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Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal
The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
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This Islamic website offers facts about Islam and Muslims, Islam way and Islamic ideology. Online Islam - Latest Islamic World News, Articles on Radical Islamism & Jihad and Islam, Terrorism and Jihad
     
Islam and Sectarianism
07 Feb 2009, NewAgeIslam.Com
The “Hidden Imam” of the Shiites – myth or reality?

The Myth of the Shi‘i Mahdi

 

By Abu Muhammad al-Afriqi

 

 

The 15th of Sha‘baan is a very significant date, both to the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah. The Shi‘ah, however, have their own reason for ascribing significance to this night. To them it is the night of the birth of their twelfth Imam, the Hidden Mahdi.

Who is this Mahdi whose return to this world is so eagerly awaited by the Shi‘ah, and belief in whose existence in occultation forms such a integral aspect of the Shi‘i psyche? Before an adequate answer to this question may be given, there is a need to understand certain aspects concerning the Shi‘i doctrine of Imamah.

 

Background

The cornerstone of the Shi‘i faith is the belief that the spiritual and temporal leadership of this Ummah after the demise of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam is vested in the Imam, who is appointed, like the Nabi sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam himself, by Allah, and who enjoys all the distinctions and privileges of the Nabi sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam.

However, they believe that Imamah, unlike Nubuwwah, can never come to an end. In this regard there is a well-known Shi‘i hadith which says that “the world cannot exist without an Imam”, and another which goes that “if the earth were to be without an Imam for a single day it would sink.”

Thus, when it came to pass that the first of those whom they regard as their Imams— Sayyiduna Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu— left this world, a problem arose. Some of those who regarded themselves as his followers claimed that he did not in fact die, but that he will return to establish justice. Others said that he was succeeded as Imam by his son Hasan, who was in turn succeeded by his brother Husayn.

When Husayn died there were some who claimed to follow their other brother Muhammad (known as Ibn al-Hanafiyyah) as their Imam. When he died his followers claimed that he was in reality alive, and that he will return in due time. Others amongst the Shi‘ah took Sayyiduna Husayn’s son, Ali, surnamed Zayn al-‘Abidin, as their Imam, and upon his death transferred their loyalties to his son, Muhammad al-Baqir.

When al-Baqir died there were once again elements from amongst the Shi‘ah who denied his death and claimed that he would return one day, while others took his son Ja‘far as-Sadiq as their Imam.

When he died there was mass confusion amongst the Shi‘ah: each of his sons Isma‘il, Abdullah, Muhammad, Zakariyya, Ishaq and Musa was claimed by various groups amongst the Shi‘ah to be their Imam. In addition to them there was a group who believed that Ja‘far did not really die, and that he would return one day.

More or less the same thing happened at the death of his son Musa. Some of the Shi‘ah denied his death, believing that he will return, and others decided to take as their new Imam one of his sons. Some of these chose his son Ahmad, while others chose his other son Ali ar-Rida.

After him they took as their Imam his son Muhammad al-Jawwad (or at-Taqi), and after him his son Ali al-Hadi (or an-Naqi). At the death of Ali al-Hadi they looked upon his son Hasan al-Askari as their new— and 11th— Imam.

 

The death of Hasan al-Askari

The above is a very brief synopsis of a tumultuous and confusing history— a history from which a dedicated researcher might extract some very revealing facts about the development of Shi‘ism.

However, that is not our concern at this moment. We have now arrived at the year 254 AH, the time when a major section of the Shi‘ah accepted as their Imam the 22-year old Hasan, son of Ali al-Hadi, and 10th lineal descendant of Sayyiduna Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah radiyallahu ‘anhuma. Six years later, in 260 AH, Hasan al-Askari, at the very young age of 28, is lying on his deathbed, but unlike any of his forefathers he leaves no offspring, no one to whom the Shi‘ah might appropriate as their new Imam.

The Shi‘ah who had been regarding Hasan al-Askari as their Imam were thrown into mass disarray. Does this mean the end of the Imamah? The end of the Imamah would mean the end of Shi‘ism. Were they prepared for that?

