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Islam,Terrorism and Jihad (24 Oct 2013 NewAgeIslam.Com)


The Myth of Ghazwa-tul-Hind: Misusing Religion in Pakistan to Justify Military Adventurers

 

Ale's Blog

Diary of A Concerned Pakistani

 Religion has quite frequently been used as an excuse for military motives. Talking specifically about Islam, Hadees has been used as a tool to invent excuses for political motivations and military interventions/attacks as and when required.

There has been enormous hue and cry over Ghazwa-tul-Hind for years. This was probably first used by self-styled Jihadi activists in Pakistan for getting public support in Pakistan and raising funds to be used in their attacks in Kashmir with the aim of conquering India and creating what they call Dar-ul-Islam. It is very interesting to note that neither Arabs nor the Mujahideen of Afghanistan made use of these Ahadees to wage a war against India. Pakistan army, ISI and the local Jihadis have a monopoly over Ghazwa-tul-Hind for now, although they don’t talk specifically about Green Pakistani Jihadis waging the war.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ghazwa-tul-Hind: Pakistani flag hoisted at Red Fort, Delhi, India. This image was created and circulated by the Brasstacks.biz (ISI mouth-piece Zaid Hamid’s organization) team.

[It shows the extent of the Pakistan military's depravity and the foulness of their imagination and motivation. It will not be right for us Indians to dismiss such malevolence merely as a joke. -- Editor, New Age Islam]

 

 Islamists and right-wing-military-apologists have fallen to the propaganda of Pakistan Army and ISI when they propagate waging a war against the neighbouring country India, finding excuses for doing so through Hadees. Zaid Hamid, the mouth-piece of ISI and Pakistan Army has been making use of Ghazwa-tul-Hind (6 Hadees in total), promoting hatred against Hindus and war hysteria. These Hadees are available here.

Are They Authentic?

1.       Just a brief look at these will make it clear that none of these five Ahadees are found in Sihah-e-Sitta. Two of these appear to be in the collections of Ahadees by Imam Nisai but not in Sunan an-Nisai al Sughra, the book considered to be among the Sihah-e-Sitta, the six books considered most reliable by main-stream Muslims.

2.       The others are not even found in the reliable collections of respected Muhaddeseen.

3.       Note that Imam Nisai died in 915. The years of death of other respected Muhaddeseen to whom Sihah-e-Sittaare attributed to: Imam Bukhari in 870, Imam Muslim in 875, Abu Daud in 888, al-Tirmizi in 892, Imam Malikin 796, Ibn Maja in 886. All of them died before Imam Nisai. It does not make much sense that we have these Ahadees being narrated through Imam Nisai but not through any of the other respected Muhaddeseen who lived before him.

4.       They are narrated through a single chain. Reported only once through one companion of the Prophet.

5.       Considering the reward for participating in this war and the importance of it, as these Ahadees tell, they should have been narrated by more companions of the Prophet and should have been there in more books of Ahadees.

6.       It is very important to note that none of these are found in any of the collections of Ahadees which the Shia Muslims consider authentic. This raises the question if they were invented by the Ummayads/Abbasids considering their expansionist designs? This is also to be noted that Ummayads did reach Sindh, a part of Hind back then.

7.       One must also note the fact that we don’t have any history report telling us about the use of these Ahadeesin the past by Muslim rulers or conquerors, even those who did invade India or waged a war on it. If they were respected and authentic Ahadees, we should have such history reports.

Fourthly, it must be remembered that it would have been very easy for Muslim conquerors of India in the past, men like Mahmud of Ghazni, Shihabuddin Ghori, Timur, Nadir Shah and so on, to present the Hadith about the Ghazawat ul-hind and wield it as a weapon to justify their attacks on the country. The corrupt Ulema associated with their courts could well have suggested this to them had they wished. However, no such mention is made about this in history books. In the eighteenth century, the well-known Islamic scholar Shah Waliullah of Delhi invited the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali to invade India and dispel the Marathas, which he accepted, but yet Shah Waliullah, too, did not use this Hadith as a pretext for this. [1]

What if they are authentic?

It is also pertinent to examine how some well-known contemporary Indian ulema look at this Hadith report.

