By Zulfiqar Shah
30 November, 2016
Sindh-Balochistan: Sociological polity and
unexpressed aspects - Sindhi and Baloch today have transformed into modern
social and cohesive entities, as they were historically. However, the
linguistic, ethnic and sub-cultural additions that were resulted by the
partition of British India, and after the creation of Pakistan, initiated the
process of integration in the societies.
Politics is patchy social process, imbibed
with the power; therefore state apparatus of Pakistan, like elsewhere in the
world today, has particularly determined the social interdependence among and
between the indigenous-aboriginal Sindhi and Baloch as well as the migrants,
refugees, and immigrants between 1947 and 2016.
Nationhood, nationality, and identity today
is a diversified, as well as a simple matter. This can only be described,
determined, categorised and awarded on the grounds of aboriginality,
indegenioushood, ethnicity, linguistics, ethnology particularly in the world of
post-immigration and migration issues, social organism, United Nations instruments,
the comprehensive laws, regulation, principles, and procedures practiced in the
nation-states and federations across the globe and historical-cultural
references as well.
In Sindh, Kolhi, Bhil, Meghwar, Rebari,
Gurgla and Brahvi, the aboriginal Dravidians and Proto-Dravidians; and Sammat
specifically and rest of original Sindhi are indigenous. Sammat mainly includes
Arians, Brahman Hindus, various lineages of Rajputs, the communities associated
with Indus and died River Sarswati, lakes and waters bodies, costal and island
communities; and non-samat indigenous Sindhi include ethnic and/or linguistic
Balochi who claims Sindhi identity are indigenous Sindhi that includes
indigenous Siraki subculture of Sindhi as well.
This also includes those who settled in Sindh
over one century ago. Indigenous Sindhi, who earlier were living in the 1700s
borders of Sindh, and later on moved in the contemporary and Britain borders of
Sindh, for examples Kutchi, and some other Zaats (the family lineage on the
pattern of profession, topography, and iconic family backgrounds) are
aboriginal or indigenous Sindhi.
Indigenous Baloch of Karachi that claim
Baloch identity are also indigenous Sindhi with their Baloch identity. Baloch
that have migrated to Sindh from 1890 to 1945 are submerged in Sindhi society,
and cannot be thought of being non-indigenous. Thus, by every mean they are
considered, thereby and are, indigenous and original Sindhi with their elders
Punjabi migrants in the wake of Sukkur,
Guddu and Kotri (Ghulam Mohammad Barrage) Barrages construction in Sindh have
assimilated in Sindh; therefore they are Sindhi and can be said Sindhi of
Punjabi origin. Some amongst them are still holding Punjabi sub-culture,
especially those who migrated after Kotri Barrage and Guddu Barrage; however
their large majority has submerged linguistically with Sindhi.
A smaller numbers of Rajasthani and
Gujarati in various districts on the western bank of Indus as well as in the
cities of Karachi, Hyderabad, Thatta, and southern parts of district Jamshoro
that includes Memon of Okhai and Kutyana background, Silawat, and other Zaats
are also Sindhi, and using either various dialects of Sindhi or a blend of
Sindhi-Rajasthani or Sindhi-Gujarati.
Most of them, like Memon, are from within
the historical borders of Sindh. Smaller groups like Silawat settled in Sindh
on the invitation of Pir Pagar Surihya Badshah in 1900s, and other who either
have migrated before the concept of border restrictions from the bordering
areas, even in some cases from distant lands of South Asia, or during the
Britain India, have not only assimilated in Sindh and Sindhihood, but also have
been protecting, defending and contributing in Sindh. It is general unwritten
rule of Sindhi that indigenous and migrant Baloch are Sindhi in Sindh.
Sindhi bordering with Rajasthan and Gujarat
state of India in Sindh speak Sindhi, Datiki, Marwari, and Parkari. They are
ethnic Sindhi, with linguistic variations and connectivity with Rajasthan with
reference to Dhatki and Marwari. Sindhi in Rajasthan, India bordering districts
of Sindh has desert diction. Dhatiki and Marvari in Barmer and Jaisalmer
districts of Rajasthan, India, have ethnic connectivity with Sindhi in desert
area of Sindh. Sindhi of desert diction is spoken in Barmer and Jaisalmer
districts of Rajasthan, India.
