Books and Documents

Books and Documents (14 Jul 2008 NewAgeIslam.Com)

INDEX: The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam By Dr. Muhammad Iqbal


The Reconstruction of Religious
Thought in Islam


Dr. Muhammad Iqbal


Note - 1:- Throughout the Index Roman and Arabic numerals within parentheses indicate the number of the Lecture and that of the note respectively where the entry may be seen.

Note - 2:- This is the index, and page numbers in this index are  taken from the book (in printed form) (ISBN: 969-416-286-6) Published by Iqbal Academy, Pakistan. It is placed here just as reference.

Abbasids, 135, 149

‘Abd al-Malik (80-150/699-767), collection of traditions by, 155

‘Abd al-Mu’min, 174

‘Abd al-Quddus of Gangoh (d. 945/1538), 112 (V 1)

Absolute Ego, 52, 54

Abu Hanifah (c. 80-150/c. 699-767), 159-60; introduced the principle of Istihsan, 155; made practically no use of traditions, 155-56; modern Hanafi legists have eternalized the interpretations of, 160: school of, possesses much greater power of creative adaptation, 160

Abu Hashim (d. 321/933), 61-62 (III 10)

Abu Hurairah (d. c. 58/678), declared by Nazzam, an untrustworthy reporter, 135 (VI 10)

accident, doctrine of, see Ash’arites

act, profanity and spirituality of, determined by the invisible mental background, 139 (VI 21)

activity, all, a kind of limitation even in the case of God as a concrete operative Ego, 73: while enjoying his creative, man has a feeling of uneasiness in the presence of his unfoldment, 150

Adam, endowed with the faculty of naming things, 12; first act of disobedience of, also the first act of free choice, 77; forbidden the fruit of occult knowledge, 78 (III 66); God’s Vicegerent on earth, 75 (III 48); is ‘hasty’, 78 (III 66); painful physical environment best suited to the unfolding of the intellectual faculties of, 78; the chosen of God, 86

Afaq, 114 (V 5)

Afghanistan, sufi techniques of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi in, 173

Afghani, Sayyid Jamal al-Din (1254-1314/1838-39-1897), 88 (VI 19)

Ahkam, 155

Ahmad of Sirhind, Shaikh (971-1034/1564-1624), criticism of contemporary sufism, 174; range of the sufistic techniques of, 173; ‘Stations of religious experience, 173-74 (VII 16)

Ahuramazda, 130

‘Ain al-Qudat al-Hamadani (492-525/1098-1131), (III 34); see also ‘Iraqi

Ajul, 7

akhfa, (VII 160)

‘Alam-i Amr, 174

Alexander, Samuel (1859-1938), 124 (III 33, IV 23, V 36, 37)

‘Ali b. Abi Talib (23 B.H. -40/600-661), ‘the speaking Qur’an’, 99

‘Ali Pasha Muhammad (1184-1265/1769-1849), 135

Allah, 51, 57

Amidi, Saif al-Din (551-631/1156-1233), 157

Amr, 93, 95 (IV 22, 26)

analytic psychology, essential nature of religion beyond the province of (Jung), 171-72

Anfus, 114 (I 27, II 4, V 5)

apostasy, women in the Punjab driven to, 152 (VI 39)

Appearance and Reality (Bradley), Quoted: 88 (IV 13)

appreciative self, nature of, see self

‘Aql, one of the five things that the Law of Islam aims at protecting (Shatibi), 152

Arabia, 112, 133, 142, 173

Arabian imperialism of the earlier centuries of Islam, 143

Arabic replaced by Turkish, 145 (VI 28)

Aristotelian idea of fixed universe, 61, 64, 124 (V 21)

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), 4, 55, 127, 159, first figure of syllogism of, Razi first to criticize, 107 (V 13)

‘asif’ (philosophy of the), 166 (VII 7)

Ash’ari, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali b. Isma’il, al- (d. c. 324/935-36), 33

Ash’arites, 4, 119; and notion of infinitesimals, 33; atomism of, 62-64; doctrine of accident, 64-65; manner of God’s creative activity, 61; time as viewed by, 67-68

Ashnawi, Mahmud b. Khuda-Dad (d. c. 629/1231-32), (III 34)

Asiatic Russia, sufi technique of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi in, 173

atheistic socialism, 169-70

A Theory of Monads: Outlines of the Philosophy of the Principle of Relativity (H. W. Carr), quoted: 41 (II 22)

atomic time, born out of the movement of self from appreciation to efficiency, 70; cannot be applied to God, 68; weakest part of the Ash’arite theory of creation, 66; see also time

atomism, 61-65, 119, 167 (III 10, VII 8) Baghdad school of, 62; Basra School of, 61; of kalam, a purely speculative theory, 62

Attributes of God, The (Farnell), 58

Augustine, St. (354-430), 53, 128 (II 44)

Aus der religi’sen Reformbewegung in der Turkei (August Fischer), 143 (VI 25)

Babi movement, a Persian reflex of Arabian Protestantism, 138

Bacon, Francis (1561-1626), 117

Bacon, Roger (c. 1214-1294), 117

Baghdad, destruction of, 136

Baqillani, Qadi Abu Bakr (338-403/950-1013), and Ash’arite atomism, 62 (III 11); and the condition of Qarshiyat, 143

Baqir, Mulla (1037-1110/1628-1699), 70; see also Damad

Barzakh, 105; characterized by a change in ego’s sense of time and space, 108; ego catches a glimpse of fresh aspects of Reality in 108

bashar, 75

batin, 136 (VI 13)

Ba Yazid (d. c. 261/874), quoted: 60, 99

Bedil, Mirza ‘Abd al-Qadir (1054-1133/1644-1721), 7 (I 19)

Bergson, Henri Louis (1859-1941), 33, 128; and conscious experience, quoted: 43-44 (II 25); and duration, 43-46; and Zeno’s paradox, 33 (II 12); denies the teleological character of Reality, 33; error of, in regarding time as prior to self, 49; holds intuition to be only a higher kind of intellect, 2; inadequacy of analysis of conscious experience, 48; on individuality, quoted: 57 (III 2); vitalism of, ends in an unsurmountable dualism of will and thought, 47-48

Berkeley, George (1685-1753), first to refute the theory of matter as the unknown cause of sensations, 32 (II 7)

Biographical History of Philosophy (G. H. Lewes), quoted: (V 10)

Biruni, Abu Raihan, al-(362-440/973-1048), and conception of Nature as a process of becoming 128; and modern mathematical idea of function, 120 (V 21); and Newton’s formula of interpolation, 120 (v 22); discovery of reaction time, 116 (V 15)

Blavatsky, Madame Helena Petrovna (1831-1891), 78 (III 65)

Body, accumulated action or habit of the soul, 95; compared to nafs, is act become visible, 65; -soul relationship, 85, 94, 96,112-114

Book of Genesis, 75

Bradley, Francis Herbert (1846-1924), 88-89

Brethren of Purity (Ikhwan al-Safa’ est. 373/983), 109

Briefe ‘ber Religion (Naumann), quoted: 73-74, 150 (VI 38)

Briffault, Robert (1876-1948), 116

Broad, Charlie Dunbar (1887-1971), 52 (II 41)

Browne, Edward Granville (1862-1926), (VI 18)

Browning, Robert (1812-1889), quoted: 74

Bukhari, Muhammad b. Isma’il (194-256/810-870), 15

Caliphate (Imamate), according to the spirit of Islam, can be vested in an elected assembly, 142; Turkish view of, 142-144; universal, Ibn Khaldun’s account of, 8, 142

Cantor, George (1845-1918), 33-34

Carr, Herbert Wildon (1857-1931), 34, 41 (II 16, V 20)

Cartesian form of ontological argument, 28 (II 1)

Cartesian ‘I think’, 178

cause and effect, an indispensable instrument of the ego and not a final expression of the nature of Reality, 97

Central Asia, 173; anti-Islamic propaganda in, 6

chain, causal, and artificial construction of the ego for its own purposes, 97 (II 29)

change, and the Ultimate Ego, 53-54; durable civilization possible only through the appreciation and control of the great fact of, 13

Christianity, according to newer psychology, has already fulfilled its biological mission, 172; and Islam, 8-9, 58, 104, 128 (III 3, IV 2); appeared as a powerful reaction against legality in Judaism, 150; individualism of, could see no spiritual value in the complexity of human relations, 150; originally a monastic order, 132, 140; primitive, 140, 150

Christ, Jesus, 73

Church and state, in Islam, 139-140; separation of, accentuated by (Turkish) Nationalist Party, 139; separation of, permitted by Islam as a religio-political system, 139; see also Islam

Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche (Nietzsche), quoted: 104 (IV 47)

Comte, Auguste (1798-1857), 100; influence on Gokalp, 143-144

Concept compared to deed, 166

Concept of Nature, The (Whitehead), quoted: 30 (II 8)


-appeal of the Qur’an to the, 116; for purposes of knowledge Muslim culture fixes its gaze on the, 118; knowledge must begin with the, 119; Qur’an always fixes its gaze on the, 73; theory of relativity and, 13

Concrete experience,

complete independence of thought from , is not possible, k; religion insisted on the necessity of, long before science learnt to do so, 23

Confessions of St. Augustine, The (Saint Augustine), quoted: 53 (II 44)

Configuration Psychology, 97 (IV 30); ‘insight’ in terms of, 97 (IV 31)

consciousness, James’s view of, examined, 92-93; prophetic and mystic, 112-113; provides a luminous point to enlighten the forward rush of life, 37; to describe, as an epiphenomenon is to deny validity of all knowledge, 37; see also Prophetic Consciousness unknown levels of consciousness (Hallaj), 87-88

Constantine, Emperor (274-337), 132 (VI 2)

continuity, Cantor’s theory of mathematical, 33-34 (II 13)

Contribution to Analytical Psychology (C. G. Jung), quoted: 172 (VII 14)

Conversation of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret (Goethe), quoted: 8 (I 20)

cosmological argument critically examined, 26-27

‘creation’, and ‘direction’ according to the Qur’an, 93-94; Islamic idea of continuous, 64, 125 (III 13)

creative activity, see activity

Creative Evolution (Bergson), quoted: 41-42 (II 25), 57 (III 2)

criticism, historical, 126-27, 153-54 (VI 45)