The confusion that reigned amongst the Shi‘ah after the death of Hasan al-Askari is reflected by the Shi‘i writer Hasan ibn Musa an-Nawbakhti, who counts the emergence of altogether 14 sects amongst the followers of Hasan al-Askari, each one with a different view on the future of the Imamah and the identity of the next Imam. It must be noted that an-Nawbakhti was alive at the time all of this was taking place. Another Shi‘i writer, Sa‘d ibn Abdullah al-Qummi, who also lived during the same time, counts 15 sects, and a century later the historian al-Mas‘udi enumerates altogether 20 separate sects.

 

Trends

There were four major trends amongst these various sects:

(1) There were those who accepted the death of Hasan al-Askari as a fact, and accepted also the fact that he left no offspring. To them Imamah had thus come to an end, just like Nubuwwah came to an end with the death of Rasulullah r . However, there were some amongst them who kept hoping for the advent of a new Imam.

(2) The second trend was one to which the student of the history of “succession to the Imamah” would be much more used to. This was the tendency to deny the death of Hasan al-Askari, and to claim that he would return in the future to establish justice upon earth. We have seen this tendency emerge amongst the Shi‘ah at more than one critical juncture in the history of the Imamah of the Shi‘ah; it is therefore only logical to expect it to resurface at a moment as critical as the death of Hasan al-Askari.

(3) The third trend was to extend the chain of Imamah to Hasan’s brother Ja‘far.

(4) The fourth trend was the claim that Hasan al-Askari did in fact have a son. It is the fourth trend which ultimately became the view of the dominant group in Shi‘ism.

 

The missing son

This trend was spearheaded by persons who had set themselves up as the representatives of the Imam, and who were in control of a network covering various parts of the Islamic empire— a network for the purpose of collecting money in the name of the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt.

All followers of the Imams were obliged to pay one fifth of their income to the representatives of the Imams. (This is a practice which continues up to today.) At the head of this network was a man called Uthman ibn Sa‘id al-‘Amri. His manner of resolving the predicament was unique: Hasan al-Askari was dead, he admitted, but he was not childless. He had a 4-year old son, Muhammad, with whom no one but he— Uthman ibn Sa‘id— could have contact. And from that point onwards he would act as the representative (wakeel) of the Hidden Imam and collect money in his name.

To the fact that Hasan al-Askari’s own family were completely ignorant of the existence of any child of his, and that his estate had been divided between his brother Ja‘far and his mother, Uthman ibn Sa‘id and his ilk responded by denouncing Ja‘far as al-Kadhdhab (the Liar).

In due time a fantastic story was brought into circulation about the union between Hasan al-Askari and a Roman slave-girl, who is variously named as Narjis, Sawsan or Mulaykah. She is mentioned as having been the daughter of Yusha‘ (Joshua), the Roman emperor, who is a direct descendant of the apostle Simon Peter. But history shows that there never was a Roman emperor of that name. The Roman emperor of the time was Basil I, and neither he nor any other emperor is known to have descended from Peter. The story goes on to tell of her capture by the Muslim army, how she eventually came to be sold to Hasan al-Askari, and of her supernatural pregnancy and the secret birth of the son of whom no one— aside from Uthman ibn Sa‘id and his clique— knew anything. Everything about the child is enveloped in a thick and impenetrable cloud of mystery.

 

 The four representatives

Uthman ibn Sa‘id remained the “representative of the Hidden Imam” for a number of years. In all that time he was the only link the Shi‘ah had with their Imam. During that time he supplied the Shi‘i community with tawqi‘at, or written communications, which he claimed was written to them by the Hidden Imam. Many of these communications, which are stilpreserved in books like at-Tusi’s Kitab al-Ghaybah, had to do with denouncing other claimants to the position of representatives, who had come to realise exactly how lucrative a position Uthman ibn Sa‘id had created for himself. The Shi‘i literature dealing with Uthman ibn Sa‘id’s tenure as representative is replete with references to money collected from the Shi‘i public.