On the both side of the borders, people are
indigenous in overwhelming majority. Hindu and Muslim on both sides of Thar
Desert in Sindh and Rajasthan, India linguistically, dialectically and from the
point of view of diction - Sindhi, Dhatki and Marwari - are indigenous to Sindh
and Barmer and Jaisalmir districts of Rajasthan at least.
Meanwhile, districts of Kutch and Bhuj in
Gujarat, India are ethno-linguistically Kutchhi Sindhi Muslims and are
indigenous majority of the districts. Rest of Sindhi dictions and their spoken
centers are Lari Lasi in Karachi; Lari and Lari Lasi Thatta; Lari in Badin;
Mirpurkhas; Tando Allahyar, and Tando Mohammand Khan. Although Lari, but called
literary Sindhi, is spoken in Hyderabad, and adjoining Jamshoror and Kori towns
and villages, as well as in Matyari districts.
Lari Lasi is also spoken between river
Indus to the borders with Balochistan downward Jamshoro and Kotri towns of
district Jamshoro, and Jhirik of district Thatta. Wicholi, which has no popular
name, is spoken in Nawabshah, Dadu, northern Jamshoro and Naushehro Feroz.
Utaradi, is spoken in Khairpur, Larkana, Sukkur, Ghotki, Kashmore, Jaccobabad
and Qambar-Shahdadkot districts of Sindh. Siraiki, is neither felt and nor has
remained an alien language of Sindh. Sindhi rulers during first half of 1800s
were Sindhi of Siraiki diction, until Sindh was invaded by Britain.
Linguistically Siraiki is diction of
Sindhi, its name is acquired from Sindhi word Siro, the fringe, which means in
Sindhi, a language that is spoken in the fringes of Sindh in north. Multan has
once remained Capital of the Kingdom of Sindh. The ethnic composition of Siraki
is like Sindhi and Baloch, a blend of ethnic Baloch, Sindhi of Samat
(indigenous) and Dravidian (aboriginal) origin in association with the
indigenous to the territory of which unofficially is called Waseb by Siraiki in
Punjab, and forms ethno-linguistically roughly half of demography and
population of Punjab. The lingual-cultural nexus of Siraki and Punjabi is also
important through the history of shared borders.
Colonial Britain Indian Partition refugees,
were refugees themselves, the immigrants; however their offspring are sons and
daughters of the soil and are Urdu speaking, Bihari (Bhojpuri mostly), and
Qaimkhani (Rajasthani) Sindhi. The process of cohesion, since integration is
mostly a state supported feature across the nations today, is underway in
Sindh, however in slow pace in terms of sociological inter-weaving.
In some cases, those ethnically or
linguistically non-Sindhi, have migrated towards Sindh since 1990, and have
become permanent residents of Sindh, have no intention to return to their
previous lands, and have associated their interests and commitments with Sindh
in terms of its sovereignty and security in all of its manifestations, can be
said and claimed as Sindhi.
However, as rule of thumb with reference to
various nation-state laws across the world, and in the light of United Nations
instruments, the offspring of migrants are also Sindhi. It is a unwritten and
consensual sentiment and expression of Sindhi that those who does not pour
their commitment with the sovereignty, security and interest of Sindh, can
never be accepted as Sindhi, whether they are aboriginal, indigenous, original
or naturalized Sindhi.
In Balochistan, aboriginal and indigenous
Baloch of Balochi group of languages that include Proto-Dravidian Brahvi
inclusive of aboriginal, indigenous and resettled from Sindh centuries ago as
well as recently; various versions, dialects and expressions of Balochi spoken
in the cultural-topographical areas of Sarawan, Jhalwan, Makaran, and others,
similarly to the other mountainous nations across the world, particularly in
Aboriginal as well as indigenous Sindhi
including Lasi Lari Sindhi, Utradi (northern Sindh) and other smaller variant
linguistic groups of Balochi including Brahvi mostly dwelling at the borders
with Iran and Afghanistan, and Siraki areas of Punjab, the dwellers of high
rise mountains, dasht (arid plains) and arable plains, are the aboriginal and
indigenous Baloch, Balochistani.
