In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful
of God’s existence is often taken for granted by believers. The authentic
religious experience – affirmed again and again in a Muslim’s daily life –
makes faith in God feel so natural as to be assumed. But belief in God and the
quest for existential truth is not an easy prospect for many people, especially
in a social environment in which faith is derided as superstition, wishful
thinking, or even as a dangerous fantasy.
Islamic tradition, the case for God’s existence is solid in terms of its
rational foundations as well as the purpose, meaning, comfort, and guidance
that it gives to our lives. The Quran inspires conviction by appealing to the
aspects of the inner life of human beings, namely, to the heart and the mind.
Intuition and experience work in tandem with logic and reason to arrive at a
state of certainty in faith.
understanding of conviction is reinforced by modern scientific conceptions.
Cognitive scientist Justin Barrett, for example, demonstrates that belief in
God – and beliefs more generally – are formed and attained in two ways: 1)
non-reflective, intuitive beliefs that result from experience, and 2)
reflective, conscious beliefs that result from thought. The human being
naturally forms beliefs from these two sources. Similarly, the case for God’s
existence in the Quran and Sunnah involves both sources of beliefs, heart-based
appeals based on intuition and mind-based appeals based on rational reflection.
to the Heart, Intuition, and Experience
Instinct – Fitrat Alla¯h
beings sense the existence of God – or what they perceive as a higher power –
by pure instinct, with or without a prophetic revelation to guide them.
Expressions of this sensus divinitatis have appeared in cultures and religions
all over the world, despite them being widely separated by time, geography, and
language. In Islamic spiritual terms, this is because God took a primordial
covenant with every person before the world was created that they would
recognize their Creator.
when your Lord took out the offspring from the loins of the Children of Adam
and made them bear witness about themselves, He said, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ and
they replied, ‘Yes, we bear witness.’ So you cannot say on the Day of
Resurrection, ‘We were not aware of this.’
(d. 745) commented on this verse, saying, “For this reason, there is no one on
the face of the earth but that he knows his Lord is Allah, and no one
associates idols with Him except that he will say ‘I found my forefathers
following another religion.’” The primordial covenant results in the innate
impulse within people to seek out the higher power that they can sense, as they
have done in some form or another throughout all of recorded history, to the
point that some scientists today argue that belief in God or a higher power is
hardwired into our genes.
and revealed religion confirms and conforms to the human nature that the
Creator instilled within us. The Quran refers to human religious nature as
fit?rat Alla¯h, the instinct and inherent disposition with which God created
Muhammad] as a man of pure faith, stand firm and true in your devotion to the
religion. This is the natural disposition God instilled in mankind – there is
no altering God’s creation – and this is the right religion, though most people
do not realize it.
were born to be believers in God, and the revelations of the Prophets simply
awaken and reinforce the disposition that is already inside us. Even polytheists,
who believe in multiple gods and deities, often believe that there is an even
higher power, an even greater God over all of them.
asked them who created the heavens and earth, they are sure to say, ‘God.’ Say,
‘Praise belongs to God,’ but most of them do not understand.
[Prophet Muhammad] ask them who created them they are sure to say, ‘God,’ so
why are they deluded?
humans can sense the higher power, they will instinctively turn to God in times
of danger. Every person, at some point in his or her life, will have an intense
experience that causes a natural reaction to turn to prayer. There are many
cases of people who experience a sudden brush with death that causes them to
become more faithful to their religious tradition.
they go on board a ship they call on God, and dedicate their faith to Him
alone, but once He has delivered them safely back to land, see how they ascribe
partners to him!
[Prophet Muhammad], ‘Who is it that saves you from the dark depths of land and
sea when you humbly and secretly call to Him [and say], ‘If He rescues us from
this, we should truly be thankful’? Say, ‘God rescues you from this and every
distress; yet you still worship others besides him.’
something bad happens to people, they cry to their Lord and turn to Him for
help, but no sooner does He let them taste His blessing then—lo and
behold!—some of them ascribe partners to their Lord, showing no gratitude for
what We have given them.
suffers some affliction, he prays to his Lord and turns to Him, but once he has
been granted a favor from God, he forgets the One he had been praying to and
sets up rivals to God, to make others stray from His path.