When Uthman ibn Sa‘id died, his son Abu Ja‘far Muhammad produced a written communication from the Hidden Imam in which he himself is appointed the second representative, a position which he held for about 50 years. He too, like his father, had to deal with several rival claimants to his position, but the tawqi‘at which he regularly produced to denounce them and reinforce his own position ensured the removal of such obstacles and the continuation of support from a credulous Shi‘i public.

He was followed in this position by Abul Qasim ibn Rawh an-Nawbakhti, a scion of the powerful and influential Nawbakhti family of Baghdad. Before succeeding Muhammad ibn Uthman, Abul Qasim an-Nawbakhti was his chief aide in the collection of the one-fifth taxes from the Shi‘ah. Like his two predecessors, he too had to deal with rival claimants, one of whom, Muhammad ibn Ali ash-Shalmaghani used to be an accomplice of his. He is reported in Abu Ja‘far at-Tusi’s book Kitab al-Ghaybah as having stated: “We knew exactly what we were into with Abul Qasim ibn Rawh. We used to fight like dogs over this matter (of being representative).”

When Abul Qasim an-Nawbakhti died in 326 AH he bequethed the position of representative to Abul Hasan as-Samarri. Where the first three representatives were shrewd manipulators, Abul Hasan as-Samarri proved to be a more conscientous person. During his three years as representative there was a sudden drop in tawqi‘at. Upon his deathbed he was asked who his successor would be, and answered that Allah would Himself fulfil the matter. Could this perhaps be seen as a refusal on his part to perpetuate a hoax that has gone on for too long? He also produced a tawqi‘ in which the Imam declares that from that day till the day of his reappearance he will never again be seen, and that anyone who claims to see him in that time is a liar.

Thus, after more or less 70 years, the last “door of contact” with the Hidden Imam closed. The Shi‘ah term this period, in which there was contact with their Hidden Imam through his representatives-cum-tax-collectors, the Lesser Occultation (al-Ghaybah as-Sughra), and the period from the death of the last representative onwards the Greater Occultation (al-Ghaybah al-Kubar). The Greater Occultation has already continued for over a thousand years.

 

 Activities of the representatives

When one reads the classical literature of the Shi‘ah in which the activities of the four representatives are outlined, one is struck by the constantly recurring theme of money. They are almost always mentioned in connection with receiving and collecting “the Imam’s money” his loyal Shi‘i followers. There is a shocking lack of any activities of an academic or spiritual nature. Not a single one of the four is credited with having compiled any book, despite the fact that they were in exclusive communion with the last of the Imams, the sole repository of the legacy of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam.

When we look at the major sources upon which the Shi‘i faith is based, we find that most of them were written after the onset of the Greater Occultation. Those works, like al-Kafi, which was written during the latter decades of the Lesser Occultation, contain scarcely a reference to any of the four representatives as narrators from the Hidden Imam. Instead it is filled with thousands of reports which go back, via other channels, to the fifth and the sixth Imams. That is indeed strange, considering the fact that a man like Uthman ibn Sa‘id al-‘Amri is claimed to have been closely associated with the 10th, the 11th as well as the hidden 12th Imam, and also the fact that his son remained the Shi‘i community’s solitary link to that Imam for half a century. Would it not have been better and more authoritative for an author like al-Kulayni to report the hadith of his Imams from the Hidden Imam via his representatives who lived in Baghdad at the same time as he rather than to trace it all back to the fifth and sixth Imams through a myriad of doubtful channels?

But of course, he could not have done that, because the activities of those representatives did not have as much to do with authentically preserving the legacy of the Ahl al-Bayt as with the collection of wealth in their names.

In light of the fact that the Shi‘ah explain the necessity of Imamah in terms of the need for an infallible guide who serves as the repository of the legacy of Ahl al-Bayt, it appears extremely incongruous that this particular guide has left no sort of legacy of his own whereby the legacy of the Ahl al-Bayt can be known. Despite the fact that an infallible guide supposedly exists, it is upon fallible persons such as Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub al-Kulayni that the Shi‘ah must depend for that legacy.