This also includes, Baloch of linguistic
Baloch and Jadgal / Sindhi and others, living beyond the borders of Balochistan
outside Pakistan who have settled in Balochistan from Helmand and Balochistan
adjacent areas of Afghanistan; Sistan-Balochistan, and adjacent areas of Iran,
as well as Baloch that have resettled on the lands of Balochistan from Middle
East, Sindh, and Siraiki area in Punjab provided that their settlement is
permanent, and does not intend to return back to the respective lands.
Pashtun are aboriginal, indigenous, and
refugees as well as migrant (from Afghanistan) Pashtu speaking Balochistani.
Previously known as British Balochistan, the Pashtun area of Balochistan is
topographically similar to Balochi. Almost similar in patterns, tribal
construct and principles are shared by Balochistani of Baloch, and Pashtun
origin. The historical affinity between Baloch and Pashtun has many examples
like the one, marriage of a Khan of Kalat from the family of Prince in
Kandahar, who gifted Quetta to her daughter as Shaal (a cultural gift).
Pashtu speaking subcultural areas of
Balochistan includes, the Afghanistan-Pakhtunkhuwa-FATA bordering tribal, the
high rise mountainous, and valley areas. Pashtu in Balochistan is
linguistically associated with southern Afghanistan Pashtu with its own
peculiarities, and dialectical waves amongst bordering tribal and valley
Pashtun. Pashtun refugee influx from south-eastern Afghanistan particularly
from the area that falls between Qandahar to Zabul during the cold war has been
witnessed in various Pashtu speaking majority districts adjoining to Quetta.
Baloch and Pashtun share, historically,
culturally and linguistically, one common city, the Quetta, where Pashtun are
aboriginal, and linguistic Brahvi and Balochi Baloch are indigenous, besides
the later settlers from within north-eastern and central-southern and eastern
Balochistan. Khuzdar, the second largest city of Balochistan is Baloch of
linguistic Brahvi, Balochi, and to certain extent Pashtu and Brahvi
During 1970s and later on, the anarchy in
Afghanistan mainly became reason to larger migration of Persian speaking Hazara
from central Afghanistan. Hazara, historically, are Mongolian ethnics. They
almost are limited to Quetta city with a smaller number of populations in
comparison with Pashtun and Baloch in Quetta. The settlement patterns of
Pashtun, Baloch and Hazara are similar to certain extent; however the
development and urbanization in Quetta, although slow paced, has changed the
ethnic patterns of settlements.
Unlike the Pashtun residents of city, the
oldest one, and the Pashtun and Brahvi Baloch settlers in the rural orchards of
the urban Quetta, is now home to urbanized Baloch. The returnee of Balochistan
Liberation War mostly from Helmand, who returned with the comeback of Nawab
Khair Bux Murri, their tribal and political leader, are settled in the worst
living condition outside Quetta on the sides of Ring Road. No displacement
support has been tendered to them, over one decade, either from Government of
Balochistan, Quetta Municipality, and the UNHCR. They live in the temporary
The understanding, historically between the
people from both lands, and officially between Governments of Sindh and
Balochistan is that the rainfall on the mountains, if and where it drains
towards Balochistan is the area of Balochistan, and if and where it drains to
Sindh is the area of Sindh.
Baloch of linguistically Sindhi, resides in
Lasbella where they are known as Lasi, and the language is called Lasi Lari,
the Baloch of historical Magus area, called Jhil Magsi, mostly speak a Sindhi
blended with Balochi or Balochi blended with Sindhi, the Baloch of Dera
Allahyar, Dera Murad Jamali, Sibi and Bolan speak Balochi as well as Sindhi.
This is also found to certain extent in the various pockets of Khuzdar and
Qalat. Brahvi are Balochi Dravidians, who live in Balochistan and Sindh
Linguistically Brahvi and Sindhi until mid
1980s shared around 30 percent vocabulary at least. Brahvi and Tamil language
also share phonetics and considerable vocabulary. (A book by Haleem Brohi,
author, social-science researcher and intellectual) Various dialects of Balochi
are spoken according to the cultural-topographical areas of Balochistan, and
have a better linguistic connectivity with Persian at the Iran borders
particularly in southeastern Balochistan.