Critique of Pure Reason (Kant), 25

culture, Magian, 87, 129-30 (IV 4); modern, based on national egoism is a form of barbarism, 141; modern, result of overdeveloped industrialism to satisfy primitive instincts, 141

Dahr, Daihar, Daihur, names of God (Ibn al-’Arabi, Fakhr al-Din Razi), 66-67

Damad, Mir Baqir (d. 1041/1631), and the view that time is born with the act of creation, 70

Darwin, Charles (1809-1882), 37, 175

Dawani, Jalal al-Din Muhammad b. As’ad Mulla (830-908/1427-1502-03), his views on Divine time and Divine knowledge similar to those of Royce, 68, 71

Decline of the West, The (Spengler), 98, quoted: 130 (II 50, IV 4, V 21, 60, 61)

democracy, spiritual, ultimate aim of Islam, 162

Democritus (c. 460-370, B.C.), 47, 119

Denison, John Hopkins (1870-1936), quoted (VI 4)

‘Descartes’ Method’, 116 (V 10)

Descartes, Rene (1596-1650), 27, 94 (V 10, 21)

destiny (Taqdir), 45, (II 29) 98-100

Development of Metaphysics in Persia (Allama Iqbal), quoted: (V 10, 13, 15, VI, 11)

Din, one of the five necessary things that the Law of Islam aims at protecting (Shatibi), 152

Discours de la method (Descartes), (V 10)

Divine knowledge, a kind of knowledge which is also creative of the object known, 71; on the view of, as a kind of passive omniscience, it is not possible to reach the idea of a Creator, 72; regarded as a kind of passive omniscience, is nothing more than a sort of mirror passively reflecting the details of an already finished structure of things, 72

Divine life, and Divine perfection, 54-55; like pearls do we live and move and have our being in the perpetual flow of, 65-66

Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard (1867-1941), 40 (V 20)

D’hring, Eugen Karl (1833-1921), 117

duration, impossible to express the inner experience of pure, 44; pure, not touched by McTaggart’s argument against time, 53; serial and non-serial aspects of, 44

‘Eastern discussion’ (Fakhr al-Din Razi, quoted: 70 (III 37)

Eckermann, Johann Peter (1792-1854), 8

Eddington Arthur Stanley (1882-1944), 60, 63, 167 (IV 43, V 20)

education, legal, need for the reform of the system of, 159 (VI 54)

ego, as free personal causality, shares in the life and freedom of the Ultimate Ego, 73, 97; can think of more than one space-order, 90; causal chain itself an artificial construction of 97-98; conception of, as a soul-substance, serves neither psychological nor metaphysical interest, 91; did not pre-exist its emergence in the spatio-temporal order, 105; directive function (amr) of, 93-95; discovers its metaphysical status through contact with Most Real, 165; emancipation from the limitations of individuality not the end of, 105, 177-179; emergence of, is the world reaching the point of self-guidance, 95; excludes all other egos from the private circuit of its individuality, 66; finite and the infinite, relation between, 58-59, 99, 107; formed and disciplined by its own experience, 93; individuality and uniqueness of, as enunciated in the Qur’an, 86, 105-06 (IV 1, 2); infected with the oppositions of change and permanence, unity and diversity, 86; life of, a kind of tension caused by the ego invading environment and environment invading the ego, 93; life of, in an obstructing environment depends on perpetual expansion of knowledge, 79; modern psychology and, 92; Muslim theology on, 91; must continue to struggle until he is able to win his resurrection, 108; of higher order emerges out of lower order, 95-96; privacy and uniqueness of, 66, 88-89; reality of, lies in its will-attitudes, aims, and aspirations, 94; reality of, too indubitable to be denied, though too profound to be intellectualized, 87-88; reveals itself as a unity of mental states, 88; sharp-sightedness in life hereafter, 111; true time-duration belongs to, alone, 88; Ultimate Reality reveals its secret to, 95-96; William James’s view of, 90-91 (IV 21); see also man and self

egohood, degree of reality varies with degree of feeling of, 66

Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), 34, 35, 120, 177-88; discoveries of, have laid the foundations of a far-reaching revolution in the entire domain of human thought, 31; theory of, suggests new ways of looking at the problems common to religion and philosophy, 7; see also relativity and Russell

Emotion as the Basis of Civilization, (J. H. Denison), quoted: 132-33 (VI 4)

emotions, James-Lange theory of, (IV 24)

ends and purposes, to live is to shape and change, and to be governed by them, 24

energy, Divine, every atom of, however low in the scale of existence, is an ego, 57

Essai sur les Ecoles philosophiques chez les Arabes (A. Schm’lders), (V 10)

Eternal Recurrence, see Recurrence

Eternity, as Divine attribute, 66-69; of the word, Christian dogma of the, 135

Ethical Studies (Bradley), 88

Euclid (fl 300 B.C.), 120

Europe, failure of, in political and social sciences, 133; idealism of, never a living factor in her life, 161; territorial nationalism in, 127; the greatest hindrance in the way of man’s ethical advancement, 161

Eve, 75

evil, the problem of, 73-80; intellectual, indispensable for building up of experience, 79

Evolution, 109, 120-21, 125, 167-169; Emergent, 96, 97 (IV 23)

experience, and Reality, 42, 71; conscious, Bergson’s analysis of, 42; levels of, 29 ff.; life and thought permeate each other in conscious, 48; religious, 8; 15, 21, 163-64, 178; religious, pragmatic test of, 22, 24-25, 87, 112; unitary/unitive, 87, 98-99, 112, 113; see also mystic experience

experimental method, not a European discovery, 117 ff.

fact, accomplished, constitutional theory of the Umayyads, 99 (IV, 37); elements of, and logical judgment, 77; no such thing as an isolated, 77

faith, ages of, are the ages of rationalism (Whitehead), 2 (I 3); and intellect, 1; as the first stage of religious life, 163; has cognitive content, 1, 15, 19, 166, 171; more than mere feeling, 1

Fall (of man), legend of, 74-81; Quranic legend of the, has nothing to do with man’s first appearance on this planet, 77

Farnell, L. Richard (1856-1934), 58

Fatalism, 92; higher, 98-99

Faust, 74 (III 46)

Fauz al-Asghar, Al- (Ibn Maskawaih), quoted: 121 (V 24)

feeling and idea, non-temporal and temporal aspects of the same unit of experience (Hocking), 19 (I 39); idea and word simultaneously emerge out of the womb of, 20 (I 40)

Fikret, Tevfik (1284-1333/1867-1915), and anti-Islamic propaganda in Central Asia, 7 (I 19)

Fiqh, critical discussion of, likely to displease many and lead to sectarian controversies, 149

Fischer, August (1865-1949), 143 (VI 25)

Flint, Robert (1838-1910), 127

formula of Islam, see Islam

Fox, George (1624-1691), 171

freedom, human, 85-87; a condition of moral goodness, 68; relation to Divine freedom, 63, 86-87

Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939), 19

Fusus al-Hikam (Ibn al-’Arabi), quoted: 144 (VII 4)

Garden of the East, The (Nanikram Thadani), quoted: 147-48 (VII 10)

General Principle of Relativity, The (H. W. Carr), quoted: 29-30 (II 15)

geometries, non-Euclidean, (V 20)

Gestalt Psychology, (IV 30)

Ghayat al-Imkan fi Dirayat al-Makan (‘Ain al-Qudat al-Hamadani), quoted; 60-61, 107-09 (III 34, 35, V 28-35, 38, 39)

Ghayat al-Imkan fi Dirayat al-Zaman wa’l-Makan (Mahmud b. Khuda-Dad Ashnawi), (III 34)

Ghazali, Abu Hamid (450-505/1058-1111), 57, 121 (III 7, 23); and Descartes’ Method, 102 (V 10); and ego as viewed in Muslim theology, 80 (IV 15); and Kant, 4; failed to see that thought and intuition are organically related, 4-5; on the whole a follower of Aristotle in logic, 103 (V 11)

God, and space, 107-10; and time, 60-62; arguments for the existence of, critically examined, 23-25; as the omnipsyche of the universe, 110; change reveals its true character in, as continuous creation, ‘untouched by weariness’ and unseizable by ‘slumber or sleep’, 48 (II 48, 49); infinity of, consists in infinite inner possibilities of His creative activity, 52; ‘is a percept and not a concept’ (Ibn ‘Arabi), 144; is immanent in nature, 85; knowledge of Nature is knowledge of the behaviour of, 45; knowledge of, not passive omniscience as conceived by Dawani, ‘Iraqi and Royce, 62-63; life of, is self-revelation and not the pursuit of an ideal, 48; loyalty to, amounts to man’s loyalty to his own ideal nature, 117; metaphor of light as applied to, 51-52; omnipotence as related to Divine wisdom, 64-70; perfect individuality and unity of, as enunciated in the Qur’an, 50-52 (III 3); Qur’an’s emphatic denial of the sonship of, 51 (III 3); rationalistic arguments for the existence of, 23-25; relation to the universe as soul’s relation to the body (‘Iraqi), 110; scholastic arguments for the existence of, 23-25; teleological argument for the existence of, 24; thought and deed, the act of knowing and the act of creating identical in, 62 see also Ultimate Ego and Ultimate Reality

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749-1832), and the legend of Faust, 65 (VIII 46); on the teachings of Islam, quotes 7

G’kalp, Ziya (c. 1292-1343/c. 1875-1924), critical assessment of the views of, on equality of man and woman, 134-35; ideal of womanhood, 128; inspired by the philosophy of Comte, 126-27; religio-political views of, 126-28; science and religion, 127

Glodziher, Ignaz (1850-1921), (V 14, VI 14); on hadith, 135 (VI 45)

good and evil, Quranic view of, 65-68

Government, republican form of, not only consistent with the spirit of Islam, but a necessity, 125

Great European War, 129, 142

‘Great I am’, 57 (II 37, III 26)

Greek logic, Muslim criticism of, 102-03 (V 12)

Greek philosophy, intellectual revolt of Islam against, 3, 47, 102, 113, 114 (V 21)