The only bit of information that has come down to us regarding the Hidden Imam’s authentication of the hadith legacy of the Shi‘ah is what is recorded by Aqa Muhammad Baqir Khwansari in his book Rawdat al-Jannat. He writes that al-Kulayni’s book was presented to the Hidden Imam who looked at it and declared, “Hadha Kaafin li-Shi‘atina” (This is enough for our Shi‘ah). This is incidentally how the book received its name.

A report such as this creates a huge problem. It appears to be a ratification of the contents of the book al-Kafi by the infallible Imam. Yet, 9 centuries later the Shi‘i muhaddith, Mulla Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, would declare in his commentary on al-Kafi, named Mir’at al-‘Uqul, that 9,485 out of the 16,121 narrations in al-Kafi are unreliable. What did Majlisi know that the infallible Imam was so unaware of that he would authenticate a book, 60% of whose contents would later be discovered to be unreliable?

 

 Evaluation

The Iraqi Shi‘i scholar, Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr, finds proof for the existence of the Hidden Mahdi in what he calls “the experience of a community”. The existence of the Hidden Imam, he postulates, was experienced by the Shi‘i community as a whole in the written communications that the representatives used supplied them with.

The crux of this argument lies in the fact that an individual experience might be doubted, but never that of experience of an entire community. However, the glaring flaw in this line of reasoning is that it very conveniently overlooks the part of the representatives as the individual go-betweens.

The community never had the privilege of seeing or meeting the person they believed to be the author of the tawqi‘at. Their experience was limited to receiving what the representatives produced. Even the argument of a consistent handwriting in all the various tawqi‘at is at best melancholy. There is no way one can get away from the fact that the existence of the Hidden Imam rests upon nothing other than acceptance of the words of the representatives.

The activities of those representatives furthermore go a long way to show that they were much, much more inspired by the desire to possess than by pious sentiments of any kind.

So when the Shi‘ah commemorate the birth of their twelfth Imam on the 15th night of Sha‘ban, or when they seek to apply ahadith in Sunni sources which speak of twelve khalifas to their twelve Imams, then let us ask them on what basis do they accept the existence of the twelfth one?

History bears witness to the existence of eleven persons in that specific line of descent, but when we come to the twelfth one, all we have is claims made by persons whose activities in the name of their Hidden Imam give us all the reason in the world to suspect their honesty and integrity.

In Islam, issues of faith can never be based upon evidence of this kind.

---

Editor’s note: The article by A.M. Jamsheed Basha first published in this space was found by an alert reader Mr. HASAN IQBAL to be based largely on the above article by Mr. Abu Muhammad al-Afriqi without proper attribution to the original author. Mr. Basha was given an opportunity to rework his article and give proper quotes and credit to the original author. He has not done so until now even though nearly 24hrs have passed since the request was first made to him. Since taking off the article from the site would also mean losing valuable comments made by a large number of readers, it is being replaced by the original article on which it was based. My apologies to readers of NewAgeIslam.com, Mr. Abu Muhammad al-Afriqi and ansar.org.

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/NewAgeIslamArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=1178

 ------------------

CRITIQUE OF THE TWELVER- IMAM SHIITES’ MAHDISM THEORY

Chapter 1:

IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN HASSAN ASKARI:

 A HISTORICAL REALITY OR A PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTION?

http://ansar.org/english/mahditheory5.htm

             The Twelver-Imam Mahdism theory was a complicated theory comprising of belief in the existence of the twelfth Imam: ‘Muhammad bin Hassan Askari’ and in his being the Awaited Mahdi. It admits that Imam Hassan Askari did not openly declare that he has a son. The theory rather, claims that, he hid him in secret due to the fear of Abbasid authorities, that he would overthrow their thrones, and due to that, they were searching for him to kill him, while still in the cradle.

            Serious academic research on the inception of this theory however, reveals the existence of a long time interval between the two parts of the theory. As it was in the beginning, centered around the existence of a son for Imam Askari, who inherits the Imamate from him. But it later turned out to be belief in his being the Awaited and occult Mahdi. The theory found in the ‘Occultation of the Mahdi’, an interpretation of the non-declaration of his birth by his father, and his non-appearance after that.