Baloch of Helmand, Afghanistan are Balochi
speaking, while Baloch of Sistan-Balochistan, Iran and adjoining areas speak
Sindhi blended with Persian influenced Balochi, and Iranian Balochi. Jadgal
(linguistically non-Balochi, but ethnically Baloch, and indigenously
non-Balochi linguistic) form majority in Sistan-Balochistan in Iran. They are
recognized Baloch in Iran and in Balochistan.
Sindhi of all faiths and paths, reside in
all continents. There are Sindhi that are historically submerged in some
nations, like in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Sindhi who are now indigenized with
the tribe or clan name Al-Sindi. Some Sindhi families are submerged in Java and
Sumatra islands; and some are submerged in Russia, living in Moscow having
combination of names and family names of Sindhi and Russian. They migrated from
Sindhi in 1800s There are indigenized Sindhis in various African countries.
Sindhi in Diaspora in the wake of Partition of united India, and thereafter
during last seven decades are in Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, Africa, and
Sindhi are indigenized in Afghanistan with
15000 population, some villages of Sindhi are there in Chittagong and Khulna
Divisions of Bangladesh and are indigenized. Sindhi are second largest business
community after Jews in the world, which includes those who directly migrated
from Sindh to various countries, and those who routed the travel towards the
final destinations. This still is happening. Besides, an exodus due to the
harassment caused in 1948 by non-Sindhis, and thereafter a gradual exodus has
been taking place since August 14, 1947 until October 12, 2016 from Sindh and
Dutch were the first among the European
nations that colonized South Asia. Goa in India and Gundz between Gawadar and
Pasni on the Balochistan coast were the first areas of this region in its
hundreds years history after Alexander the Great from Greece that were invaded
by a European country. Britain came later. Dutch colonizers settled in Gundz
and submerged in Baloch nation, and are called Dutch Baloch.
Sindh and Balochistan have underwent a
difference in polity and development between aboriginal-indigenous-indigenized
Sindhi as well as Balochistani and the refugees, the immigrants, and their
offsprings that are sons and dauthers of the soils today. There was a wave of
violent conflict in Sindh, and conflict in Balochistan between both.
Sindh and Balochistan, for centuries, have
remained one country, with combined Capitals and Headquarters in Kalat,
Hyderabad, Sukkur, Brihamanabad and Multan during various periods of the
history. Southern Punjab, the Siraiki land, has also remained part of that
Kingdom for centuries, and shared common centre of Indus civilization, which
earliest was centred in Mehar Garh (5000 BC). The adjoining districts to Meher
Garh in Balochistan, are Balochi, and link Sindhi speaking Baloch plains of
Balochistan. Later on, the first excellence in Urbanization of human history,
Moen Jo Daro (3000 BC) is located in the centre of Sindh on the right bank of
The civilization has its spread upto Tibet
in China in the north, eastern Afghanistan down to the Kandahar, Gujarat and
Rajasthan states of India with existence in Haryana, and has its borders in the
west up to Combodia. Between Mayanmar to Combodia, it infuses with Yellow river
civilization of China, therefore, historically and academically this area is
called Indo-China. (Refer to Study of History, Arnold J. B. Toynbee)
The Indus civilization has another city
Harappa, in Punjab of Pakistan; however the Capital of the civilization, Moen
Jo Daro, because of being on the Banks of river Indus and near the Sea, is
exceptionally urbanized due to being also trade centre of the civilization.
Indus civilization has hundreds of sites in
Kuchh, Bhuj, and other parts of Gujarat State in India, "more than
Sindh" (With reference to the discourse by Sain Atta Mohammad Bhumbhro, a
historian and translator of numerous books on the history of Sindh). In that
context, the hitherto held researches proves that Kuchh, Bhuj, and some other
areas of Gujarat in India have more (hunders) Indus sites if compared with
Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab, and other federating states in Southasian
countries. In Gujarat new excavations of the sites were successfully undertaken
by 2013; however the excavations in Gujarat are also under process. Besides,
one Indus site was discovered by 2012-2013 in Haryana State of India. (The
excavations during 2012-2014 held in India according the Indian and foreigner
reaches and archaeologists, Daily The Hindu and its monthly publications in
Indus, that begins in Tibet now in China,
shares its name Sindhu with the land Sindh, which today is a federating state
in Pakistan; albeit historically have remained a country for centuries. It is
academically established that Moen Jo Daro is Capital of Indus civilization,
led by the King Priest. Apart from so many heights of urbanization, the city
was having covered drainage and sanitation, and also was having a swimming
pool, called Great Bath. The structure there has also arrangements of bathing
norms including dressing and other necessities.