Greek thought, character of Muslim culture not determined by, 104

Greeks, influence of, tended to obscure Muslims’ vision of the Qur’an, 3, 104

Guide of the Perplexed (Maimonides), 54 (III 12)

Hadith, and life-value of the legal principles enunciated in the Qur’an, 137; as a source of Muhammadan Law, 135-37; attitude of Abu Hanifah towards, of purely legal import perfectly sound, 137; Goldziher’s examination of, in the light of modern canons of historical criticism, 135; intelligent study of, to be used as indicative of the spirit in which the Prophet himself interpreted his Revelation, 137; modern (Western) critics of, 135 (VI 45); pre-Islamic usages in, our writers do not always refer to, 136; quoted in the present work: ‘Actions shall be judged only by intention’ (stated with remarkably profound understanding as: ‘It is the invisible mental background of the act which determines its character’), 122 (VI 21); ‘Do not vilify time, for time is God’, 8, 58 (I 24); ‘If she had let him alone, the thing would have been cleared up’ (said of Ibn Sayyad’s mother), 13 (I 32); ‘The Book of God is sufficient for us’, 129 (VI 32), ‘Then I will exert to form my own judgement’ (Mu’adh said this to the Holy Prophet on being appointed as ruler of Yemen), 118 (VI 7); ‘The whole of this earth is a mosque’, 123 (VI 22); see also traditions

Haldane, John Scott (1860-1936), quoted: 34-35 (III 25, V 20)

Haldane, Lord Richard Burdon (1856-1928), 57 (II 8, III 25, V 20)

Halim Pasha, Said (1280-1341/1863-1921), Grand Vizier of Turkey, quoted: 141

Hallaj, Mans’r (244-309/857-922), 88; and McTaggart, (IV 6); experience of ‘unity of inner experience’ reached its culmination in, 77

Hamilton, Sir William (1788-1856), 150

Hasan of Basra (21-110/642-728), 88

Heaven, and Hell, description of, in the Qur’an are visual representations of an inner fact, 98; joy of triumph over the forces of disintegration, 98; not a holiday, 98; states not localities, 98

Hedaya (or Guide), The (Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani), 134

Hegel, Ernest Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831), 57; view of Reality as an infinitude of reason, 89; see also Reality

Heisenberg, Werner Karl (1901-1976), principle of indeterminacy, 144 (VII 2)

Hell, corrective experience, 98; fire which mounts above the hearts, 98; not a pit of everlasting torture, 98; painful realization of one’s failure as a man, 98

Helmholtz, Hermann (Ludwig Ferdinand) von, (1821-1894), 95 (IV 58)

Heraclitus (fl. in 5th century B.C.), 113

Hijaz, legists of, eternalized the concrete, 140

history, as a source of human knowledge, 77, 102, 110-12; belief in the unity of mankind and a keen sense of reality of time foundational to the study of, 112-13; continuous creative movement in time, 113; false reverence for past, no remedy for a people’s decay, 120; Ibn Khaldun’s view of, 110, 112; Magian attitude of constant expectation gives a false view of, 115; possibility of scientific treatment of, 112; Quranic teachings on, 110-12

History of the Philosophy of History (Robert Flint), quoted: 112-13 (V 47)

Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679), 128

Hocking, William Ernst (1873-1966), 17-18, 21 (I 39)

Hoernle, R. F. Alfred (1880-1943), quoted: 26-27 (II 6),

Holism, (IV 30, V 21)

Horten, Max (1874-1945), quoted: 130

Hujjat Allah al-Balighah (Shah Wali Allah), quoted: 136-37 (VI 47)

Hukm, 139

human origin, unity of, 112

human social relations, spiritual value of the complexity of, 132

human unity, conception of, in Europe and Islam, 112

humanity today needs three things, 142

Humayun, Emperor (913-963/1508-1556), 40

Hume, David (1711-1776), 21, 155-56

Hurgronje, Christian Snouck (1857-1936), Dutch critic of Islam quoted: 130

Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), 148

‘I am’, only that truly exists which can say: 45; the more fundamental, finds evidence of ego’s reality not in the Cartesian ‘I think’ but in the Kantian ‘I can’, 156-57

‘I amness’, of God, 45 (II 37); the degree of the intuition of, determines the place of a thing in the scale of being, 45

Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad (1115-1206/1703-1792), 121 (VI 19); movement of, conservation in its own fashion, 121; wholly uncritical of the past, 121

Ibn al-’Arabi, Muhyuddin (560-638/1165-1240), 144; Dahr, one of the beautiful names of God, 58; ‘God is a percept and the world is a concept’, 144 (I 37, VII 4)

Ibn Haitham, Abu ‘Ali al-Hasan (354-c. 430/965-c. 1039), influence on Roger Bacon, 103 (V 16, 17); ‘Optics’ or Kitab al-Manazir, 103 (V 16); on reaction-time, (V 15)

Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad (164-241/780-855), 137

Ibn Hazm (384-456/994-1064), influence on Roger Bacon, 103 (V 17); language of the Qur’an mades no difference in the act of creation and the thing created, 55; on predication of life to God, 47; rejected the Ash’arite notion of infinitesimals, 29 (II 11); relation with Zahiri school of law, 120 (VI 14)

Ibn Ishaq, Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad (d. c. 150/767), 112 (V 43)

Ibn Khaldun (732-808/1332-1406), and the modern hypothesis of subliminal self, 14, 150 (I 35); anti-classical spirit of the Qur’an scored its final victory in, 113; demolished the alleged revelational basis of an idea similar to the original Magian idea, 115 (V 61); Flint’s euology of, 112 (V 47); his account of universal caliphate, 125; indebtedness to the Qur’an for the whole spirit of his ‘Prolegomena’, 111; intellectual inheritance of, 113; only Muslim to approach mystic experience in thoroughly scientific spirit, 14, 77, 101-02, 150 (IV 7, V 8); on the condition of Qarshiyat, 125; three distinct views of the Universal Caliphate in Islam, 125; was hostile to metaphysics, 113 (V 48)

Ibn Maskawaih (330?-421/942?-1030), 110, 113; first Muslim to give in many respects thoroughly modern theory of the origin of man, 96; substance of his evolutionary hypotheses, 107 (V 24)

Ibn Rushd (520-595/1126-1198), doctrine of immortality, as a purely metaphysical question, 89; in terms of Active Intellect, 3 (I 14, IV 38); similarity to the view of William James, 89 (IV 39)

Ibn Sayyad (d. c. 63/682), Prophet’s critical observation of the psychic phenomena of, 13, 101 (I 3, V 7)

Ibn Taimiyyah (661-728/1263-1328), and the movement of Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Wahhab, 121; induction the only form of reliable argument, 103; rejection of analogy and ijma, 120-21, (VI 15); systematic refutation of Greek logic, 103 (V 12)

Ibn Tumart (d. 524/130), 121 (VI 20); call to prayer in Berber, 128 (VI 29); Qur’an to be translated and read in the Berber language, 128

Ijma’, as the third source of Muhammadan Law, 137-39; attitude of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs to, determined by political interests, 137-38; Ibn Hazm and Ibn Taimiyyah rejected, 120 (VI 15); legislative assembly in view of opposing sects is the only possible form of, 138; question of the text of the Qur’an being repealed by, 138 (VI 48); rarely assumed the form of a permanent institution, 137; value and possibilities of, in view of new world forces and political experience of European nations, 138

Ijtihad, as manifested in recent thought and activity in Turkey, 121-29; causes of stagnation of, 118-20; conditions of complete, impossible of realization in an individual, 118; closing of the door of, is a pure fiction, 141 (VI 57); first degree of (ijtihad fi’l-shar’) admitted in theory, denied in practice, 118; in Turkey, reinforced by modern philosophical ideas, 121; meaning of, in the Islamic Law, 117-18; tradition of the Prophet relating to, 118 (VI 7); transfer of power of, from individual representatives of schools to a Muslim legislative assembly, 138; three degrees of, 118 (VI 8); Ulema cannot deny the theoretical possibility of complete, 133

Imam, Absent, 139

Imamate, see Caliphate and Khilafat

Iman, and the higher fatalism implied in it, 87; not merely a passive belief in one or more propositions, 87; the vital way of appropriating the universe, 87

immortality, collective, by self-multiplication, 69; Ibn Rushd’s doctrine of, 3, 89 (I 14); Kant’s ethical arguments for, 89-90; man is only a candidate for, 95; metaphysical arguments do not give us a positive belief in, 89; Nietzsche’s view of, in terms of Eternal Recurrence, 91-92, 148 (IV 44); perfectly in accord with the spirit of the Qur’an, Rumi regarded the question of, as one of biological evolution and not a problem of metaphysics, quoted: 96-97, 147-48 (IV 62, VII 10); personal, to be achieved by personal effort, 95; Quranic view of, is partly ethical and partly biological, 92 ff.; status of belief in, philosophically speaking, 98

indeterminacy, principle of, 144 (VII 3)

individual, altogether crushed out of existence in an over-organized society, 130

individuality, harbours its own enemy by the tendency towards reproduction, 51; matter of degrees, 50; Quranic argument for the perfect, of God, 50-51

individuals, self-concentrated, see self-concentrated individuals

infinite, and the finite, 23-24; and thought, 4-5; God, not extensively, but intensively so, 51-52, 94; in the history of Muslim culture the ideal revealed is the possession and enjoyment of, 105; Ego, relation between, and the finite ego, 52, 94

inheritance, economic significance of the Quranic rule of, 134 (VI 42); principles underlying Quranic law of, have not yet received the attention they deserve, 135

insan, 66

intellect, inductive, birth of Islam is the birth of, 101; not the product of evolution, 36; outgrowing its most fundamental categories: time, space and causality, 6

interpolation, formula of, 106 (V 20, 22); al-Biruni and Newton’s formula of, 106 (V 22)

‘Iraq’, legists of, 140

‘Iraqi (‘Ain al-Qudat al-Hamadani), (492-525/1098-1131), 60, 144 (III 34); and Divine knowledge, 62-63; and Divine time, 60-61, 110; infinite varieties of time relative to the varying grades of being, 60-61; plurality of space-orders, 107-09