1.       Maulana Abdul Hamid Numani, a leading figure of the Jamiat ul-Ulema-i Hind, opines that this Hadith was fulfilled at the time of the ‘Four Righteous Caliphs’ of the Sunnis, soon after the demise of the Prophet Muhammad, when several companions of the Prophet came to India, mainly in order to spread Islam. [1]

2.       Mufti Sajid Qasmi, who teaches at the Dar ul-Uloom in Deoband, is also of the same opinion, although he believes that it might also refer to the invasion of Sindh by the Arabs under Muhammad bin Qasim in the eighth century.  [1]

3.       On the other hand, Maulana Mufti Mushtaq Tijarvi of the Jamaat-i Islami Hind believes that it is possible that this Hadith report is not genuine at all and that it might have been fabricated at the time of Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion of Sindh in order to justify it. [1]

Scholars and historians argue that even if they are considered as authentic, it might be the case that they talk about an event which has already happened.

1.       On the other hand, if this Hadith report is indeed genuine—which it might well be—in my view, the battle against India that it predicted was fulfilled in the early Islamic period itself, and is not something that will happen in the future. This, in fact, is the opinion of the majority of the Ulema, qualified Islamic scholars. And this view accords with reason as well. [1]

2.       It is quite likely that the Ghazawat ul-hind that this report predicted took the form of the attack by an Arab Muslim force on Thana and Bharuch, in coastal western India , in the 15th year or the Islamic calendar in the reign of the Caliph Umar. [1]

3.       Equally possibly, it could have been fulfilled in the form of the missionary efforts of some of the Prophet’s companions soon after, in the reign of the Caliphs Uthman and Ali, in Sindh and Gujarat .[1]

4.       Some other Ulema consider this Hadith to have been fulfilled in the form of the attack and occupation of Sindh by Arab Muslims led by Muhammad bin Qasim in the 93rd year of the Islamic calendar, which then facilitated the spread of Islam in the country. [1]

5.       This might well be the case, for the Hadith report about the Ghazawat ul-hind contained in the Masnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, a well-known collection of Hadith narratives attributed to the Prophet, mentions that the Muslim army that would attack India would be sent in the direction of Sindh and Hind. [1]

Opinion of the religious scholars

I inquired about the authenticity of these Ahadees from a few religious scholars and would like to share their opinion in this regard:

Ayatollah Fadlallah, Lebanon

Such things exist in the Hadith collections, which are often either placed or mounted on a symbolic meaning, or they talk about something historic which has happened in the context of what we believe in self-defence. Further, the Hadith in question can be doubted about their authenticity as they are not found in any reliable and agreed upon source. The chain of narrators is weak to be considered authentic.

In this day and age what would govern the relations of Muslims and followers of other religions, are the international treaties and covenants that ensure the state security, peace and freedom of belief for all human beings.

These treaties are binding on Muslims, especially as they are consistent with the approach of Islam declared in the Qur’an about the obligation to respect the religions and the freedom and security of other peoples.

Hence, the use of such Hadith for political or military motives is discouraged.

The Office of the referenda for Religious Authority

Grand Ayatollah Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah

Research Wing, Al-Mawrid Institute

Assalam o Alaikum

I have tried to find out the sources of these traditions. None of these traditions is found in reliable sources like Bukhari, Muslim, Mu’atta etc. If we suppose them to be reliable they talk about an even that has happened already. They do not talk about Pakistanis fighting Indians. They talk about Arabs on an expedition to India and conquering it.

Tariq Mahmood Hashmi

Associate Editor

Khalid Zaheer, Al-Mawrid, Lahore, Pakistan

Salaam All these Ahadith refer to troops going from Palestine and Syria and returning to those regions. Even if these Ahadith were authentic, and they are indeed found in reliable books, they have nothing to do with any possibility of an Indo-Pak war. The other important thing to note is that Abu Huraira, the companion-narrator is suggesting that it was something that was about to happen during his lifetime. it is quite likely that Muhammad Bin Qasim’s conquest of Sind was being prophesied in these Ahadith.

The third important matter to note is that a message as important as the one mentioned in these narratives is described in all different versions through only one companion. Clearly, if the message was important, there should have been several narrators mentioning it.

This message therefore cannot be employed as an excuse to fight against India. We can fight against India or any other nation only if conditions of Jihad are satisfied, which are: it should be declared by a Muslim ruler, Muslims should be at least half as militarily strong as their enemies, and the enemy should be guilty of blatant injustice against a group of people. Any individual or group of people cannot declare Jihad on their own against anyone; if they do, they will be guilty of creating Fasaad fil ‘Ard (mischief on earth). [2]

Information on the Ahadees available at http://www.ghazwatulhind.com/

Hadees No. 1

Important References Provided: Masnad of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal, Sunan al-Mujtababa and Sunana al-Kubra of Imam Nisai

Hadees No. 2

Important References Provided: Masnad of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal, Sunan-al-Kubra of Imam Nisai