It is shocking to see the civilization
disconnect between Sindh-Balochistan of Indus civilization (Asia) and the West.
Europe and North America, excluding the snowy regions, have a history of weekly
bathing that was practiced until 1960s. Americans were first among the Westerns
who started daily bathing in 1970s, and thereby rest of western societies
followed American bathing routine.
Perfumes in Europe were necessity due to
this delayed bathing; hence France did mastery in putting foundations of
perfume and thereafter use of in the West. Perfumes for decades have remained
an important source of exports for France in the European, and other markets in
the world, particularly in the West, since the oriental societies in Southasia
inclusive of Iran and Afghanistan, Tibet and China, and Middle East were using
their traditional brands of non-alcoholic perfumes called Atar due to being
tropical and semi-tropical regions, (hot summers), and even parts of autumns
"This probably is the reason for daily
bathing in Indus and other civilizations in Asia." (By a Sindhi from Sindh
in Pakistan, on October 16, 2016) Irony of the Indus Nations is (Empires of
Indus -- well coined expression by prominent author Alice Albinia for giving
such a title to her book) their civilization disconnect from Moen Jo Daro in
Sindh and Balochistan are thankful to the
United States of America for its support to the Government of Sindh for being
concerned and rendering support for the protection, renovation and preservation
of archaeological sites in Sindh through its Islamabad Embassy and Karachi
Consulate. Sindh and Balochistan, once Buddhist, are also grateful to Japan for
its support to Sindh to protect Indus civilization through protecting its
Capital, Moen Jo Daro by the means of coating it.
Unfortunately, the funds released to
Government of Pakistan were no used for five years. Moen Jo Daro still requires
appropriate initiatives for its protection. Both historical lands are also
thankful to Russian Federation, which through Islamabad Embassy participated
Moen Jo Daro initiatives by Pakistan People's Party (PPP) Chairman Bilawal
Bhutto Zardari, son of great Sindhi leader martyred Benazir Bhutto.
Balochistan and Sindh are also thankful to
the Italy for returning back the archaeological assets of Balochistan, which
Italian authorities collected while acting against international mafia of
archaeological smugglers. Sindh and Balochistan welcome previous US President
Bill Clinton's remarks on Moen Jo Daro and the people of Indus civilization
during his presidential address; and with reference to the US being concerned
for civilization, culture and Sufism in Sindh and Balochistan, the mainland
In Sindh, Urdu speaking Sindhi and Sindhi
speaking Sindhi shared differences over development, which turned into lesser
than five years in low-scale violence. Gradually, it started turning into
tolerance, and between 2000 and 20012 it transformed into accommodation of
both. With a polarization in the opinion only in 2014 on the issues of shares,
it gave birth to demanded for the division of Sindh by the sons of soil who are
offspring of 1947 influx from mostly a few states of today's India, and in
reaction there were debates, discussions, even sharing of old wounds, as well
as massive people outpour across Sindh against the demand.
It subsided and it gradually is pacing
ahead after 2015 towards further maturity for positive cohesion. Government of
Pakistan, and some quarters have been mentioning the acts of violence, which in
common language are also said to be terrorism. However, the political party
that has been referred to that has refused of its engagement with mentioned
Sindh and Balochistan together like Khyber
Pakhtunkhuwa have received Afghan refugee of cold war, who lived for over a
couple of decades on the lands, and a large number of them is still staying in
Sindh and Balochistan. Balochistan, recently through Sardar Mehmood Khan
Achakzai said that Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa belongs to Afghan, and the Afghan
refugees are rightful to live over there. The reconstruction of Afghanistan
carried out by international community through ISAF and beyond, led and participated
by the USA, and other UN Security Council members, although has created
conducive environment that a considerable number of Afghan refugees returned
Sindh, especially is facing serious crises
of demographic pressure in the form of refugees from across the world because
Government of Sindh is not entitled to legislate, play determining role and
decide the refugee status, settlement as well as naturalization of the
foreigners that are destined to live in Sindh. Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa
are also undergoing the same situation. Punjab is the only province in
Pakistan, which almost does not receive refugees.