(d. 1111), in his autobiography, describes the innate religious disposition –
that he himself experienced – as an urge for people to “seek knowledge of the
reality of things.” He describes this spiritual longing for truth as a
“thirst” (ta’at?t?ash) that must be quenched. It is a void and emptiness in the
heart, an uneasiness with existence, which must be filled by discovering
meaning and purpose to life. And while reason is an important tool to achieve
faith in God, it is still merely one step along the spiritual path: “Beyond the
level of reason lies another level that opens another eye by which one gains
insight into the Unseen and into what will occur in the future, among other
of God resides primarily in the heart and is reinforced by reason, but it is
not achieved and consolidated by reason alone. There must be an authentic
religious experience, the acknowledgment of greater purpose and meaning to the
universe, and the taste of spiritual fruits. Hence, the early scholars of Islam
defined knowledge of God not as a collection of facts and arguments, but rather
as a light within the heart. Ima¯m Ma¯lik (d. 795) said, “Knowledge is not
knowing many sayings. Verily, knowledge is only a light that Allah places in
the hearts.” And Ibn Rajab (d. 1393) said, “Knowledge is not memorizing
many narrations or sayings, but rather it is a light that Allah places in the
heart by which a servant understands the truth and he distinguishes it from
scholars of Islam defined knowledge of God not as a collection of facts and ...
Experience of Peace and Contentment
of the knowledge of God is found in the guidance, spiritual direction, and the
sense of peace that believers attain by practicing Islam. It can fill the
spiritual void in all of us. The greatest proof for the existence and Lordship
of Allah, then, is discovered in the visceral experiences of the heart through
which the believers find comfort, inner-peace, moral education, and meaning in
life – the spiritual fruits of true religion.
A light has
now come to you from God, and a Scripture making things clear, with which God
guides to the ways of peace those who follow what pleases Him, bringing them
from darkness out into light, by His will, and guiding them to a straight
be mindful of God and have faith in His Messenger: He will give you a double
share of His mercy; He will provide a light to help you walk; He will forgive
you— God is most forgiving, most merciful.
is in the remembrance of God that hearts find peace.
promises those who have faith that they will live a “good life” and move into
an infinitely greater existence in the afterlife. The peace that believers
experience in this life is only a brief taste of the peace to come in the
Hereafter. Reflecting upon this fact day after day in prayer contributes to a
state of calm and tranquility.
promises those who have faith that they will live a “good life” and move into
male or female, does good deeds and has faith, We shall give a good life and
reward them according to the best of their actions.
soul at peace: return to your Lord well pleased and well pleasing; go in among
My servants; and into My Garden.
This is not
a promise that believers will never experience adversity. Indeed, there will
come times – Allah guarantees – in which the believers will be tested for their
patience and perseverance. Rather, Allah promises that believers, through their
spiritual practices and moral and theological education, will achieve a stable
state of contentment and satisfaction with life.
In state of
contentment, believers are better equipped to endure the inevitable
vicissitudes of ...
is sure to give you so much that you will be well satisfied.
Prophet ? said:
succeeded who embraces Islam, whose provision is sufficient, and who is content
with what Allah has given him.
Muhammad ? described spiritual contentment as the “sweetness of faith,” a fruit
of true religion that is to be tasted and experienced. It involves authentic
encounters with the divine by which a believer becomes grounded and certain in
the truth of his or her faith.
tasted the sweetness of faith who is content with Allah as his Lord, Islam as
his religion, and Muhammad as his prophet.
contentment described in Islamic texts consists of a stability of being that
protects believers from oscillating between extremes of momentary euphoria and
sorrow, such that they can remain in a state of calm and tranquility regardless
of what is happening in their lives. It is manifested in a detachment from
worldly possessions and temporal concerns (zuhd), and an end to the fear of
poverty. This spiritual state of being is, in fact, what the Prophet described
as true wealth.
not in having many possessions. Rather, true wealth is the richness of the
in the heart and poverty is in the heart. Whoever is wealthy in his heart will
not be harmed no matter what happens in the world. Whoever is impoverished in
his heart will not be satisfied no matter how much he has in the world. Verily,
he will only be harmed by the greed of his own soul.
those who achieve this state of being – along with their basic worldly needs –
are truly the wealthiest people in the world.
among you wakes up secure in his property, healthy in his body, and he has his
food for the day, it is as if he were given the entire world.
are consumed by wealth, possessions, and worldly status, they will inevitably
experience a void that leads to unhappiness no matter how much they have. The
early Muslims used to say, “If the kings of the world and their sons knew what
we have of blessings and happiness, they would fight us for it with their
swords.” True and stable happiness is not something that we acquire “out
there,” as kings and powerful leaders might imagine. The material world cannot
make us happy and content for long; we have to discover the means of happiness
within the heart through our relationship with the Creator. It is the free gift
of Islam for all.