Hadees No. 3

Important References Provided: Naeem bin Hammad in Kitab-al-Fattan

Hadees No. 4

Important References Provided: Naeem bin Hammad in Kitab-al-Fattan

(The name of one of the Ravi is missing from the chain of narrators; hence this is to be ignored technically)

Hadees No. 5

Important References Provided: Naeem bin Hammad in Kitab-al-Fattan

Sources:

[1] http://madrasareforms.blogspot.com/2009/01/maulana-waris-mazhari-countering.html

Maulana Waris Mazhari, a graduate of the Dar ul-Uloom at Deoband, is the editor of the Delhi-based ‘Tarjuman Dar ul-Uloom’, the official organ of the Deoband Graduates’ Association. He can be contacted on w.mazhari@gmail.com

[2] http://www.khalidzaheer.com/qa/399

Dr Khalid Zaheer is the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences of University of Central Punjab since July 1, 2009. Prior to joining UCP, he was the Director education, Al-Mawrid, which is an NGO established to promote research and education on Islam. Prior to joining Al-Mawrid in September 2006, he was an Associate Professor of Islamic Studies and Ethics at Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). He has a teaching experience of more than 20 years.

Related Article:

Pakistani Jihadis' War Cry of Ghazwa-e-Hind Is Entirely Based On Ahadith Concocted By the Ummayads to Further Their Expansionist and Imperialist Designs on India

http://www.newageislam.com/islam,terrorism-and-jihad/ghulam-rasool-dehlvi,-new-age-islam/pakistani-jihadis--war-cry-of-ghazwa-e-hind-is-entirely-based-on-ahadith-concocted-by-the-ummayads-to-further-their-expansionist-and-imperialist-designs-on-india/d/14057

Source Ale's Blog-2 DECEMBER 2009  

URL:  http://www.newageislam.com/islam,terrorism-and-jihad/ale-s-blog/the-myth-of-ghazwa-tul-hind--misusing-religion-in-pakistan-to-justify-military-adventurers/d/14129

 




TOTAL COMMENTS:-   12


  • Dear Hats Off, When it was the dark ages for Europe, it was the enlightened era in Islamic countries. Islam was confident and therefore tolerant and without the present day siege mentality. It is going through its dark ages now and has developed a siege mentality and become intolerant and suspicious. My father's times were more liberal than the present days and Ghalib and Mirs times more so judging by their poetry.
    By Observer - 10/27/2013 12:54:13 AM



  • dear mr observer, i read your response. thanks, i presume your comment was in reply to my question.

    in the last sentence you have indicated that your own knowledge of these contentious hadiths was through the writing of islamophobes. granting that, do you not think any one - right from an interested scholar to an islamophobe, would eventually want to go to the originals in so far as they are available as well as available is an accessible language?

    can one assume that all faithful believers will stop with what their maulvis tell them? i think not. eventually all discourse and debate will involve the original texts rather than commentaries written about them or what a particular teacher recognizes as the essentials of faith. this also leads us to the issue of arabic language, idiom, grammar and style which is intricately woven into islam. it has been claimed that translation from arabic into english do not accurately reflect the "sense" in which a native arabic speaker understands it. this leads to issues of translation and interpretation.

    this is not to say commentaries need to be neglected. they to will be studied, and in the event of a dispute the parties will only have to depend upon the primary texts for supporting their argument. commentaries and opinions of renowned scholars may at anytime be questioned. but the primary text may not be. is that not the case?

    but another issue is, seeing that the simple trick is to constitute a committee and once and for all decide the vexatious issue i cannot imagine why such a simple and expedient cure was not applied even by renowned scholars of medieval islam.

    also from what you say, it appears that the medieval islam was an entirely different islam in its lived experience when compared to that of the present times.

    thanking you, i remain sincerely yours
    hats off!.

    By hats off! - 10/27/2013 12:09:46 AM



  • Just as the west today has a liberal attitude to all subjects and you have movies like "the last temptation of Christ" and speculative stories about Christ's relationship with Mary Magdalene, a prostitute, Islamic society may also have had a similarly liberal attitude towards all academic pursuits. It may just have been a case of 'academic independence'. Laws of apostasy and blasphemy were very rarely invoked. As far as the compilers are concerned, they faithfully followed a process for collection of hadiths and a process for grading the hadiths as strong, weak etc. The process however did not include check for internal consistency and check for consistency with Quranic injunctions and check for reasonableness. They however appear to have warned people against unqualified and uncritical acceptance of their work. They saw their role as uncritical and non judgemental collectors of all hadiths which is just the right attitude for any serious academic research. It is in the presentation of their findings that we may find fault. They presented their raw findings rather than processing the information and applying reasonable checks for consistency and filters for weeding out hadiths which do not conform with the Quran or to the known and accepted notions of morality of  the Prophets times.
    None of this however appears to have posed any serious problem nor was the common Muslim aware of the problematic hadiths nor have their notions of morality been influenced by these. My own knowledge of these hadiths is through the writings of the Islamophobes and not from a direct reading or from what my parents or Maulvi Sb taught me.
    By Observer - 10/26/2013 11:26:08 PM



