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Books and Documents

Islamic History

An Elaborate Conspiracy Steered By the Magian Nobility: Early Muslim History Needs Fresh Appraisal — IV
M Aamer Sarfraz

The Asawirah struck again in 40 AH when Hazrat Ali was leading a prayer in Kufa. A Magian, Jamshed Khorasani, aka Ibn-e-Muljim, stabbed him with a double-edged dagger. Hazrat Ali died three days later. Then Jaban bin Hormuzan, son of the mastermind behind Hazrat Umar’s assassination, made an unsuccessful attempt on Hazrat Hasan’s life in 46 AH. Hazrat Hasan was poisoned but other accounts suggest that he died of tuberculosis in 49 AH...

Read Part Three Here

 

When it was time to pray, Sophronius offered ?Umar a space in the church for the Muslims to pray, but ?Umar refused out of fear that doing so would possibly endanger the status of the church, as future generations of Muslims may have taken that site as a permanent place of worship. Instead, according to some narrations, the Muslims cleared a space outside the church and performed their prayer there. Other narrations suggest the Muslims prayed at the site of al-Aqsa instead, a short distance away....

Ahadith Which Had No Basis in the Quran Became A Source of Innovations: Early Muslim History Needs Fresh Appraisal — III
M Aamer Sarfraz

Ahadith also creatively opened the door of ‘lesser-Wahi’ to ambitious individuals who were not messengers of Allah. Similar to other religions, this licence inspired many to become saints and mystics, and others to claim ‘Prophethood’ especially when Muslim fortunes were in decline. Most of the latter were suitably treated by the relevant authorities but some went on to carve out new religions and followers for themselves. I met one notable aspirant, kept in a high security jail in Faisalabad, a couple of years ago. He was definitely mentally ill....

Read the Part Two Here

 

Neither Allah nor Prophet Muhammad (SAW) Instructed That Ahadith May Be Recorded: Early Muslim History Needs Fresh Appraisal — II
M Aamer Sarfraz

We can argue whether Ahadith can be a reliable source for writing history (or jurisprudence). But that would just be what Muslims have been doing all these years, and then they accuse non-Muslim (and Muslim) historians and writers of insulting their beliefs or having an agenda against Islam. The way things are unfolding in the world at the moment; this situation is only going to get worse.

Read the Part One Here

Muslim Historians Have Made A Mockery of Islamic History by Filling It with Fabrications: Early Muslim History Needs Fresh Appraisal — I
M Aamer Sarfraz

It is a fact that very few original sources that could shed light on early Islam are available now-a-days. Some of it is due to natural calamities, but most of it is due to multi-pronged conspiracies unleashed against Islam from the day it was promulgated. Except Quran, as verified once again by an original copy found in Birmingham Museum, not a lot of significant material seems to be available in its original form or as artefacts. The situation is so serious that some scholars in the West are now questioning the reality of Islam by insinuating that it was created retrospectively by caliph Abd al-Malik and others....

 

Amidst the double-dealing mentioned, the British were having yet another conversation about Muslim lands. The powerful World Zionist Organization (WZO), established in 1897 by Theodor Herzl, was set up with the primary goal of establishing a homeland for Jewish people in Palestine. Jews across Europe were facing increasing anti-Semitism and hence there were growing calls from within to establish their own state....

 

Prophetic Medicine: Honey Mentioned In the Holy Qur’an as A Universal Remedy
Amal Al-Sibai

Have you ever wondered why honey comes in many different colors? Honey’s color can vary from a very faint, clear color to golden, to darker amber, and even black. Bees fly around collecting nectar from various flowers and bring it back to their hive where they make the honey. A single honeybee travels anywhere between 6 km and 20 km per day to collect nectar....

 

Islamic History Is Full Of Instances Where Legal Pluralism Was the Norm
Yasser Latif Hamdani

Greatest scientists from the History of Islam, including Rhazes or Al Razi and Avicenna or Ibn-e-Sina, who are taught as part of the curriculum, were outright agnostics or even atheists. Yet their scientific contributions were celebrated by early Muslims because academia and scholarship was always championed in Islam. The Islamic civilization was the epitome of tolerance and acceptance in the world...