are consumed by wealth, possessions & status they will experience a void
state of contentment, believers are better equipped to endure the inevitable
vicissitudes of life. Hypocrites, those who are insincere in their religion, by
contrast, are unable to pass through adversity with the same sense of stability
of the believer is that of a crop which withstands the wind, for the believer
continues to withstand the suffering of trials. The parable of the hypocrite is
that of a cedar tree, for it does not budge until it is uprooted.
these spiritual fruits, the believers strengthen their conviction with every
positive and meaningful experience. Knowledge of God is consolidated through
these experiences much more effectively than through logical or philosophical
you have understood the meaning of prophecy and you have abundantly examined
the Quran and traditions, you will inevitably arrive at the knowledge that
[Muhammad] – peace and blessings of God be upon him – embodied the highest
levels of prophecy, and that is reinforced by experiencing his teachings in
regards to worship and its effects on purifying the heart… Thus, when you
experience that one thousand, two thousand, and many thousands of times over,
you will necessarily attain knowledge in which there is no doubt.
this is the most effective method to strengthen faith, as demonstrated by
cognitive scientists, is that the intensity of religious experiences makes them
unforgettable. A believer who witnesses the benefits of spiritual practice
in his or her life – day after day – will attain a level of certainty and
tranquility that they would never consider abandoning.
everyone achieves an authentic religious experience or understands it in a
proper theological framework. Human nature is not immune to alteration by
misguided doctrines and philosophies that contradict our healthy instincts,
even ideas that claim a basis in theism.
No one is
born except upon natural instinct. Then his parents turn him into a Jew or a
Christian or a Magian. As an animal produces their young with perfect limbs, do
you see anything defective?
tradition, the Prophet tells us that everyone is born to accept the simple,
natural worship of one unique, powerful, and benevolent Creator. However, for
various reasons, people invent religious doctrines that anthropomorphize God
(ascribe human features to Him), or ascribe divine attributes to created beings
(such as deifying saints and sages), or deny the Creator altogether.
nature and intuitive belief in one God are corrupted, either by negative
experiences or the influence of others, then logical arguments may be required
for a person to return back to his or her natural state.
Tamiyyah (d. 1328) writes:
establishment and recognition of the Creator is a fundamental instinct in human
nature, even though some people have done something to corrupt their nature
such that they need an argument to achieve knowledge of God. This is the
opinion of the majority of people, as well as the skilled debaters, that
knowledge of God is sometimes achieved effortlessly and other times by
argument, as was recognized by more than one of the theologians.
intuitive beliefs, which we gain from our natural disposition and experiences,
serve to anchor and inform the beliefs that we gain through reflection and
conscious, rational deliberation. In this way, reading and reflecting on
the Quran builds upon intuitive experiences of the heart by appealing to the
mind and the power of reason.
to the Mind, Reason, and Logic
question that most human beings eventually ask themselves is about the nature
of existence: Why am I here? Why is there a world and a universe? Why is there
something and not nothing?
addresses this question with a cosmological discourse, a reminder that it was
God who created everything and caused it to be. Human beings are asked to
reflect upon the nature of their existence and the universe. Is it really
plausible, sensible, and intuitive that the universe appeared arbitrarily for
not thought about their own selves? God did not create the heavens and earth
and everything between them without a serious purpose and an appointed time,
yet many people deny that they will meet their Lord.
intuition and experience tell us that effects have causes; things come to be
because something made them that way. Since the universe is one giant series of
causes and effects, it is reasonable to conclude that it had an original cause
that set it all in motion.
created out of nothing? Were they the creators? Did they create the heavens and
the earth? No! They do not have faith.
verses posit three possibilities: 1) the universe appeared without any agent to
bring it into existence, 2) people created themselves, or by implication 3) the
universe must have been created.
two propositions are impossible. It could not be the case that the universe
appeared from nothing without any reason, purpose, or force to inject it with
its energy and direction. Everyday experience informs us that all things we
witness in life, every effect we see, must have an explanation at some level.