Even due to the Operation Zarb ul Asab by
Pakistan Army on the insistence of the USA; as well as US drone program in FATA
to little extent has caused displacements, which were directed towards Sindh.
Punjab refused receiving the internally displaced persons of flood in Khyber
Pakhtunkhuwa, like it did during concerning the settlement of Afghan refugees
during cold war "Mujahideen" in and around the borders between the
both sides of Pakhtun lands (Pakistan - Afghanistan border Khyber at
Pakhtunkhuwa inclusive of FATA).
Sindh has cordially received Baloch
displaced persons due to civil war in Balochistan. Sindh, like Balochistan, previously
received Iranian refugees due to Islamist revolution in Iran. Africans
including Sudanese, Nigerians, as well as Palestinians are living in Sindh
including a limited number of far-eastern refugees.
Hundreds of Tibetan and a few thousand
Poland (Polish) refugees got settled in Sindh between 1920 and 1940s. Tibetan
live in Karachi and Hyderabad of Sindh commonly known as Chinese some of them
are dentists, as well as there are also some original Chinese. Polish have
naturalized in Karachi. Besides, due to security reasons, some of Jews of
Karachi have preferred to claim Zoroastrian (Parsi) identity over leaving
Sindh. They are not counted in census. There is only one Jews family, though,
in Rawalpini, Punjab. Some Gorkhas from Nepal are also localized in Karachi.
Hundreds of thousands Bangladeshi illegal
immigrants are living in Karachi. Until 2012, 200,000 ethnic Rohingyan Muslims
have illegally entered Sindh and sought refuge. The worst aspect of this is
despite documenting these illegal entrants; the National Data Base Authority
(NADRA), a central government agency, issues them citizenship documents within
shorter span of time. Government of Sindh is not consulted for that matter.
Even some illegal Afghans including the very recent ones have sought Pakistani
citizenship along with the travel documents.
Sindh is already undergoing demographic
issues, and peopling of Sindh has become a real challenge with reference to the
people's sovereignty for us as a nation. Taking care of hundreds of thousands
refugees since three decades and receiving the new one, with swift citizenship
facilitation, is an act of ethnic cleansing by tactically converting
aboriginal, indigenous and indigenized majority into minority besides causing
gradual exodus of Hindus from Sindh.
Moreover, cities of Sindh cannot afford
further massive influx of refugees and illegal entrants because number of
immigrants and settlers from within Pakistan come in hundreds of thousands
every decade. This further is intensified when Pakistani armed forces
entrepreneur sector has acquired hundreds of thousand acre lands in Karachi,
Hyderabad, Sukkur, and to limited scale in various districts to develop mostly
high-rise buildings for accommodating hundreds of thousands more from outside
Sindh. This no doubt includes various schemes especially Bahriya Town, the
largest one in Karachi.
Entry of terrorists on the pretext of Islam
associated with Al-Qaida, ISIS and other groups has remained frequent,
identified in some cases and have always been posing security risk, and threat
to considerable extent. Therefore exclusive authority for settlements from
within Pakistan particularly in Sindh, along with Balochistan as well as in
Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa and rest, including decentralization of the process of
immigration, naturalization and refugee resettlement is required.
It is needed to mention that Punjab alone
in Pakistan does not have considerable number of foreigners as well as internal
migrants from Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa. And, Sindh alone,
apart from world outside, receive hundreds of thousands from northern Pakistan,
particularly from Punjab. Sindh and Balochistan demand the protection of their
demographic sovereignties through legislation, and procedural empowerment.
Besides, Sindh is the only federating
province in Pakistan, in whose legislature resent settlers are allowed to run
elections, become member Sindh Assembly and also become cabinet ministers.
Sindh and Balochistan demand for themselves, and for the rest provinces
including Siraiki districts / land, Punjab as well as for FATA that a new
legislation should be undertaken without delay for vote rights in the
historical lands to those who have not got birth there.
The settlers' participation for the
provincial and federal legislatures should be barred. They after the settlement
tenure of ten years be given right to run elections for the local government,
and those who get birth on the lands may be legitimize to become members of
legislatures after process of elections. This does not only is in accordance
with various United Nations instruments, but also prevailing practices in
federations across the globe.