‘Iraqi, Fakhr al-Din Ibrahim (d. 688/1289), (III 34, VII 5)

Irshad al-Fuhul (Shaukani), quoted: (VI 57)

Isaiah, 115

Ishraqi, Shihab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash ibn Amirak Suhrawardi al-Maqtul (549-587/1153-1191), 57; and Greek logic, 103 (V 12)

Islam, a civil society from the very beginning, 123; and Christianity, 7-8; and European culture, 6, 103-04, (V 21); and modern knowledge, 78; and original verities of freedom, equality and solidarity, 124; assimilative spirit of, more manifest in the sphere of law, 130; birth of, is the birth of inductive intellect, 101; church and state in, 122-23; confronted to-day by new forces set free by the extraordinary development of human thought in all its directions, 133; European culture on its intellectual side only a further development of the culture of, 6; formula of, 101 (V 6, VI 5); first half of the formula of, has created and fostered critical observation of Nature divesting it of divine character, 101; growth of historical sense in, is a fascinating subject, 112; harmony of idealism and positivism in, 123; idea of evolution in, 106-07, 132; if renaissance of, is a fact, and it is a fact, we will have to re-evaluate our intellectual inheritance, 121; inner catholicity of the spirit of, bound to work itself out, in spite of the rigorous conservatism of our doctors, 130-31; is neither nationalism, nor Imperialism, but a league of Nations, 126; legal reasoning in, from deductive to inductive, 131, 140, 141 (VI 35); overcomes the sharp opposition between the biological within (the ideal) and the mathematical without (the real), 7-8; over-organization by false reverence of past contrary to the inner impulse of, 120; propaganda against, in Central Asia, 6-7; prophecy in, reaches its perfection in discovering the need of its own abolition, 101; race idea in modern, 129; rationalist movement in the church of, 118-19 (VI 12); rejects blood-relationship as a basis of human unity, 116; revision and reconstruction of theological thought in, 6; revolt of, against Greek thought, 3, 56, 102, 113, 114 (V 21); says ‘yes’ to the world of matter, 8 (I 21); search for rational foundations in, 2, 3 (I 5); socio-economic position of women in, 134-35; spirit of Islam seen at its best by tapping Nature and History as sources of knowledge, 116; spiritual democracy is the ultimate aim of, 142; state in, an effort to realize the spiritual in human organization, 123; as endeavour to transform the principles of equality solidarity and freedom into space-time forces, 122; the problem of, suggested by the two forces of religion and civilization, 7; Universal Caliphate in, 125; universal ethical ideals of, lost through the process of localization, 124; whether the law of, is capable of evolution requires great intellectual effort, 129; world of, spiritually moving towards the West, 6

Islamic Law, causes for the stationary character of, 118-20; question whether, is capable of evolution will require great intellectual effort, 129

Istihsan, 137

Jahiz, Abu ‘Uthman ‘Amr b. Bahr (160-255/776-869), 96, 106 (IV 59)

Jalal al-Din Dawani, Mulla, see Dawani

James, William (1842-1910), 15, 90 (V 1); and immortality, 89; empiricist criterion of mystic experience (quoted), 19; subliminal self, 14 (I 35); ultimate motive of prayer (quoted), 71-72; view of ego critically assessed, 81-82 (IV 21)

Jannat, Quranic view of, 67

Javid Namah (Allama Iqbal), quoted: 154, 157 (VII 18, 23)

Jawahir (atoms of the Ash’artites), 55

Jawahir-i-Khamsah-i ‘Alam-i Amr; ‘Five Essences of the Realm of the Spirit’ (Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi), (VII 16)

Jivatma, 78

Joyful Wisdom, The (Nietzsche), quoted: 92, 149 (IV 47, VII 11)

Julian, Emperor (331-363), 116 (VI 3)

Jung, Carl Gustav (1875-1961), 151

Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804), and metaphysics, 144 (VII 1, 2); argument against soul as substance, 80-81 (IV 16, 18); compared with Ghazali, 4-5; criticism of ontological argument, 24 (II 2); denied the possibility of knowledge of God, 4 (VII 2); ethical argument for immortality, 89-90; serial time the essence of causality as defined by, 31

Kantian ‘I can’, 156

Karkhi, Abu’l-Hasan (260-340/874-952), quoted: 139

Karbala, 88

khafiy (Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi), (VII 16)

Khalq 82, 84 (IV 22, 26)

Khawarij, 125 (VI 24)

Khilafat, 124-25; see also Caliphate

Khwarizmi, Abu, ‘Abd Allah Muhammad b. Musa (d. c. 232/c. 847), 106 (V 23)

Kindi Abu Yusuf, Ya’qub b. Ishaq b. al-Sabbah, al- (d. c. 260/873), 103 (V 15)

Kitab al-Tawasin (al-Hallaj), quoted: 77, 88 (IV 6)

knowledge, Adam’s desire for, 68-69 (III 65, 66); all search for, is essentially a form of prayer, 73; character of human, 11, 68-69; divine, 62-63 (see also Divine knowledge); modern, the only course open to us is to approach, with a respectful but independent attitude, 78; occult, fruit of the tree of, forbidden to Adam, 68-69 (III 66); of other minds, 15-16, 145; only a systematizes expression of consciousness, 33; sources of human, according to Qur’an, 77, 101-02, 110

Kremer, von Alfred (1828-1889), quoted: 133; 135

kulliyati’i: Siiler; ve halk masallar Ziya G’kalp (Ziya G’kalp); quoted: 126-28 (VI 25, 27, 28, 30, 31)

Laird, John (1887-1946), quoted: 81

Lange, Carl Georg (1834-1900), 84 (IV 24)

Lange, Friedrich Albert (1828-1875), quoted: 146 (VII 6), 154

Lata’if-i Quddusi (‘Abd al-Quddus Gangohi), quoted: 99 (V 1)

laziness, intellectual, in periods of decay, turns great thinkers into idols, 141

legal education, see education

legal reasoning in Islam, see Islam, and reasoning

legal systems cannot claim finality, 134

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646-1716), 84, 151

Lewes, George Henry (1817-1878), quoted: (v 10)

liberalism in modern Islam, see Islam

life, all human, is spiritual in its origin, 116 (IV 1); anthropomorphic conception unavoidable in the apprehension of, 53; intricate behaviour of, cannot be subjected to hard and fast rules of logic, 140; intellectual view of, necessarily pantheistic, 48; moves with the weight of its own past on its back, 132; of the ideal consists in its perpetual endeavour to appropriate the real, eventually to illuminate its whole being, 7; physical and mental in the evolution of, 85; see also religious life

Life and Finite Individuality (H.W. Carr), quoted: 35 (II 21)

Locke, John (1632-1704), 21

Luther, Martin (1483-1546), 129 (VI 33)

Ma’bad b. ‘Abd Allah al-Juhani (d. 80/699), 88

Mabahith al-Mashriqiyah, Al- (Fakhr al-Dùn Razi), quoted: 61 (III 37)

Macdonald, Duncan Black (1863-1943), 14, 121, (I 32, VII 13); and the growth of atomistic kalam in Islam, 54 (III 13)

Mahdi, Ibn Khaldun’s repudiation of the idea of, 115 (V 61)

Maimonides, Moses ben (1135-1204), 54 (III 12)

Making of Humanity, The (Robert Briffault), quoted: 103-04

Maktubat-i Imam-i Rabbani (Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi), quoted: 153 (VII 16)

Mal, one of the five things that the Law of Islam aims at protecting (Shatibi), 134

Malik b. Anas (d. 179/795), 140

man, approaches the observable aspect of Reality with the weapon of conceptual knowledge, 11; capable of participating in the creative life of his Maker, 58, 64; chosen of God, 76; destined, perhaps, to become a permanent element in the constitution of being, 9; endowed with the faculty of naming things, 10; entitled to only what is due to his own personal effort, 76 (IV 3); God becomes co-worker of, in his progressive adjustment with the forces of the universe, 10; God’s immense faith in, 68; if, does not evolve the inner richness of his being, the spirit within him hardens into stone, 10 (I 26); impossible for one, to bear the burden of another, 76 (IV 2); individuality and uniqueness of, 76, 79 (IV 1, 2); in his inmost being, as conceived by the Qur’an, is a creative activity, an ascending spirit, 10; modern, stands in need of a biological renewal, 170; no form of reality so powerful, so inspiring, so beautiful as the spirit of, 10; not a stranger on this earth, 67; occupies a genuine place in the heart of Divine creative energy, 58; only a candidate for immortality, 95; open to, to belong to the universe and become immortal, 94; Quranic view of the destiny of, is partly ethical, partly biological, 92; restless being engrossed in his ideals, 9 (I 25); rises from one state of being to another, 10, 93; with all is failings, superior to nature, 9; with all his faults, representative of God on earth, 76; see also Adam and ego

mankind, unity of, 75 (III 75); - idea of, a living factor in the Muslims’ daily life, not a philosophical concept nor a dream of poetry, 112

Mantiq al-Tair (Farid al-Din ‘Attar), quoted: 1(I 1)

Maqtul, Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi, see Ishraqi

Massignon, Louis (1883-1962), 77

Mas’udi Abu’l-Hasan (d. 346/957), 112 (V 45)

material, the merely, has no substance until we discover it rooted in spiritual, 123

materialism, 33, 43, 89, 90, 95, 148; refutation of, 26-28, 83-84

Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, The (Newton), quoted: 59 (III 31)

Mathnawi-i-Ma’nawi (Jalal al-Din Rumi), quoted: 13, 57, 72-73, 88, 97, 147-48, (I 28, III 24, 72, IV 62, VII 10)

matter, all this immensity of, constitutes a scope for the realization of spirit, 123; and theory of ‘Relativity’, 27-28; colony of egos of low order out of which emerges the ego of higher order, 84 (IV 23); hypothesis of, as an independent existent perfectly gratuitous, 83; spirit in space-time reference, 122

Matter, Life, Mind and God (R.F.A. Hoernle), quoted: 26-27 (II 6)

McTaggart, John McTaggart Ellis (1866-1925), critical examination of his argument relating to the unreality of time, 45-46 (II 41); compared to Hallaj, (IV 6)