The second proposition, that people created themselves, can be dismissed on its
face. As such, the only reasonable conclusion is that the universe was caused –
it was created – it was made to exist by something greater and more powerful
reasonable conclusion is that the universe was made to exist by something
(d. 1449) explains the meaning of these verses by quoting the scholar
It is said
the meaning [of the verse] is: Were they created without a creator? That is
impossible, as they must have a creator. If they deny the Creator, then they
must have created themselves, and that proposition is even more foolish and
false, for how can something without existence create anything? If they reject
these two opinions [that they came to be without a creator or they created themselves],
then the proof is established upon them that they were in fact created.
derive from these verses and others a logical train of thought, sometimes
referred to as the cosmological argument, which determines that God, as the
uncaused cause or first cause, is the most reasonable answer to the existential
question. Ismail Latif Hacinebioglu summarizes the logic of the argument in the
in the universe that has a beginning must have a cause.
began to exist.
the beginning of the existence of the universe must have been caused by
such cause must be an uncaused cause, or God.
his line of
thinking is acceptable to the mind and it finds validation in human intuition
and experience. It sufficiently answers the question of why anything exists in
the first place. Jubair ibn Mut?’im (d. 677) reported that he heard the Prophet
reciting these verses in the evening prayer, and he said, “My heart was about
to fly!” The argument in this passage was so compelling that Jubair
of this argument was used by the great jurist and theologian Abu¯ H?ani¯fah (d.
767) in his debate with philosophers who were skeptical about the existence of
reported from Abu¯ H?ani¯fah that some philosophers (ahl al-kala¯m) intended to
discuss with him the establishment of the existence of one Creator. Abu¯
H?ani¯fah said, ‘Tell me before we speak on this matter about a ship on the
Tigris river moving by itself and filled with food, goods, and other materials,
then it goes back by itself, then anchors itself, then unloads itself and
continues to do all of this without anyone to manage it.’ They said, ‘This
could never happen.’ Abu¯ H?ani¯fah said, ‘If it is impossible for a ship, then
how is it possible for the entire world in all of its vastness?’ 
Al-Qayyim (d. 1350) uses a similar example of a watermill spinning on its own,
producing, harvesting, and distributing its crops without anyone to guide it:
What do you
say about a watermill revolving over a river in perfection? Its tools are
perfected, its parts measured with excellence, and it is so obvious such that
no observer can find fault in its parts or its form. It presides over a grand
garden within which are every kind of fruit and crops, watering them as needed.
Within this garden, its shrubbery is gathered and its maintenance is assured
for its well-being. Its produce is excellent and guaranteed, and all of its
needs are well served. Thus, nothing of it is left disordered and none of its
fruit is left to rot. Then, the value of everything produced is divided
according to their needs and necessities, divided by every type and
distributed, and this distribution occurs in this manner at all times. Do you
find this arrangement to have a creator or harvester or manager? Or, is the
arraignment of that watermill and garden without an actor or maintainer or
manager? What do you find that your mind tells you in that case and how could
you explain it?
sense tells us that the ship or the watermill must have been made to move by
something outside of itself. Established scientific principles agree. The great
physicist Sir Isaac Newton’s first law of motion states: “Every object persists
in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is
compelled to change that state by forces impressed on it.” In other words,
things in the universe do not move or change their movements unless an external
force acts upon them. This is true of everything in the universe, and it is
just as true for the universe itself as a whole.
deny the existence of the Creator attempt to challenge the a priori premise
that the universe has a definite beginning. Their argument is that the universe
has always existed in an endless series of causes, or an infinite regression,
without the need for a first cause to set it in motion. Besides being
counter-intuitive – as all things we experience in life had a beginning at some
point – modern physics and cosmology now largely accept the premise of the
cosmological argument as fact. The “big bang” theory postulates that the
universe began from a singularity somewhere between 12 and 14 billion years
series of explanations for why things are as they are leads to the reasonable
Even if we
accept the idea of an infinite regression for the sake of argument, and despite
the lack of scientific or intuitive evidence for it, that does not discount the
need for a cause beyond time and space to produce and sustain it. Polymath and
philosopher G.W. Leibniz (d. 1716) asserts that an infinite series must still
necessarily have a sufficient reason for its existence:
suppose that a book on the elements of geometry has always existed, one copy
always made from another. It is obvious that although we can explain a present
copy of the book from the previous book from which it was copied, this will
never lead us to a complete explanation, no matter how many books back we go,
since we can always wonder why there have always been such books, why these
books were written, and why they were written the way they were. What is true
of these books is also true of the different states of the world, for the state
which follows is, in a sense, copied from the preceding state, though in
accordance with certain laws of change. And so, however far back we might go
into previous states, we will never find in those states a complete explanation
[ratio] for why, indeed, there is any world at all, and why it is the way it
is… From this it follows that even if we assume the eternity of the world, we
cannot escape the ultimate and extramundane reason for things, God.