Besides, Pakistan Rangers - Sindh, composed
of Sindhi, Frontier Constabulary - Balochistan composed of Balochistani, and
the rest should be authorized to not only protect their borders with the
neighbouring countries, as in the case of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, and
Balochistan is already being practiced, they should also be allowed to install
at the communication and strategic entries and exists at the provincial borders
because dozens of activities have happened during 2014 - 2016 on Sindh-Punjab
borders in which borders of Sindh are violated by Punjab Police, Pakistan
Rangers - Punjab and Pakistan Army based in Punjab, and especially on the
orders of Government of Punjab.
This is a violation of territorial
sovereignty of Sindh. In federations across the world, federating states or
province do contribute their Sovereignty to create a Federation in the
Sovereignty of Republics. There is no land or territory within Pakistan which
is called Pakistan. Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa
together, willingly or unwillingly, form the entity named Islamic Republic of
Pakistan. Only Islamabad is martially Pakistan in terms of direct and physical
territorial domain as 'Pakistan', if viewed beyond the federating provinces.
In 2013, Jammat-e-Islami Pakistan declared
Mohammad Bin Qasim 'First Pakistani'. Later on in 2013, Pakistan Army Chief
General Pervez Kiyani while addressing the army men said that Mohammad Bin
Qasim is the 'First Pakistani'. Apart from the dissents concerning historical
and contemporary narratives about Pakistan, it is established fact according to
the official record; the name of newly found country was 'Pakistan'.
Since Pakistan had its first constitution
by a military ruler General Ayub Khan in 1960s, therefore official addition of
word 'Republic' was not part of it. Pakistan was officially named 'Islamic'
Republic of Pakistan in 1973. It means Pakistan was not Islamic country or
republic on August 14, 1947. This is also validated by the speeches by M.A.
Jinnah after creation of Pakistan. If this is very same, the Pakistan of M.A.
Jinnah, then why one needs to choose First Pakistani from among the Arab
Muslims of invader origin? Was Jinnah not the First Pakistani?
Besides, how a General who leads an Army of
existing country can claim term Hero a historical invader of almost half of
that country? If it was M. A. Jinnah's Pakistan and according his first speech
Pakistan was secular. In that case, can a general be allowed to claim Alexander
the Great 'First Pakistani?' Sindh Balochistan together one country at that
time under Raja Dasrath gave Alexander a tough fight; and ironically Punjab,
having capital at that time between Taxila and Islamabad welcomed Alexander the
Great without any fight.
If Pakistani armed forces are federal, can
they claim invaders of any part in the federation of Pakistan as their hero in
direct or indirect terms? Although as mentioned above, the Constitution of
Pakistan is illegitimate on the valid grounds, if the Constitution is taken in
practical terms as the book of superior law of the state, according Holy Quran,
as mentioned above, religion is a personal matter of everyone. Why then, a
Republic can and should be Islamic? Wasn't that reason that Holy Prophet chose
word Khilafat, despite Islamic? God himself says in Holy Quran by mentioning
word "nations" that waging war for the nation is appreciated.
However, Holy Quran never suggests military
offense; and the wars waged during the period of Holy Prophet were not
offensive. They were either defense or defensive offense. Why not, if
unavoidable and enviable, with the consent of Sindh and Balochistan, and rest
of the provinces and federating nations of Indus lands, Bibi Khudaijatul Kubra
A.S., and Hazrat Ali Allaih Sallam (A. S.), chronologically first Muslim, be
declared First Pakistani?
Pashtun Saduzai, Sindhi and Baloch Asehaba
Akraam, even a Sindhi woman was Harem in the family of Holy Prophet, why then
Hazrat Ali A. S, or Asehaba from the lands of Indus be made first Pakistani if
ideological security of 'Islamic Republic' is valid from the point of view of
Sharia? Pakistani passport carries word 'Pakistani' for the Nationality of the
If nationality of the people in Pakistan is
Pakistani, then why Muslim nation? If that is official position of Pakistan,
then why to believe on Two-Nation theory? Is there any formal treatise of Two
Nation theory because theories are always been expressed in treatise. Besides,
If Islamic Republic of Pakistan's military wages war against another Islamic
Republic's, for example Afghanistan or Iran? Both would be raising the slogan
'Allah o Akbar' (God is great). Whose God would be great? And, if soldiers
killed, whose soldier would be martyr?