 

There is a considerate need for revisiting Shah-e-Hamadan’s religious philosophy for he not only followed Islam by letter and spirit but also openly advocated moral values of Islam and its principles. Philosophy is an inquiry for truth conducted by philosophers to know the right way and attitude of life. It is a witness to the fact that the rise and fall of civilizations is a matter of how they consider their religious philosophy together with social, cultural, political, and economic factors.,,,

 

Many of us are unfortunately completely unaware of the events which occurred from 1914 onwards, and the lasting drastic impact these have had in shaping the Muslim world as we know it today. From the dismantling of the Ottoman Caliphate, to the occupation of Palestine and all the way up to today; it is important to be aware of certain key moments in history in order to understand why the Ummah finds itself in its current position....

 

The History of the Interconnection between Peaceful Sufi Spirituality and Political Aspirations of India and Central Asia Can Be Traced Back To Ancient Times
Raziuddin Aquil

Before Sufism and before Islamisation, variants of Buddhism had a significant presence in early medieval Central Asia. When Sufis adopted popular practices of Islam, they appropriated many Buddhist beliefs and practices as well, besides replicating monasteries with simpler khanqahs of their own. Shared beliefs included aspects such as notions of God and truth, bodily practices,commonality between yoga and Sufism, belief in the unity of existence, and respect for diversity. The key terms include tauhid, wahdat-ul-wujud, wahdat-us-shuhud, ekeshwarwad and Advaita philosophy.....

 

Islamic reformer: Ali Suavi a theologian
Ali Suavi

Though he had no official madrasah diploma, Suavi had raised himself as a Muslim scholar. His preaching touched people and he managed to collect a popular audience at the mosque. Namik Kemal approached him after listening to his preaching. The famous Fuat Pasha is also said to have attended. As his popularity and his influence over people grew rapidly, the government showed close interest in Suavi....

 

Emirati sites like Awd Al Tawbah, Jumeirah and Kush were undoubtedly provincial by comparison with Baghdad, Damascus or Cairo. Yet as Al Muqaddasi reminds us: “Although the towns of the Arabian Peninsula are small, they have the full reputation of towns.” Provincial they may have been but isolated they were not. The Emirates can be shown to have fully participated in and actively contributed to the golden age of Islam....

 
Palmyra: A Changing Townscape
Emanuele E. Intagliata

Palmyra:  A Changing Townscape
Emanuele E. Intagliata

Based on a reassessment of published reports and unpublished archival data from past archaeological excavations and surveys, along with a large corpus of Latin, ancient Greek, Syrian, and Arabic written sources, the project has so far managed to shed new light on the fate of Palmyra. It appears that the events of 272/273 CE marked an important watershed for the history of the city....

 

But analysts have noted that the initiative involves political risk, as the project could very well rankle the kingdom’s Wahhabi establishment that has long dominated the nation. Wahhabism is a rigid strain of Sunni Islam that emerged in Saudi Arabia some 250 years ago. Adherents of this creed regard the veneration of objects—especially those that predate the emergence of the Prophet Mohammed—as idolatry. As such, they advocate neglecting these sites or destroying them altogether....

How a Rising Canada Shaped the Fall of The Last Muslim Empire
Hassam Munir

Many of the earliest Muslims in Canada were immigrants from the Ottoman Empire, but the two states are not known have any significant diplomatic relations between them. The Ottoman dynasty had already ruled for more than 500 years before Canada was created in 1867, and they preferred to deal directly with Britain, Canada’s “mother country”. This continued through the First World War—but with an interesting plot twist at the end....

 

The Destruction of Mecca: the Middle East’s Largest Building Project Has Effaced 1,400 Years of Islamic History

Critics call this Islamic Maoism. Out went the city’s heterogeneous mix of Maliki, Shafii and Zaydi rites; in came homogenisation under the Wahhabi creed. Alongside the black and white dress they forced on women and men respectively, the new tribal rulers reshaped the urban environment, stripping away the past. They replaced the four pulpits at the foot of the Kaaba, one for each of Sunni Islam’s schools, with a single one, exclusively for Wahhabi preachers. ....

 

Reflections on the History and Memory of Andalusian and Ottoman Religious Belonging
Jeremy F. Walton

In Spain especially, Islam and al-Andalus have maintained an ambivalent relationship to national identity as a simultaneous source of disdain and pride. Spanish historians and politicians of a variety of ideological stripes have faced a vexing question: How to incorporate, and even celebrate, the accomplishments of a long era of Iberian history against which “Spain” itself has achieved definition? How to honour the Battle of Covadonga while also admiring the Alhambra?...