In the same
vein, physicist Don Page gives the example of an artist drawing a circle on a
canvas; the circle has no beginning or end, yet it still required an external
artist to draw it. The existence of the universe itself, regardless of its
finite or infinite nature, must have had a Creator to set the chain of causes
the cosmological argument by itself is only one piece in a much larger
discourse on the nature of existence. The Quran complements the discussion with
an even greater and more compelling teleological discourse – that the world was
fabric of the cosmos, from the macroscopic stars to the microscopic world of
microbes and everything in between, contains a set of universal, natural laws
that produce order. The result of these laws is that many things in the
universe exhibit identifiable purpose. Our eyes were made to see. Our ears were
made to hear. Our lungs were made to breathe. Our trees were made to produce
fruit and clean air. Our water was made to sustain life, and so on. With so
many clear instances of purpose that we repeatedly experience in the different
parts of the universe, it is only logical to conclude that the entire universe
itself exists as it is for a purpose.
It is only
logical to conclude that the entire universe itself exists as it is for a
teleological language is unavoidable in daily life and especially in life
sciences. Biologists and medical professionals speak of the “role” and
“function” of various organs (who assigned its role and function?), as well as
genetic “codes” and “information” (who coded it and informed it?). Charles
Darwin himself, often held up as a champion of atheist philosophies, was unable
to convey his scientific ideas without frequent recourse to the language of
design and purpose. It is natural and intuitive for us to recognize the teleology
of the universe.
the Quran persistently draws attention to signs (a¯ya¯t) in nature that
demonstrate the grand design and power of the Creator. We are called to engage
in thoughtful reflection (tafakkur) upon all of these signs as a means of
recognizing our purpose and attaining conviction.
are signs in the creation of the heavens and earth, and in the alternation of
the night and day, for those with understanding, who remember God standing,
sitting, and lying down, who reflect on the creation of the heavens and earth:
‘Our Lord! You have not created all this without purpose – You are far above
that! – so protect us from the torment of the Fire.’
then, is not the result of an abandonment of reason, as some people imagine.
The apparent dichotomy between religion and science is a false one. Rather,
using the faculty of reason, in concert with a sound heart, is a path to God
and an Islamic virtue. Abu Al-‘Ala¯, one of the early Muslims, used to say, “A
worshipper is given nothing better after Islam than to be provided with a sound
then, is not the result of an abandonment of reason, as some people imagine.
this end, the Quran explicitly appeals to the reason (al-’aql) of its readers
and particularly their ability to reflect upon the teleology of existence.
creation of the heavens and earth; in the alternation of night and day; in the
ships that sail the seas with goods for people; in the water which God sends
down from the sky to give life to the earth when it has been barren, scattering
all kinds of creatures over it; in the changing of the winds and clouds that
run their appointed courses between the sky and earth: there are signs in all
these for those who use their minds.
One of His
signs is that He created you from dust and—lo and behold!—you became human and
scattered far and wide. Another of His signs is that He created spouses from
among yourselves for you to live with in tranquility: He ordained love and
kindness between you. There truly are signs in this for those who reflect.
Another of His signs is the creation of the heavens and earth, and the
diversity of your languages and colors. There truly are signs in this for those
who know. Among His signs are your sleep, by night and by day, and your seeking
His bounty. There truly are signs in this for those who can hear. Among His
signs, too, are that He shows you the lightning that terrifies and inspires
hope; that He sends water down from the sky to restore the earth to life after
death. There truly are signs in this for those who use their reason.
in the land, neighboring plots, gardens of vineyards, cornfields, palm trees in
clusters or otherwise, all watered with the same water, yet We make some of
them taste better than others: there truly are signs in this for people who
command He has made the night and day, the sun, moon, and stars all of benefit
to you. There truly are signs in this for those who use their reason.
signs of God in everything that we see at every level: the sun, the moon, the
stars, the planets, the night and day, the mountains, the oceans, the wind, the
clouds, the rain, every plant and animal, all types of fruit and food and
drink, the miracles of the human genome, virtues such as love, wisdom, and
beauty, and much more than can be counted. The more we examine these signs and
think deeply about them, the more it will reinforce our conviction.