  • good morning dear mr observer, thank you very much for your prompt response.
    i got some little understanding of what you call poor process or poor process control.
    but what i would like to know is if there were laws during the medieval period against the defamation of the prophet, as there are these days. because there are many hadiths (may be weak and fabricated) hadiths that are defamatory, to say the least.
    do not the four major schools of islamic jurisprudence have laws against defaming the prophet? because in effect this is what is the unintended consequence.
    regards and in anticipation of your reply, i remain sincerely yours
    hats off!
    for i would think, those who committed the text after collecting and collating, would have been immediately struck by the gross and sexual content of the hadiths. putting oneself in their place and therefore predicating a love for the prophet, one would have sought some kind of scholaraly agreement about either weeding them out or marking such ahadith as fabricated.
    it seems to me that none of the medieval islamic scholars were "embarrassed" (like most of us are today) by these hadith. this is another curious aspect.
    By hats off! - 10/26/2013 8:33:20 PM



  • Dear Hats Off,
    Outcomes are as good as the process followed. Ordinary people achieve great results with a good process and extra ordinary people will achieve poor results with a poor process.
    If historians followed the same process as the Hadith collectors, in place of a coherent story, we would get  a confusing collection of contradictory stories. Historians reconstruct a coherent story from what they collect, exercising their judgement.
    If we had something similar to compare with, we would realise that it is the process alone that is to blame and not people.
    The bible was compiled using a similar but not identical process. Only the gospels of Mark, Mathew, Luke and Paul have been included ignoring the Gospels of Barnabas, Thomas and fifteen others. The text has also undergone several revisions. Once a version was finalised by the ecumenical council, they destroyed all other material and even the material used to compile the official version so as to limit the scope for later controversy.
    So there is nothing extraordinary about the embarrassing hadiths and how these got there. The process did not include exercising judgement and weeding out  questionable hadiths. While the Gospel of every apostle is internally consistent, Bukhari, Dawood, Muslim etc cannot be compared to the apostles either as they are mere collectors of hadiths and not apostles.
    Witch hunting and trying to identify the criminals of Islam is the medieval approach. What would help is to form a council to come up with a standard version following a tested and reliable process and be done with it.
    By Observer - 10/26/2013 8:00:54 PM



  • Is Imam Nisai, a weak hadither ?
    He is one of those whose Hadith collection is considered Authentic, just like Bukhari
    Imam Nisai is considered authentic by mainstream Sunni. such as Al-Azhar
    Just because Indian muslims are now a minority and if this Hadiths get public knowledge in India, their position will become precarious
    All hadiths are weak or strong depending on political situation.
    By Barani - 10/26/2013 5:06:36 PM



  • dear mr observer, if you have the patience and the inclination could you kindly give me your opinion on why and how such contentious hadiths actually came to be anywhere in print at all? i am sure you are aware of many embarrassing hadiths pointed out in "enemies of islam" by mr. shabbir ahmad

    i have read many of mr mohammad yunus' articles and i have a more or less good idea of what he cites for these collations namely the kharijites.

    i would very much like to know what you think on the matter. do you share mr mohammad yunus' opinion?

    thanking you in anticipation, i remain sincerely yours
    hats off!