Meaning of God in Human Experience, The (W. E. Hocking), quoted: 17, 21 (I 39, 45)

mechanism, 43, 85, 92; battle for and against, still fiercely fought in the domain of biology, 33; concept of, cannot be applied to life, 34-36

meliorism, 65

Mendelssohn, Moses (1729-1786), (IV 18)

Metaphysics, positive views of ultimate things are the work rather of inspiration than, 91

Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873), 103

Mitteleuropa (Naumann), (VI 38)

modern culture, see culture

modern Muslim, the task before the, is immense; he is to rethink the whole system of Islam without completely breaking with the past, 78

modern psychology and religion, 16, 21-24, 88, 171-75; must develop independent method to possess a real significance for the life of mankind, 175; slavish imitation of physical sciences, 97

Mohammedan Theories of Finance (Aghnides), 136, 138, quoted: (VI 46, 52, 57)

‘Mother of Books’ (‘Iraqi), 60 (III 36)

movement, as lived and not as thought does not admit of divisibility, 30; hyperspace, 106 (V 20); theories of, 29-30, 40-41, 55-56; things can be derived from, not movement from things, 40

Mu’adh b. Jabal (20 B.H.-18/603-39), and the hadith relating to ijtihad, 118 (VI 7)

Mu’awwidhatan, 139 (VI 51)

Muhammad (53 B.H.-11/571-632), 88, 99, 150; see also Prophet

Muhammadan Law, sources of, 131-41

Mujtahid, 138, 140, 141

Mu’min, ‘Abd al-, 152

Munk, Solomon (1805-1867), 54

Munqidh min al-Dalal (Ghazali) and ‘Descartes’ Method’, 102 (V 10)

music, in worship forbidden by Sufism, 156

Muslim countries, most, today mechanically repeating old values with no thoughts and feelings at all, 128-29;

Muslim (legislative) assembly, Caliphate according to the true spirit of Islam to be vested in, 124; modern, for the present to consist mostly of men possessing no knowledge of the subtleties of Muhammadan Law, 139; transfer of power of Ijtihad from individual representatives of schools to, the only form Ijma’ can take in modern times, 138; Ulema to form vital part of, helping and guiding free discussion on questions relating to law, 140

Mutakallimun, 77

Mu’tazilah, failed to see that in the domain of knowledge, scientific or religious, complete independence of thought from concrete experience not possible, 4; regarded Universal Imamate a matter of expediency, 125 (VI 40)

Muwafiqat Al- (Shatibi), quoted: 134, 138 (VI 40)

Muwahhidun, 128

mystic, the, and the prophet, 18, 99; condemnation of intellect by, not justified by history of religion, 17-18

mystic experience, and the organic conditions, 18-19; characteristics of, 14-19; content of, has a cognitive element also, 17, 150; empirical criterion of, 19; forms of expression of unitive (mystical) experience in the history of religious experience in Islam, 87-88; incommunicability of, 16-17, 145; not discontinuant from normal consciousness, 15; open to critical scrutiny like other aspects of experience, 101; qualitatively not different from prophetic experience, 101; see also prayer, religious experience and sufism

mystic state, a moment of intimate association with a unique other self, 18; has made average man contented with ignorance and spiritual thraldom, 149

mystic techniques, our medieval, no longer produce discoverers of ancient Truth, 145

mysticism, medieval, cannot cure the ills of a despairing humanity, 149; has done in the Muslim East far greater havoc, 148; has now practically failed, 148; its set phraseology has deadening effect, 72; Neo-Platonic and its quest after nameless nothing, 72

Nafs, Ash’arite view of, (soul) as an accident critically assessed, 57; distinction between, and Ruh, 89; one of the five necessary things that the Law of Islam aims at protecting (Shatibi), 134

Napoleon, Bonaparte (1769-1821), 87

Nasir ‘Ali Sirhindi (1047-1108/1638-1696), quoted: 47

Naskh, as the power to extend or limit the Quranic rule of law, 138-39

Nasl, one of the five things that the Law of Islam aims at protecting (Shatibi), 134

nationalism, and modern Muslim, 169; territorial, has tended to kill the broad human element in the art and literature of Europe, 112

naturalism, every form of, ends in some sort of atomism, 146 (VII 8); modern man’s, has given him an unprecedented control over the forces of Nature, but robbed him of faith in his own future, 147

Nature, as a source of knowledge, 77, 101, 102; is human interpretation put on the creative activity of the Absolute Ego, 45; is the habit of Allah, 45 (II 39); is to the Divine Self as character is to the human self, 45; its passage in time offers the best clue to the ultimate nature of Reality, 36; knowledge of, is the knowledge of God’s behaviour, 45; not a static fact situated in an a-dynamic void, 28, 52; observation of, is only another form of worship, 45, 73; only a fleeting moment in the life of God, 45; organic unity of, as viewed by Qur’an, 64 (III 41); theory of bifurcation of, see also Universe 27 (II 8), Whitehead’s view of, 28

Nature of the Physical World, The (Eddington), quoted: 147 (IV 43, VII 9)

Naumann, Joseph Friedrich (1860-1919), 64, 132 (VI 38)

Nazzam, Ibrahim b. Sayyar (d. 231/845), and principle of doubt, 102; declared Abu Hurairah an untrustworthy reporter, 119 (VI 10); notion of tafrah or ‘jump’, 55-56 (II 9, III 19); rejection of traditions, 119

Nejd, the ‘cleanest spot in the decadent world of Islam’, 121

Neo-Platonic mysticism, see mysticism

Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727), and mechanism, 33; definition of time, critically examined, 59 (III 31); interpolation formula of, and al-Biruni, 106 (V 22); view of absolute space, 28, 30

Nietzsche, Friedrich W. (1844-1900), a genius who remained unproductive for want of spiritual guidance, 154 (VII 19); appears to have been endowed with a kind of prophetic mentality, 154; a psychopath endowed with a great intellect, 154; aristocratic radicalism, 154 (VII 17); denounced patriotism and nationalism as ‘sickness and unreason’, 149 (VII 11); enthusiasm for the future of man, 148; Eternal Recurrence, 91-92 (IV 44); - it was the power of idea of, which appealed to, rather than its logical demonstration, 91; most hopeless idea of immortality ever formed by man, 148; nothing more that Fatalism worse than the notion of Qismat, 92; his mental history not without a parallel in the history of Eastern Sufism, 154; ‘imperative’ vision of the Divine in man did come to, 154; intellectual progenitors of, 175; metaphysics: ‘a legitimate play of the grown-ups’, 146 (VII 6); modern prophet, 91; relation to fictionism, (VII 7); superman, 91-92 (IV 23); - a biological product, 154 (VII 18); view of time of, different from that of Kant and Schopenhauer, 91; vision of, completely blinded by his intellectual progenitors 154

Nunn, T. Percy (1870-1944), 30 (II 16)

Old Testament, 39, 66, 67

omnipotence, abstractly conceived, is merely a blind capricious power, 64; intimately related to Divine wisdom according to Qur’an, 64; reconciliation of, with limitation of God, born, out of His own creative freedom, 63-64

omniscience, God’s, not a mirror passively reflecting a finished structure of things, 63; not passive which suggests that God’s creative activity is determined by an unalterable order of events, 62-63

ontological argument, 23-24

ontological problem, 37

‘Optics’ (Ibn Haitham), 103 (V 16)

optimism, 65

Opus Majus (Roger Bacon), 103 (V 16)

original sin, 68 (IV 2)

Ouspensky, Peter Demianovich (1878-1847), his view of time, critically examined, 32

Pan-Islamic movement, 121 (VI 18)

Paraclete, 115

parallel postulate, Euclid’s, 106 (V 20)

Parsa, Khwajah Muhammad (d. 822/1420), 107 (V 25)

‘Paralogisms of Pure Reason’, (IV 16)

perception, through ‘heart’, 12-13

Persia, 121, 125, 139, 149

personality, reality of, lies in its directive attitude, 82-83

pessimism, 65, 66

petitio principii., 25

Philosophical Works of Descartes (Descartes), quoted: 24 (II 1)

Philosophy and New Physics (Louis Rougier) quoted: 59 (I 18, III 32)

Philosophy of the ‘As If’ (Vaihinger), quoted: 146 (VII 6)

Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig (1858-1947), 56

Plato (428/427-348/347 B.C.), 112, 113; and sense-perception, 3 (I 10); unites religion and state much as the Qur’an does, 132

prayer, all search for knowledge essentially a form of, 73; and unity of mankind, 75; as an inner act, has found expression in a variety of forms, 74; associative, in Islam, socialization of spiritual illumination, 73; call to, in Berber/Turkish, 127-28 (VI 28, 29); compared to thought, 81-82; expression of man’s inner yearning for a response in the awful silence of the universe, 73; form of, according to Qur’an, ought not to become a matter of dispute, 74; form of congregational, in Islam creates and fosters the sense of social equality, 74; form of, in Islam symbolizes both self-affirmation and self-negation, 74; in the act of, mind rises to capture Reality itself and become a conscious participator in its life, 72; in the case of Prophet’s consciousness, creates a fresh ethical world, 71; little island of our personality suddenly discovers in, its situation in a larger whole of life, 72; necessary complement to the intellectual activity of the observer of Nature, 72; not some occult and special way of knowledge, 72; nothing mystical about, 72; observer of Nature a kind of mystic in the act of, 73; (opening up of the sources of life that lie in the depths of human ego, 73; prophet’s and mystic’s, difference between, 72; timing of the daily, in Islam is intended to save the ego from the mechanizing effects of sleep and business, 87; ultimate motive of, 71; unique discovery whereby the searching ego affirms itself in the very moment of self-negation, 73

‘Preserved Tablet’, 6 (I 17)

principles, to interpret foundational legal, prefectly justified, 134

Principles of Logic, The (Bradley), 78

Principles of Psychology, The (William James), quoted: 71 (III 71)

Pringle-Pattison, Andrew Seth (1856-1931), 82

Problem of Immortality, The (Radoslav Tsanoff), quoted: 92 (I 14, IV 38, 47)