Sindh declares if Mohammad Bin Qasim is the
first Pakistani, Jinaah is the last.
Sindh and Balochistan do not believe in Two
Nation theory. Besides, in 1971 East Pakistan became Bangladesh on
ethnic-national bases, which need no translation into end of the concept of
Muslim nationhood of a few united Indian states, which in itself is deceptive
if Muslims of other province of united India were not included in Pakistan, if
seen on the theoretical disposition of those who believed, and profess it.
Sindh and Balochistan have expressed
themselves by participating Second World War for the freedom of Sindh; 1946
British Indian provincial elections; in 1948, and in almost all of decades
within Pakistan through either popular will in the case of Sindh, and through
resistance as well as popular movement in Balochistan. After dismemberment of
Pakistan in 1971, Sindh and Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa also were not
sought their Will (election for the Constitutional Assembly) for the federating
states that are called provinces in Pakistan, to become part of remaining State
of Pakistan, through the instrument of the peoples' will.
Thus, Sindh and Balochistan ascertain that
their being part of State of Pakistan is violation of universal will and right,
which was not sought from 1947 to 1971 and from 1973 to 2016. Sindh and
Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, and Siraiki southern Punjab through their
elected political representations, however their participation in Pakistan
Armed Forces was negligible, never gave consent, opinion or suggestion for
waging war on East Pakistan.
Thus, if the wrote to be federation,
declare and wage the war on its own citizenry and federating state/province by
the majority decision of ethnic Punjabi (in terms of districts, half of Punjab)
dominated armed forces, it is declared that 1971 War was on East Pakistan and
on its people -- men, women, and children.
Hence, Sindh and Balochistan in terms of
any action by the forces of the State on the political dissent and difference
on federalism is considered war against historical homelands and their people
in Sindh, Balochistan or elsewhere. Sindh and Balochistan re-ascertain their
sovereignty in terms of territory, people, political will, and governance
Government of Sindh and Balochistan,
through their Assemblies, Chief Ministers, Cabinet Ministers, political
leaders, religious scholars and persons of opinion have time and against
protesting and expressing their will against armed forces and services actions
against people and the lands.
The collective will by the legislatures,
governments, political and social leadership, and millions of peoples action
for taking to the streets concerning broader sovereignty and security of Sindh
and Balochistan, regarding issues ranging all fields of statehood of the
federating states, including the armed forces and services actions, some of the
matters out of which, while taken to the Sindh High Court and Balochistan High
Court were favored as per their frame of justice.
Sindh and Balochistan officially, publicly
and popularly; politically and socially have been mentioning the
discrimination, humiliation, intrusion and non-cooperation by Punjab in terms
of economic, social and political acts and actions. Chief Minister and
representation of Sindh Government also have formally mentioned the
colonization of Sindh by Punjab.
Government of Balochistan has time and
again been expressing its opinion on Guwader and other matters and issues. This
is nothing but seventy years long federal failure, to which seventy years long
popular will has been expressed through all legitimate and recognized
institutions and forums, and in last one decade reiterated in all forms as mentioned
Sindh and Balochistan, therefore, finally,
give option to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan manifested and translating
through the hierarchy of leadership to transform into a new statehood, a Union
of Sates that falls around the Indus with the popular and constitutionally
elected will of the historical lands, for ensuring sovereign autonomy and self
rule for the historical nations and lands around the Indus.
Let the foundation of civilisation and
urbanisation of humankind capitalised in Sindh and Balochistan, spread across
the Indus, and beyond, contributes polity and culture of human interaction in
Pakistan, South Asia and across the world.
Zulfiqar Shah is a Sindh civil and
political rights activist, journalist and writer. Although UNHCR recognized
refugee, he is still associated with historical Diyal Das Club located in
Hyderabad, Sindh. He is virtually house arrested on the request of Pakistan
authorities, with round the clock audio-visual monitoring by Pakistan, USA, and
India. The references to the facts and opinions have mentioning and citation
apart from those that are established facts. The facts concerning period of
colonial Britain are in documents that available for Public in India Office
Library, London, UK; as well as Government of India at Delhi, Mumbai and
Kolkata being Britain rule capital and sub-capital in undivided India. A word
'Personality' used in the write-up is suggested by a Sindhi from Sindh in