show them Our signs on the far horizons and in themselves, until it becomes
clear to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord witnesses
the signs of God’s work in nature is the primary and most powerful rational
method of confirming the existence of the Creator. Ibn Taymiyyah writes,
“Affirming the Creator by means of signs is an obligation, as it has been
revealed in the Quran and Allah has made it instinctual to his servants. Though
deductive arguments may be correct, their usefulness is lacking.” More
complicated philosophical arguments, while not necessarily incorrect, are not
as potent since most common people are not trained in the terminologies and
methods of philosophical argumentation. In the same passage, Ibn Taymiyyah goes
on to criticize the arguments of Ibn Si¯na¯ (d 1037), Al-Ra¯zi¯ (d. 1210), and
others who put forth purely philosophical arguments for the existence of God,
which were weak or ineffective in his estimation.
the signs of God’s work in nature is the primary and most powerful rational
lines, the great Ima¯ms were often asked why they believed in the Creator in
the first place, and they would respond by calling attention to the signs of
Ma¯lik (d. 795) was asked by Caliph Ha¯ru¯n Rashi¯d about the existence of the
Creator, and Ma¯lik told him to seek evidence in the different languages,
different voices, and different melodies of creatures.
Al-Sha¯fi’i¯ (d. 820) was asked about the existence of the Creator and he
replied, “The leaves of a berry bush all have one taste. Worms eat it and
produce silk. Bees eat it and produce honey. Goats, camels, and cows eat it and
deliver offspring. Deer eat it and produce musk. Yet, all of these come from
one thing.” The simple miracle of the leaves of a bush, and every other
miracle it produces, indicates that it was designed for this very purpose.
Ah?mad (d. 855) was asked about the existence of the Creator and he replied,
“Consider a smooth, impenetrable fortress without any doors or exits. The
outside is like white silver and the inside is like pure gold. It is built in
this way and, behold! Its walls crack and out comes an animal hearing and
seeing with a beautiful shape and a pleasant voice.” Ah?mad was referring
to the natural wonder of a baby chick emerging from her mother’s egg.
powerful evidence contained in God’s signs requires no specialized
philosophical training or knowledge to understand them and believe in them. As
we have said, it is natural and intuitive to recognize them. In a well-known
story, a Bedouin – a member of the nomad tribes who were usually illiterate –
was once asked about the existence of the Creator and he replied, “Glory be to
Allah! The camel’s droppings testify to the existence of the camel, and the
footprints testify to existence of the walker. A sky that holds the stars, a
land that has fairways, and a sea that has waves? Does not all of this testify
to the existence of the Kind, the Knowing?”
powerful evidence contained in God’s signs requires no specialized
philosophical training ...
simplicity of the teleological argument was even put into pithy poetic verse by
Ibn Mu’taz (d. 908):
the God is disobeyed,
the dispute of the disputer (ja¯h?id),
everything there is a sign,
o show that
He is One (wa¯h?id).
mentioning all of these anecdotes in his exegesis, Ibn Kathi¯r (d. 1373)
rivers that travel from area to area with benefit, and what Allah has produced
from the earth of various animals and plants of different tastes, scents,
shapes, and colors, and the unity of the soil and water; all this demonstrates
the existence of the Creator and His awesome power, His wisdom and mercy with
His creation, His kindness, good treatment, and benevolence with them. There is
no God besides Him. There is no Lord like Him. I depend upon Him and I turn to
Him. The verses in the Quran indicating this are very plentiful.
point, someone might accept the idea that the universe was indeed designed, but
why should it be only one Creator? Why not many different gods? The answer to
this question lies in the fact that the natural laws of the universe are
deliberate, consistent, and united in their purpose.
had been in the heavens or earth any gods but Him, both heavens and earth would
be in ruins: God, Lord of the Throne, is far above the things they say.
All of the
forces in the universe work together towards a common end: the creation of the
world and the sustaining of life. We can infer that there is a single
intelligent force behind all of it. There is nothing to suggest that one god
created gravity, another created electromagnetism, and other gods govern every
other natural force, all for a common unified purpose. We would expect the
existence of many creators to result in arbitrary, or perhaps competing,
natural phenomena. That explanation may have seemed plausible to ancient
societies for which nature appeared to have no discernible order.
Headline: The Case for Allah’s Existence in the Quran and Sunnah
Source: The Islamic City