 

Marvelling At Egypt's Historic Civilization, Man-Made Structures
Anand and Madhura Katti

Egyptian Museum with repositories of more than 120,000 artefacts seemed like an essential prerequisite to learn about the country’s historic civilization before heading to its popular monuments. Precious exhibits like the Mummies, Sarcophagi, the famous Tutankhamun’s treasure and the boy king’s golden death mask, ancient JEWELERY and pottery made it easier to connect to the land. ...

Revealing the Muslim World’s ‘Forgotten’ Role in European History
Nabila Pathan

"A common story has developed throughout history that Muslims have not played a pivotal role in shaping European culture. The exhibition strives to re-orientate that misconception. It's not about a triumph of one religion over another. Instead, it's about seeking parity - that Islam like its Jewish and Christian counterparts, has contributed to European culture."...

 

From Bulleh Shah and Shah Hussain to Amir Khusro, same-sex references abound in Islamic poetry
Haroon Khalid

Bulleh Shah of course had pre-modern notions of sexuality and religion. For him the rigid categories between religion, gender and sexuality did not exist. For example in the following verses he has no scruples in incorporating a Hindu deity into his Muslim ethos, blurring the distinction between Muslim and Hindu concept of God.

 

It is High Time to Discard the Pernicious Myth of India’s Medieval Muslim ‘Villains’
Audrey Truschke

It is high time we discarded the pernicious myth of India’s medieval Muslim villains. This poisonous notion imperils the tolerant foundations of modern India by erroneously positing religious-based conflict and Islamic extremism as constant features of life on the subcontinent. Moreover, it is simply bad history. India has a complicated and messy past,...

The ‘crown jewels’ have been handed to a country with one of the worst human rights records in the world. Saudi Arabia will head a Consultative Group of five Ambassadors empowered to select applicants globally for more than seventy-seven positions to deal with human rights violations and mandates.

 

The Future of Ancient Sites in the Middle East
George Richards

As a necessarily speculative case-study, ISIL's stated policy not to destroy Palmyra - the spectacularly preserved Roman oasis-town in eastern Syria that it captured in May - may be driven by a reluctance to alienate the local population in one of the most strategically important Syrian cities under ­­ISIL control. ...

 

From Defeat to Disintegration: Reflections on 1967 and Afterwards
Hisham Melhem

Not only the Arab secularists and leftists saw the 1967 as more than a military debacle, but something that reflects deeper cultural and even moral maladies, this was also the view of some of the Islamist critics, who agreed with the leftists that the defeat was an indictment of Arab nationalism in both of its incarnations, Ba’athisim in Syria and Nasserism in Egypt. It was in the aftermath of 1967, that the Islamists, who were suppressed in Egypt and Syria during the heydays of Arab nationalism....