‘Prolegomena’ (Ibn Khaldun), 111, 125

Prophet, the Holy, 2, 8, 13, 14, 58, 94, 100, 101, 112, 118, 123, 129, 135, 136, 141, 143, 150; and Apostle, 19 (I 43); and pre-Islamic usages of Arabia, 136; and the method of building up a universal Shari’ah, 136-37 (VI 47); first critical observer of psychic phenomena, 13, 101 (I 31, V 7); rational foundation of Islam began with, 2; so far as the spirit of his revelation is concerned, belongs to the modern world, 101; spirit of the interpretation of Revelation by, and study of the Hadith literature, 137; see also Muhammad

Prophet, desire to see his religious experience transformed into a living world force supreme in, 99; in the personality of, the finite centre of life sinks into his own infinite depths only to spring up again to disclose the new directions of life, 100; inserts himself into the sweep of time with a view to control the forces of history, 99; not less alert than the scientist in the matter of eliminating the alloy of illusion from his experience, 150; penetrating the impervious material before him, discovers himself for himself, and unveils himself to the eye of history, 99; pragmatic test of the religious experience of, 21-22, 77, 99; spiritual tension of, is to be understood as a response to an objective situation generative of new enthusiasms, new organizations, new starting points, 150; way of, is not to classify facts and discover causes, but to think in terms of life and movement with a view to create new patterns of behaviour for mankind, 150

prophethood, finality of, 100-01 (V 2); creates an independent critical attitude towards mysticism, 101; early Muslims emerging out of the spiritual slavery of pre-Islamic Asia were not in a position to realize the true significance of, 142; function of the idea is to open up fresh vistas in the domain of man’s inner experience, 115; generates the belief that all personal authority claiming supernatural origin has come to an end, 101; involves the keen perception that life cannot for ever be kept in leading strings, 101; Muslims spiritually most emancipated because of their faith in, 142; psychological cure for the Magian attitude of constant expectation, 115 (VI 61) Qur’an’s constant appeal to reason and experience and emphasis on the study of Nature and History, are aspects of the idea of, 101

prophetic consciousness, difference between, and mystic consciousness, 71, 99; mode of economizing individual thought and choice by providing ready-made judgements, choices and ways of action, 100

psychology, and religion, 19-21, 153-54; Configuration, 86 (IV 30); must develop an independent method to possess a real significance for mankind, 154

Psychology of Unconscious (C.G Jung), quoted: 151-52 (VII 15)

Ptolemy (c. 87-c. 165), 106

Qalb, i.e. ‘heart’, perception of Reality through, 12-13; ‘Stations’ of, 153 (VII 16)

Qarshùyat, condition of, in the Khalifah, 125

Qismat, 88, 92

Qistas (al-Mustaqim), Al- (Ghazali), 103 (V 11)

Qiyas, absolutely free within the limits of revealed texts, 141; as a source of Islamic Law, 140-41; only another name for Ijtihad, 141; permitted even in the life-time of the Holy Prophet, 141; source of life and movement in the Law of Islam, 141

Quanta, theory of, 55, 56

Qur’an, and Barzakh, 92-93, 95-96 (IV 50); and Divine space, 107-08; and God’s response to man, 16; and history, 77, 102, 110-12; and legend of the fall, 65-71; and man, 8-10, 76; and Nature, 9, 11, 45, 101-02; and perception of Reality through heart, 12-13; and resurrection, 92-93, 96; and revelation, 16-17, 100-01 (V 3); and Satan’s suggestions to Apostles and Prophets of God, 19; and sense-perception, 3, 10-12, 102 (I 12, V 9); and sources of human knowledge, 77, 101-02; and the character of man’s knowledge, 11, 68; and the concrete, 64, 102, 105; and the ego, 80, 82-83, 87, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98; and the legend, 65; and the metaphor of light as applied to God, 51; and the method of simple enumeration, 103; and the problem of evil, 64, 67, 68, 70; and the universe, 8-9, 44, 55, 102; and time, 39-40, 58, 60-62; and ‘trust’ of personality, 9, 70, 76; and the unity of human origin, 112; anti-classical spirit of, 3, 56, 102, 113 (V 21); as primary source of the Law of Islam, 131-35; destiny of man as viewed by, 92-98; dogma of the eternity of, 119 (VI 9); emphatic denial of the sonship of God, 51 (III 3); general principles and rules of legal nature in, 131 (VI 37); Heaven and Hell as conceived by, 98; idea of destiny (Taqdir) in, 39, 40, 87-88 (II 29); Observations and Statements Bases on Perceptive and Deep Study of:

Alternation of day and night is one of the greatest signs of God, 8, 58

Always fixes its gaze on the concrete, 64, 102, 105

Argues the phenomenon of re-emergence of the ego (in the life hereafter), on the analogy of his first emergence, 96

Attaches equal importance to all the regions of human experience, 12

Believes in the possibility of improvement of behaviour of man and his control over the natural forces, 65

Cannot be inimical to the idea of evolution, 131

Change (also social), according to, is one of the greatest signs of God, 117

Constant appeal to reason and experience, is an aspect of the idea of finality of prophethood, 101

Considers it necessary to unite religion and state, ethics and politics in a single revelation, 132

Declares ultimate Ego to be nearer to man than his own neck-vein, 57

Declares ‘unity of inner experience’ to be one of the three sources of human knowledge, 77

Describes reality as the First and the Last, the visible and the invisible’, 25-26, 85 (II 5, IV 28, VI 13)

Does not base the possibility of resurrection on the actual resurrection of an historic person, 92

Does not contemplate complete liberation from finitude as the highest state of human bliss, 93

Embodies an essentially dynamic outlook on life, 118, 132

Emphasis on Nature and History, as sources of human knowledge, and as an aspect of the idea of finality of prophethood, 101

Emphasizes ‘deed’ rather than ‘idea’, Preface (IV 57)

Emphasizes the individuality and uniqueness of man, 76 (V 1, 2)

Finds the infinite power of God revealed not in the arbitrary and capricious, but in the regular and the orderly, 64

General empirical attitude of, engenders a feeling of reverence for the actual, 11 (I 12, V 9)

General principles and rules of legal nature in the, 131 (VI 37)

Has a clear conception of Nature as a cosmos of mutually related forces, 64 (III 41)

Has a definite view of man’s destiny as a unity of life, 76, (IV 1)

Has no liking for abstract universals, 64

History in the language of, is ‘the days of God’ (ayyam Allah), 110

Idea of destiny runs throughout in, 87

Imam is a vital way of appropriating the universe, 87

Immediate purpose in reflective observation of nature is to awaken the consciousness of that of which nature is a symbol, 11

In order to emphasize the individuality of Ultimate Ego, gives Him the proper name of Allah, 50

Intensive breadth of the legal principles of, is awakener of human thought, 133

Interest of, in history extends farther than mere historical generalizations, 111

Is not a legal code, 131

Lays down a few general principles and rules of legal nature, especially relating to the family, 131 (VI 37)

Main purpose of, is to awaken in man the consciousness of his relation with God and the universe, 7, 131

Man in his inmost being is a creative activity, an ascending spirit, 10

Man is not a stranger on this earth, 67

Naturalism of, is only a recognition of the fact that man is related to nature, and this relation must be exploited in the interest of a free upward movement of spiritual life, 12

Nations are collectively judged and suffer for their misdeeds here and now, 110 (V 40)

Nature is the habit of Allah, 45 (II 39)

Nature’s passage in time offers the best clue to the ultimate nature of Reality, 36

No understanding of, possible until it is actually revealed to the believer, 143 (VII 1)

Object in dealing with legends is seldom historical, 65

One noteworthy feature of, is the emphasis that it lays on the observable aspect of Reality, 11 (I 12, V 9)

Opens our eyes to the great fact of (social) change through the appreciation and control of which alone a durable civilization becomes possible, 12, 117

Recognizes empirical attitude to be an indispensable stage in the spiritual life of humanity, 12

Regards both Anfus (self) and Afaq (world) as sources of knowledge, 101 (V 5)

Regards experience within and without as symbolic of reality, 14, 25-26 (I 27, II 4)

Regards ‘hearing’ and ‘sight’ as the most valuable Divine gifts, 3 (I 11)

Regards Wahi (inspiration) a universal property of life, 100 (V 3)

Rejects the idea of redemption, 76 (IV 2)

Seems to take and argue resurrection as a universal phenomenon of life, 92

Set of simple legal principles received from, carried great potentialities of expansion and development by interpretation, 123

Spirit of, is essentially anti-classical, 3, 102, 113 (V 21)

Subscribes neither to optimism nor to pessimism, but to meliorism, 65

Teaching of, that life is a process of progressive creation, necessitates that each generation be permitted to solve its own problems, 134

This noiseless swim of time which appears to us, human beings, as the movement of day and night is one of the greatest signs of God, 8, 58

Time regarded as an organic whole is Taqdir or the destiny, 40 (II 29)

True manhood consists in ‘patience under ills and hardships’, 70 (III 68)

Ultimate Ego that makes the higher ego emerge from the lower egos is immanent in nature and is described as ‘the First and the Last, the visible and the invisible’, 85 (IV 23, 28, II 5, VI 13)

Ultimate Reality is spiritual and its life consists in its temporal activity, 123

Understanding of certain statements of biological nature made by, in connexion with the destiny of man, possible only through a deeper insight into the nature of life, 92

Universe, according to the teachings of, is dynamic in its origin, finite and capable of increase, 102 (I 23, V 21)

Universe has a serious end, 11-12 (I 22)

Views Divine omnipotence as intimately related to Divine wisdom, 64

With its characteristic simplicity, alludes to serial and non-serial aspects of duration, 39

(Quranic) method of complete or partial transformation of legends to besoul them with new ideas is an important point nearly always overlooked, 65

(Quranic) outlook, nothing more alien to, than the idea that the universe is the working out of a preconceived plan, 44

Rabbi (‘My Lord’), 82

Razi Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariya (250-c. 313/864-c. 925), and criticism of Aristotle’s first figure, 103 (V 13)