    By hats off! - 10/26/2013 10:36:53 AM



  • Dear Hats Off,
    There are clear prophecies in the Quran that were fulfilled relating to the Romans losing the war but prophesying that they will soon be victorious which happened during the lifetime of the Prophet.
    As I mentioned, the Prophet himself undertook some expeditions but returned without success as the war did not take place. Did the Prophet know this in advance and if so, why did he then undertake these expeditions at great cost? Maybe he did  and some purpose unknown to us was achieved or maybe he didn't. The Prophet himself did not claim any clear vision into the future. All his prophesies that came true were attributed to the angel Gabriel (AS) such as the prediction regarding the death of Khusro, the Persian emperor, his knowledge of the death of Negus in distant Abyssinia the day he died etc. Beyond specific foreknowledge given to him by Gabriel, he did not claim any foreknowledge about anything. 
    In one of your posts, you have wondered about the authenticity of a story in the Quran, where an army was defeated by a swarm of birds pelting stones. This incident that the Surah refers to, took place in the lifetime of many living Meccans of the day. If this incident was untrue, the Meccans would not have needed any other  proof to say that the Quran is false.
    There is a Surah about Abu Lahab and his wife. If both or just one of them had accepted Islam even for the sake of appearances, they could have claimed that the Quran is false since the Quran talks about the punishment of these two in the hereafter and after accepting Islam and repentance, they would be entitled to mercy and forgiveness. This did not happen. If the Quran was the word of a mortal, he would not have dared to make such a prediction.
    What Dashti has written has been written by many others including Neyaz Fatehpuri which NAI boldly carries. There are more convincing things said by Muslims as well as non Muslims as to why the Quran cannot be the work of any mortal.
    If you just consider the caliber of the close companions of the Prophet, the independent nature of the Arabs, and especially the character of Umar, you would be certain that they would not have aligned with any false Prophet nor spared such a person.
    Too much is made of the Ridda wars.    We know that it was a tribal society and before Muhammad (pbuh), there was no formal government or central authority. Arab society was not accustomed to any central rule. The Arab tribes had pledged their allegiance to the Prophet, and in their view, the pledge was to a person which was annulled on the death of the person. Some of the tribes therefore refused to recognise the authority of the Caliph and refused to pay zakat. They had to be subdued and any other government would have acted in similar fashion. I have deliberately used the word subdued as the non Muslims were also required to recognize the political authority of the Prophet and after him that of the Caliph. Citizens show their cooperation by paying the tax. It was pledge of allegiance and payment of zakat for the Muslims and only payment of Jizya for the non-Muslims. There was nothing more to Jizya than the process of creating a central political authority for governance, which did not exist before.
    The Quran also refers to these beduin tribes and says that although they have accepted Islam, their hearts have not been transformed and there is much hypocrisy in them.
    Islam did not die with the Prophet, nor was the first Caliph wrong in using force to bring control and order. If he had not acted, the community would have fragmented and disintegrated. The salaf refers to the early Muslims and the term would also apply to those who rebelled. However when we speak of the Salaf, what is meant is the Salaf-e-salehin or the good Salaf.
    The Prophet also faced a revolt when he concluded the treaty of Hudaibiyah. Umar(ra) was especially incensed by the humiliating conditions of the treaty. There was revelation promising a great victory very soon which may have cooled tempers. Disagreement, misunderstandings, debate, consultations etc were a part of the life of the community.
    The war that Ayesha (RA) waged with Ali (RA) also was based on different perceptions. Ayesha felt that Ali was not doing anything to apprehend the killers of Usman(RA) and Ali was waiting for more opportune times as it was politically inexpedient for him to immediately go for the killers. Both were right and there is a lesson in this, in that what is apparent is not necessarily true and that one should not be quick to misjudge the motives of another person.
    If we were expecting apparent perfection in everything, then well, perfection is not handed on a platter by God or his prophet. Perfection has to be achieved by the efforts of the people who will understandably make a few mistakes. That is not good reason to malign the early Muslims.
    By Obsever - 10/26/2013 12:37:57 AM



  • dear mr obsever, i seriously think that many if not most of the prophecies are self-fulfilling. in my opinion this neither furnishes a proof of prophesy nor of prediction.

    so may be this is why some people have said that if you want a thing real bad, chances are you will get it.

    By hats off! - 10/25/2013 10:58:55 PM



  • Hats Off, You have summarised the article very well.
    There is no saying of the Prophet relating to any future war. The first Caliph carried out the expeditions that the Prophet himself had undertaken but without success under the assumption that it was an incomplete task of the Prophet that was incumbent on them to complete. They did not attribute these expeditions to any saying of the Prophet. These wars were with the Byzantine and the Persian imperial powers of the day.
    By Observer - 10/25/2013 10:24:02 PM



  • Muslims do need to take a hard look at their attitude to Hadees as well verses of the Holy Quran which can only be understood with the knowledge of the context. Any statement that requires a context to be understood, and also statements that cannot be comprehended easily, cannot be considered of universal significance. But most of us Muslims take not only all statements of the Quran but even sayings attributed to the prophet two to three hunded years after his demise as universal truth. This does not augur well for the future of the Muslim community.
    By Sultan Shahin - 10/25/2013 10:14:32 PM



  • experts, after a lot of search and research, have conclusively proved that the hadis in question is

    1. either true or untrue,
    2. already happened or is going to happen,
    3. authentic or fabricated,
    4. strong or weak,

    this is very very reassuring to the people on this forum

    By hats off! - 10/25/2013 8:44:29 PM



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