 
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NEW COMMENTS

  • so the historians who accompanied the marauders were dishonest.but bernard lewis is the very epitome of honest.your dishonesty is astounding.just as it suits you ...
    ( By hats off! )
  • there is an uncontrollable deceit and dishonesty in every comment you write.and your puny logical capacity cannot see that religious texts are full of ...
    ( By hats off! )
  • There is uncontrollable hatred for Muslims and Islam in almost every comment that you write. What is hardwired in the human brain will be reflected ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Sagacious and cogent article! Transmitting this message to the masses in Pakistan is an almost impossible task.
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Is this Asian Age report generally accepted as being factual or not?http://www.asianage.com/delhi/najeeb-ahmed-was-asked-leave-hostel-october-15-912
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • The entire wahabiyat and deobandiyat consider  celebration of mawlid Nabi to be bidat. and therefore they bomb participants of Juluse Muhammadiya
    ( By Talha@gmail.com )
  • Suicide attack at Afghan religious gathering kills over 50Dozens of people were wounded in the attack, health ministry spokesman says, which targeted top clerics ...
    ( By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi غلام غوث الصديقی )
  • The author is living abroad. If he lives in Pakistan he would not have written this audacious article.If he wrote, sure, he would be assassinated.
    ( By dr.A.Anburaj )
  • This article is surprising me.Thanks the author for writing this article which aims to protect minorities in Pakistan.But minorities have no hope in Pakistan. ...
    ( By dr.A.Anburaj )
  • Congrats on this auspicious occasion of Mawlid Nabi
    ( By Sarwar )
  • اسلام میں جمہوریت کا مقاماسلام کا مقصد دنیا بھر کے اچھے لوگوں کو ایک مشترکہ مقصد، ناانصافی اور تشدد کے خلاف لڑنے کے لئے ...
    ( By Abdul Moid Azhari )
  • Well put. There are crimes in which one complies through silence but then here, left's complicity is of a far higher degree. Their complicity with ...
    ( By Areeb Rizvi )
  • logic was never your forte.let me try to really make it simple enough for you.aggression has biological, evolutionary and genetic basis.men are biological, evolutionary ...
    ( By hats off! )
  • Extremely shameful and sad! If such things can happen at JNU, and in the national capital, what remains of justice and decency?
    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
  • Muslim historians accompanying Muslim conquerors said what their masters wanted to hear. Their exaggerations get quoted by pseudo-historians like Ariel and Will Durant who ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Hats Off says aggression is a biological fact but then goes on to blame monotheistic religions for it! Such a person would say anything ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • “WITH EXCEPTIONS, WHATEVER CREATIVE AND SIGNIFICANT IN JEWISH LIFE HAPPENED IN ISLAMIC LAND.” [highlight in capital letter is mine]
    ( By T.O. Shanavas )
  • Mr. Hats Off asked quotes from anti-Muslim authors. Let me quote from his favorite author, Bernard Lewis.
    ( By T.O. Shanavas )
  • Oxford Research Encyclopedia states:“Muslim-Jewish relations began with the emergence of Islam in 7th-century Arabia, but contacts between pre-Jewish Israelites and pre-Muslim Arabs had been ...
    ( By T.O. Shanavas )
  • just as for the fraudulent "moderates" it is the other way round. you have your evidence, others have theirs. don't whine and wheeze.the historical ...
    ( By hats off! )
  • aggression is a biological fact. aggression is an evolutionary need. aggression is a hard wired trait.that is precisely why much of religious text (especially ...
    ( By hats off! )
  • Hats Off has only two hats, one as a spreader of hate, the other as an exemplar of rudeness1
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • For Hats Off,  only those experts have credibility who say bad things about Islam! His Muslim bashing has become a jehadi-like frenzy!
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • A slap in the face of those who claim that aggression is a product of religions!
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Hats Off seems to have become the official denier of Allah on this site!
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Hats Off says, "the issue is whether if apostasy and blasphemy are crimes AT ALL. they are NOT. they are laudable acts. they are ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Arshad Alam needs to worry at this time about the impending Hindu Rashtra in India rather than what happened in 1947. Pakistanis do find themselves ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Ur essay throws some hopes on Pakistani establishment, which at the least is a houseful of chicanery; indulge on doublespeak in the hope of ...
    ( By Zafir Alam )
  • Apostasy /abandoning Islam is a severe crime and punishable with death. When Umar was on the seat of Khalifa II one of his Governor ...
    ( By dr.A.Anburaj )
  • this is not for mr. t.o shanavascan we quote other authors who entirely disagree with these "khandaani" experts?
    ( By hats off! )
  • dear mr. arshad alam, the issue is NOT whether asia bibi was WRONGLY or RIGHTLY accused of blasphemy. that is immaterial. she has EVERY ...
    ( By hats off! )
  • get back to where you belong.
    ( By hats off! )
  • please do not write op-eds if allah knows best.write something with which you do not need to do "plausible deniability".for god's sake do not ...
    ( By hats off! )
  • Human aberrations like the ones Hats Off describes are present galore in several other religions but Islam seems to be the sole target of ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • The position that Islam takes is:(2:256) Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes ...
    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
  • مسلمان ہجرت کے لئے مجبور نہیں عبدالمعید ازہری ہجرت اسلامی تاریخ کا ایک اہم اور ایسا ناگزیر پہلو ہے جو اسلامی ریاست کی بنیاد کا سبب بنا۔ ہجرت کا مطلب ...
    ( By Abdul Moeed Azhari )
  • ہم کسی کو مجبور نہیں کرتے کہ وہ میلاد النبیﷺ کو مانیں یا اسکا انعقاد کریں۔ یہ تو اپنی اپنی قسمت ہے۔ لیکن اگر ...
    ( By Syed Soharwardy )
  • Why Indian Muslims do not need to follow Extremists’ Call for Hijrat The Misconstrued Concept of Hijrat and the Position of Indian Ulema Both these articles in NAI referred ...
    ( By Rashid Samnakay )
  • The following is not for Mr. Hats Off. History of Muslim-Jewish relationship negate anti-semantism is of Earopean origin:Muslims and Jews lived together helping each other ...
    ( By T.O. Shanavas )
  • The Saudi hate towards Eid Milad un Nabi ﷺ is the root cause of extremism & intolerance among some Muslims. Those Muslims who celebrate ...
    ( By Syed Soharwardy )