Razi, Imam Fakhr al-Din (543-606/1149/1209), and ‘Dahr’, ‘Daihur’. or ‘Daihar’, as names of God, 58; criticism of Aristotle’s first figure, (V 13); ‘Eastern Discussions’ and examination of the contemporary theories of time, 61 (III 37)

reaction-time, 116 (V 15)

Reality, and thought, 5, 42; as viewed by Bergson, 41-44; Bergson denies the teleological character of, 43; every moment in the life of, is original, 40, 98, 113 (II 30, IV 70, V 50); Hegel’s idea of the degrees of, 57-58; Hegel’s view of, as an infinitude of reason, 89; lives in its own appearances, 12 (VI 13); Nature’s passage in time offers the best clue to the ultimate nature of, 36; perception of, through ‘heart’, 12-13 (I 28); reveals its symbols both within and without, 12, 25 (I 27, II 4); sectional view of, 33; time an essential element in, 52-53; ultimate nature of, must be conceived as an ego 49, 62; see also God, Ultimate Ego and Ultimate Reality

reason, inductive, once born, must be reinforced by inhibiting the non-rational modes of consciousness, 100

reasoning, Hanafite principle of, 120; legal, in Islam, development of, from deductive to inductive, 131, 140-41 (VI 35)

Recurrence, Eternal, 91-92, 113, 148 (IV 44); see also Nietzsche

redemption, Qur’an rejects the idea of, 76 (IV 2)

reflective contact with the temporal flux of things trains us for an intellectual vision of the non-temporal, 12

Reformation, essentially a political movement, 129 (VI 33)

‘Refutation of Logic’ (Ibn Taimiyyah), 103 (V 12)

Reign of Relativity (Lord Haldane), 57 (II 8, III 25)

Relativity, theory of, and non-Euclidean geometries, (V 20); dispenses with the concept of force altogether, 156 (VII 22); emphasizes the concrete much as the Qur’an does, 64; has given the greatest blow to the traditional notion of matter, 27-28; in Whitehead’s presentation of, ‘matter’ is entirely replaced by ‘organism’, 31; makes possible the effect precede its cause, 32 (II 18); makes space dependent on matter, 31; time as free creative movement has no meaning for, 31, 106 (II 17); universe (much in accord with the Quranic world-view) is finite but boundless, 31, 45 (I 23, V 18, 21); Whitehead’s view of, likely to appeal more to Muslim students, 106 (II 18); Wildon Carr’s interpretation of, in terms of Monadistic idealism, 30 (II 16); see also Einstein and Russell

religion, and higher poetry, 1; and human ego, 145, 150, 152-54, 156-57; and modern psychology, 19-21, 151-52; and philosophy, 1, 2, 49, 70-71; and re-integration of the human personality, 170, 173; and science, 2, 21, 33-34, 146, 155; conservatism in, destroys the ego’s creative freedom and closes up the paths of fresh spiritual enterprise, 145; deliberate enterprise to seize the ultimate principle of value, 149; higher, as critical of its level of experience as Naturalism of its own, 144; in its higher manifestations, neither dogma, nor priesthood, nor ritual, 149; modern man and, 169-70; only a search for larger life, 143; reasons for and legitimacy of the question of the possibility of, 167-70; recognized the necessity of experience before science did so, 20, 143-44; sex-impulse and, 23-24, 174-75; stands in greater need of rational foundations than science, 2, 146; ultimate purpose is to move beyond the moral health of the social fabric which forms the present environment of the ego, 173

Religion in the Making (Whitehead), quoted: 1, 2 (I 2, 3)

Religious Attitude and Life in Islam (Macdonald), quoted: 14 (I 32)

religious experience, consists in creating the Divine attributes in man, 87; critical examination of, not irreverent, 13; essentially a state of feeling with a cognitive aspect, 17-18, 146, 150 (I 39); forms of expression of ‘unitive experience’ in the history of, in Islam, 87-88; higher, corrective of our concepts of philosophical theology, 145; incommunicability of, gives a clue to the ultimate nature of ego, 145; pragmatic test of, 19, 21-22, 77-79; process of, identical with scientific process, 155; revelation of a new life-process - original, essential, spontaneous, 156; tests of the truth of, 21-22; see also prayer

religious life, climax of, is the discovery of the ego as an individual deeper than the habitual selfhood, 145; individual achieves a free personality in, by discovering the ultimate source of the law within the depths of his own consciousness, 143; psychopath endowed with great intellect (Nietzsche) may give a clue to the technique for the realization of the ultimate aim of, 154; ultimate aim of, is to bring the ego into contact with an eternal life process,154; understanding of the Holy Book of Islam by a believer in the third period of, 143

Religious Reform Party (Said Halim Pasha), 123-24

Renan, Joseph Ernest (1823-1892), and Ibn Rushd’s notion of unitary intellect, 88

Republic (Plato), 132

resurrection, bodily, the Qur’an suggests the fact of, but does not reveal its nature, 98; kind of stocktaking of ego’s past achievements and future possibilities, 96; universal phenomenon of life, 92

revelation, prophetic, 16-18, 99-101 (I 40, V 3), prophetic, in terms of world life, 117; Quranic view of, as a universal property of life, 100 (V 3); pure reason compared to, 161-62; spirit of the Prophet’s own interpretation of his, and study of Hadith literature, 137; understanding of, in the third period of religious life, 143 (VII 1); verbal, 18 (I 40)

‘Revivification of the Sciences of Religion’ (Ghazali), 102 (V 10)

Risalah dar Zaman-o-Makan (Khwajah Parsa), (V 25)

Risalat al-Shafiyah, Al- (Tusi), (V 19)

Roman Empire, conception of human unity in, 112

Romans, twelve tables of, 123

Rome, 112, 116, 151

Rougier, Louis (1889-1982), (III 32, V 20); concept of intelligibility undergoing change with the advance of scientific thought, 6 (I 18); discontinuity of matter and time, 59 (III 32)

Royce, Josiah (1855-1916), omniscience of God conceived as a single indivisible act of Divine perception, 60, 62-63 (III 40); response as criterion of our knowledge of other minds, 15-16

Ruh, 89, 153

Rumi, Maulana Jalal al-Din (604-672/1207-1273), 57, 72, 88; mystic quest after Reality, 72-73 (III 73); perception of Reality through ‘heart’, 13 (I 28); regarded the question of immortality as one of biological evolution, and not a metaphysical problem, 96-97; tremendous enthusiasm for the biological future of man, 147 (IV 23)

Russell, Arthur William Bertrand (1872-1970), concept of force in Relativity, 156 (VII 22); matter in the light of Relativity (quoted), 27-28; realism in Relativity, 30-31 (II 16); refutation of Zeno’s argument, 28-30 (II 14)

Sabit, Halim (d. 1362/1943), theory of Muhammadan law grounded in sociological concept, 121

Said Halim Pasha, see Halim Pasha

Sanusi movement, 121

Sarkashi (of 10th century of Hijrah sic.), (VI 57)

Satan, 19, 67, 68

Schm’lders, August (1809-1880), (V 10)

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788-1860), 65, 91, 154 (III 45)

science and Reality, 33-34, 145, 155; and religion, 1, 2, 3, 20, 33-34, 146, 155; most momentous contribution of Arab civilization to the modern world, 104; nature of, 33-34

Science and the Modern World (Whitehead), quoted: 56 (III 20)

scientific and religious processes go parallel to each other, 155

scientific method, Islamic origin of, 103-04

scientific quest and vision of the total infinite, 73

‘Scope of Logic’ (Ibn Hazm), 103 (V 14)

Secret Doctrine, The (Blavatsky), 69 (III 65)

secular is sacred in the roots of its being, 123

self, alone can combine the opposite attributes of permanence and change, 54; appreciative and efficient, 38-39, 61; appreciative, nature of, 38-39; efficient, 38 ff.; Quranic emphasis on individuality and uniqueness of, 76 (IV 1, 2): subliminal, 14, 150 (I 35), see also ego and man

self-concentrated individuals, alone reveal the depth of life, 120; in the light of new standards make us see that our environment is not wholly inviolable and requires revision, 120; rearing of, alone counteracts the forces of decay in a people, 120

self-determination, 85 f. (II 29, IV 32)

sense-perception, passage to Reality through the revelations of, 11-12, 33; Plato’s view of, 3 (I 10); Quranic emphasis on, 3, 10, 102, (I 12, V 9)

Shafi’i, Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad b. Idris (150-204/767-820), 140, 141

Shah Wali Allah see Wali Allah, Shah

Shari’ah, 119, 120, 124, 136, 139

Shatibi, Imam Abu Ishaq (d. 790/1388), 134, 138

Shaukani, Qadi Muhammad b. ‘Ali (1173-1250/1759-1834), 139, 141

Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi Maqtul, see Ishraqi

Shu’ara’ (the Quranic Surah), and the inductive method of simple enumeration, 103

sirr-i Akhfa’ (Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi), 153 (VII 16)

Sirr-i Khafi (Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi), 153 (VII 16)

social change (in Islam), the value and function of forces of conservatism in, 150-51

Socialism, atheistic, 149

Socius (William James), 71

Socrates (470-300 B.C.), 3

Soul as substance, 91-92; directive function of, 92-93

Soul-body relationship, 93-96, 139-40; Iraqi’s view of, 122; Mutakallimun’s view of, 64-65

space, ‘Iraqi’s view of, 107-10; Newtonian view of, as an absolute void, 28, 30; thought of a limit to the perceptual, staggers the mind, 105

Space and time, arise out of the relations of co-existence and succession of immobilities, 41; interpretations that thought puts on the creative activity of God, 52, 53; problem of, is a question of life and death in Muslim culture, 105

space-orders and time-orders, plurality of(‘Iraqi) 60-61, 107-10, 146 (III 34)

space-time, as the matrix of all things (Alexander), 109 (V 36); living thought as the ultimate principle of, 110

Space, Time and Deity (Alexander), 60, 109 (IV 23, V 36, 37)

Space, Time and Gravitation (Eddington), quoted: 53 (III 9)

Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903), 91

Spengler, Oswald (1880-1936), 88, 105-06; alleges complete negation of the ego in Islam, 87, 114 (IV 33, V 57), and parallel postulate, (V 20); culture of Islam ‘Magian’ in spirit and character, 114; (V 56); fails to appreciate the cultural value of the idea of finality of prophethood in Islam, 115 (V 61); ignorance of Muslim thought on the problem of time, 114-15; main thesis, 114-15; spirit of European culture through and through anti-classical, 114 (V 21)

State, Church and, 122-24

State in Islam, see Islam

State, Muslim, generally left in the hands of intellectual mediocrities, 119

subliminal self, 165, 171 (I 35)

Sufism, 152, 153, 154, 156 (III 66); devotional, alone tried to understand the meaning of unity of inner experience; 77; fostered revolt against the quibbles of early legists, 119; ideal revealed in higher, is the possession and enjoyment of the infinite, 119; in higher, unitive experience is not the effacing of the finite ego into the infinite Ego, 88, 94; in later, otherworldliness obscured vision of Islam as a social polity, 119; latter-day representatives of, have become absolutely incapable of any fresh inspiration from modern experience Preface; non-Islamic influences on purely speculative, 119 (IV 4); offering the prospects of unrestrained thought, attracted and absorbed the best minds in Islam, 119; pantheistic, difficulties of, with regard to the relation between the infinite and the finite egos, 94; speculative, a form of free-thought; see also prayer and religious experience

Sufyan al-Thauri (97-161/716-778), 119 (VI 12)

Sunnis, 118

superman, 91-92 (IV 23); a biological product, 154, (VII 18)

Superstitions, pre-Islamic, of Muslim nations, 124

Suyuti, Jalal al-Din (849-911/1445-1505), 121 (VI 17)

Tabari, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jarir (225-311/839-923), 112 (V 44)

tafrah, 53 (II 9, III 19)

Tahmasp, Shah (919-984/1514-1576), 40

Taqdir (destiny), 40, 87 (II 29); is time regarded prior to the disclosure of its possibilities, 40

Tauhid, essence of, is equality, solidarity and freedom, 122, 124; principle of, foundation of world unity, 117

teleology, Bergson’s denial of, 43

Tertium Organum (Ouspensky), 32

Thadani (Nanikram Vasanmal), 148

theocracy, meaning of, in Islam, 123

thought, and being are ultimately one, 25; intuition and, spring from the same root and complement each other 2; and the Infinite 4-5; as a potency, formative of the very being of its material, 25; Bergson’s view of, 41-42; complete independence of, from concrete experience is not possible, 4; in its deeper movement capable of reaching the infinite, 5, 42; in its true nature, is identical with life, 42; operation of, being essentially symbolic in character, veils the true nature of life, 48; real function of, is to synthecize the elements of experience by employing categories suitable to its various levels, 42

time, al-Biruni’s discovery of reaction, 103 (V 53) an essential element in Reality 46; as a cyclic movement (Nietzsche, Heraclitus, Stoics), 91-91, 113 (V 53); as fourth dimension of space (Ouspensky), 32; as free creative movement, has no meaning for Einstein’s Relativity, 31, 106 (II 17); as mind of space (Alexander), 110 (V 37); Augustine’s confession of the mystery of, 46 (II 44); Bergson’s error of regarding, as prior to self, 44; Bergson’s view as pure duration, 37-41; Divine, 60-61, 110; Divine, as viewed by Dawani and ‘Iraqi, 60-61, 110 (III 35, V 39); function-idea and element of, in our world-picture, 106 (V 21), ‘Iraqi, view of plurality of, 60-61, (III 34, 35); keen sense of the reality of, necessary for a scientific treatment of history, 112-13; mathematical idea of function and, 106, (V 21); McTaggart’s argument relating to unreality of, 45-46 (II 42); Newton’s conception of, 59 (III 31); of appreciative self as compared to that of efficient self, 38-39; our physiological structure at the bottom of our view of time, 95 (IV 58); priority of, due to God’s priority (‘Iraqi), 60 (III 35); Prophetic tradition relating to, 8, 58 (I 24); regarded as destiny or Taqdir, 40 (II 29); view of, as cyclic, 113; true, belongs to ego alone, 79; view of, as held by the Ash’arties and other Muslim thinkers and mystics 58-62, 107, 110, 146

traditions of the Prophet, as a source of Muhammadan Law, 135-137; attitude of Abu Hanifah towards, of a purely legal import perfectly sound, 137; Goldziher’s examination of, in the light of modern canons of historical criticism, 135; intelligent study of, to be used as indicative of the spirit in which the Prophet himself interpreted his Revelation, 137; modern critics of, 135 (VI 45); pre-Islamic usages in, our writers do not always refer to, 136; see also Hadith

Turk, modern, inspired by the realities of experience and not by the scholastic reasoning of jurists, 125-26

Turks, life in, has begun to move, giving birth to new desires, bringing new difficulties and suggesting new interpretations, 129; on way to creating new values, 129

Turkey, awakening of, in the wake of Great European War, 142-43 (VI 58), growing complexities of a mobile and broadening life are to bring new situations to, suggesting new points of view, and necessitating fresh interpretations, 128; religio-political thought in, 121-28

Tusi, Nasir al-Din (597-672/1201-1274), Euclid’s parallel postulate, 106 (V 19, 20); hyperspace movement, 106 (V 20)

Twilight of the Idols, The (Nietzsche), quoted: 129 (VII 11)

Ulema, our modern, do not see that the fate of a people depends not so much on organization as on the worth and power of individual men, 120; Persian constitutional theory and the, 139 (VI 53); should form assembly, 139-40 (VI 54)

Ultimate Ego, beyond, and apart from His creative activity, there is neither time nor space, 52; by permitting the emergence of a finite ego as free personal causality, limits the freedom of His own free will, 86-87; change reveals its true character in, as continuous creation, ‘untouched by weariness’ and unseizable by ‘slumber or sleep’, 48 (II 48, 49); creative energy of, functions as ego-unities, 57; given by Qur’an the proper name of Allah to emphasize His individuality, 50; intensive infinity of, consists in the infinite inner possibilities of His creative activity, 52; is immanent in the emergence of higher ego from lower egos, 85 (IV 23); reveals the infinite wealth of His being in the countless variety of living forms, 70; thought and deed, the act of knowing and the act of creating, are identical in, 62; universe only a partial expression of the infinite creative activity of, 52

Ultimate Reality, furnishes in the ego a clue to its ultimate nature, 84-85; is rationally directed life and can be conceived only as an ego, 49, 57, 62; life of, according to Qur’an consists in its temporal activity, 123; reveals its symbols both within and without, 12, 25-26 (I 27, II 4, IV 5); thought, life and purpose interpenetrate in, to form an organic unity, 44, 62; time an essential element in, 45

ultimate things, positive views of, work rather of inspiration than of metaphysics, 91

‘Umar b. al-Khattab (40 B.H.-23/584-644), the first critical and independent mind of Islam, 129

Umayyads, 88, 138

uncertainty principle, (VII 3)

unitive experience, 99

universe, a free creative movement, 41; an elaborate differential equation, 146; Aristotelian idea of fixed, 54, 56, 109 (V 21); constantly growing, 8, 55 (I 23, V 21); controversy on the issue of creation of, (III 7); finite and boundless, according to Einstein, 31: so also according to Qur’an, 8, 44, 45, 102 (i 23, V 21); God’s relation to, is as soul’s relation to the body (‘Iraqi), 110; only partial expression of God’s infinite creative activity, 52; Quranic view of, 8-9, 44; Whitehead’s conception of, 36, see also Nature

‘Urfi Shirazi (Muhammad Jamal al-Dùn), (963-999/1550-1591), quoted: 42 (II 32)

Vaihinger, Hans (1852-1933), (VII 7)

Varieties of Religious Experience (William James), 14 (I 35, V 1), quoted: 19 (VI)

vision and power both must combine for the spiritual expansion of humanity, 73

Wahi, Qur’an regards, a universal property of life, 100 (V 3)

Wali Allah, Shah (1114-1176/1703-1763), on pre-Islamic usages and the Prophet’s method of building up a universal Shari’ah, 136-37 (VII 47); first Muslim to rethink the whole system of Islam, 92; last great theologian of Islam, 97; on some kind of physical medium suitable to the ego in life hereafter, 97; works of, mentioned in Allama’s letters, (VI 47)

Whitehead, Alfred North (1861-1947), 31, 56; bifurcation of Nature, theory of, 27 (II 8); definition of religion, 1 (I 2); Nature according to, 27-28; on movement of electron in terms of quantam mechanics, 56 (III 20); refutation of the traditional theory of materialism, 27; universe according to, 28, 36; view of Relativity of, likely to make greater appeal to Muslim students than that of Einstein, 106 (II 8)

William III (1650-1702), 46

woman, economic position of, in Islam, 135; equality of man and, as viewed by Ziya G’kalp, 128, 134-35

world-life and prophetic revelation, 117

worship, difference between prophet’s and mystic’s, 71

Yahweh, 115

Yemem, 118

zahir and batin, 119 (VI 13)

Zahiri school of law, 120 (VI 14)

Zarkashi, Muhammmad b. Bahadur b. ‘Abd Allah (745-794/1344-1392), on the fiction of the closing of the door of Ijtihad, 141 (VI 57)

Zaura’ (Risalat) al- (Dawani), 60

Zeno (490-430 B.C.), arguments for the unreality of movement 28-29

(II 9); holds time to be unreal, 113; Russell’s refutation of, 29-30 (II 14-15)

Ziya G’kalp, see G’kalp

Zoroaster (fl. in the 7th century B.C. or before), 115

Zuhri, Muhammad b. Shihab al- (57-124/678-742), 137

Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1867-1952), 54

Source:  http://www.allamaiqbal.com/works/prose/english/reconstruction


URL of Lecture One:


URL of Lecture Two:


URL of Lecture Three:


URL of Lecture Four:


URL of Lecture Five:


URL of Lecture Six:


URL of Lecture Seven:



URL of this page:  http://www.newageislam.com/books-and-documents/index--the-reconstruction-of-religious-thought-in-islam-by-dr.-muhammad-iqbal/d/213



Compose Your Comments here:
Email (Not to be published)
Fill the text
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the articles and comments are the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect that of NewAgeIslam.com.