.}

    33 He it is who hath sent His messenger with the Religion of Truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religions, however much the idolaters may be averse. {Islam must prevail over all others.}

    34 O ye who believe! Many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks devour the wealth of mankind wantonly and debar men from the way of Allah. Unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom.

    35 On the day when it will (all) be heated in the fire of hell, and their foreheads and their flanks and their backs will be branded therewith

    36 The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve; of them four are sacred. So wrong not yourselves therein and wage war on all of the idolaters as they are waging war on all of you. And know that Allah is with those who keep their duty unto Him. {Though verse 9:5 says wait until the sacred months are over before you slay the idolators, this verse contradicts that command and recommends that the Muslims not wrong themselves by holding back their killing during the sacred months.}

    37 The evil of their deeds is made fairseeming unto them. Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk.

    39 If ye go not forth He will afflict you with a painful doom. {The new converts to Islam were not keen on going into battle or raids against their fellow Arabians. Therefore the prophet resorted to threats of dire punishments for those unwilling.}

    41 Go forth, light-armed and heavy-armed, and fight with your wealth and your lives in the way of Allah! That is best for you if ye but knew.

    49 Hell verily is all around the disbelievers.

    61 Those who vex the messenger of Allah, for them there is a painful doom.

    63 Know they not that whoso opposeth Allah and His messenger, his verily is fire of hell, to abide therein? That is the extreme abasement. 

    68 Allah promiseth the hypocrites, both men and women, and the disbelievers fire of hell for their abode. It will suffice them. Allah curseth them, and theirs is lasting torment. 

    73 O Prophet! Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites! Be harsh with them. Their ultimate abode is hell, a hapless journey's end.

    74 They swear by Allah that they said nothing (wrong), yet they did say the word of disbelief, and did disbelieve. Allah will afflict them with a painful doom in the world and the Hereafter, and they have no protecting friend nor helper in the earth.

    80 Though thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times Allah will not forgive them. That is because they disbelieved in Allah and His messenger.

    84 And never (O Muhammad) pray for one of them who dieth, nor stand by his grave. Lo! they disbelieved in Allah and His messenger.

    90 A painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.

    111 Allah hath bought from the believers their lives and their wealth because the Garden will be theirs: they shall fight in the way of Allah and shall slay and be slain. Rejoice then in your bargain that ye have made, for that is the supreme triumph.

    113 It is not for the Prophet, and those who believe, to pray for the forgiveness of idolaters even though they may be near of kin (to them) after it hath become clear that they are people of hell-fire.123 O ye who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are near to you, and let them find harshness in you.

    Extracted from the Quran

    By secularlogic - 12/1/2016 4:30:50 AM

  • It does. Read: The Quran
    By secularlogic - 12/1/2016 4:12:35 AM

  • It does not. Read:

    By Naseer Ahmed - 12/1/2016 12:00:02 AM

  • Ok, but the Quran also says do Jihad till all across the world all prayer is for Allah only. It partitions the world into the region populated by believers of Islam and the region populated by non-Believers. It also exhorts followers to spread their religion through holy war. It speaks in a forked tongue. On the one hand, it says to you your religion and to me mine, and on the other it curses people of other faiths and non faith people to hell. It also subjects non muslims to jizya and sex slavery, in addition to differentiating between them in matters of law (punishment for muslim blood spilled is different from non muslim blood spilled) In practice, resisting the spread of Islam, defending ones own faith from Islamic onslaught, also falls in the category of war against islam, as we have seen in History. Somehow, your assertions do not jell with what history has witnessed, both in the time of the prophet and after. Where muslims have gained power in previously hindu lands, the hindus have been decimated and continue to be - even though they are living peacefully. If the Quran had forbidden it, it would not have happened. The fact is, anybody who puts up an opposition to islam  in thought, word and deed, violent or non violent, becomes an enemy of Islam. Anyone who criticises Islam becomes and enemy of Islam. Just the presence of a non believer among a majorly muslim community works like an allergen. And about enemies of Islam, the Quran is unequivocal.
    By secularlogic - 11/30/2016 6:11:47 AM

  • This is what the Quran says:

    Let there be no compulsion in religion.

    To the peaceful rejecter of faith be his own way.

    As far as rulers are concerned, they need to be just. The standard of justice is discussed in detail in my articles:

    By Naseer Ahmed - 11/30/2016 3:35:37 AM

  • What does peaceful mean? Suppose I hold talks like peace TV where I speak truly and frankly about the unsecular and vicious aspects of Islam and I draw huge audiences? Suppose I manage to turn people away from this faith? What does the Quran say should be done with me?

    Suppose I am living happily in my land with my religions and customs, and all people are of the same faith. Suppose one band of Muslims comes in. Is militarily powerful. It destroys my place of worship, it defeats my ruler, it makes Islam the state religion and people of my religion are reduced to second rate jizya paying citisens. suppose leaders of my faith are imprisoned and tortured to convert to Islam. Suppose I put up an armed resistence against dawah and religious persecution by Muslims. I strive hard to protect my faith, my people, my temples and my way of life. I refuse to convert. Then I am a violent opponent of Islam. What does the Quran say should be done with me in the two cases stated above.

    Does the Quran give me the right to protect my religion and way of life from Islam?

    By secularlogic - 11/30/2016 2:08:43 AM

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