            In order to confirm the truth of this theory that plays a very great role in the history of Islam, and in shaping of the Twelver-Imam Shiite political thought, it is necessary to dissect the different components of this theory, and study each in depth and objectively. We would have firstly to find out: Was the Shiite Mahdism theory before the middle of the third (3rd) century of Hijrah, clearly known and restricted to the person of the twelfth Imam- Muhammad bin Hassan Askari, or it was ambiguous and a general abstract idea.

A-   THE AMBIGUITY SURROUNDING THE IDENTITY OF THE MAHDI FROM AHL AL-BAYT

The history of the Imams from the household of the Prophet (Ahl al-Bayt) (peace be upon them), and their traditions being preserved by Imamate Shiite heritage, confirm the ambiguity surrounding the identity of Imam Mahdi and the non-declaration of his name or the time of his appearance. This was not due to the fear of the then authorities, but due to its not being specified beforehand. This was because Mahdism was initially mere idea and hope, hovering over the head of any one of them. This hope came to the fore when Imam Ali became the Caliph, and it became more intense after the murder of Imam Hussain bin Ali in Karbala. That was the time when many Shiites started preparing for revenge, and the overthrow of the Umayyad regime through armed revolt. The people were gathering around this or other Imam of the Ahl al-Bayt, with Mahdism being attributed to him. He will proclaim that and succeed, or die due to his proclamation and appearance. Some will then say, he has gone into hiding and occultation, and he will reappear in future.

            If the identity of the Mahdi has been outlined previously, since the time of Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and the Shiites have reached consensus regarding it, they would not have gone to the left and to the right, and they would not have been perplexed, asking the Imams on the identity of the Mahdi.

            Imam Muhammad bin Ali Baqir while addressing the Shiites said: “ You never cease looking towards one of us, saying: “ He is the one!” then he returns to his Lord, till the time when Allah will raise for this affair, one about whom you do not know whether he has been born or not, whether he has been created or not!” (1)

            Kulayni says: Hakam bin Abi Na’im once came to Imam Baqir in Madinah and said to him: “ I have taken an oath between Rukn and Maqam (two holiest parts of the Ka’bah in Makkah) that if I meet you, I will not leave Madinah until I know whether you are the Qa’im of the family of the Prophet or not. “

      Imam Baqir said to him: “ O Hakam, all of us stand by the commands of Allah”

      Hakam however, was not satisfied with this general response, so he asked him specifically:

“Are you the Mahdi?” Baqir replied again in a general sense:“All of us guide to Allah” So Hakam asked more specifically and clearly:

“ Are you the owner of the sword and the one who inherited it?” For the third time the Imam responded vaguely:

“ All of us are owners of the swords, who inherited them.”

      Hakam then asked (demanding) more clarity: “ Are you the one to kill to enemies of Allah?” Imam Baqir replied:

“O Hakam! How can I be the one, when I am 45 years of age? While the owner of this affair is closer to the time of breast-feeding than me, and lighter when he rides on the back of an animal.” (2)]

      Kulayni and Nu’mani both say: “That Imam Sadiq did not like identifying the person of the Mahdi. Abu Hamzah one of his companions once asked him:

“ Are you the owner of this affair?” He replied: “ No.” He then said: “What about your son? “He said: “No.” He also said: “Is your grandchild the one?” He replied, “No.” Then he said: “Is he your great grandchild?” He replied!”No”. He (hakam) said at last “Then who is he?” He replied: “The one who will fill the world with justice as it was filled with injustice and tyranny, after the interval of Imams, as the Messenger of Allah was raised after the interval of Messengers (peace be upon them).” (3)

      Supporting this is the fact that when Imam Sadiq convinced the poet Sayyid al-Himyari, who believed in Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah being the Mahdi, when he convinced him of his death, he did not specify for him who is the Mahdi. Al-Himyari said some poetic verses recording his transformation from the belief in the Mahdism of Ibn Hanafiyyah. But he did not mention the identity of the Mahdi: The meaning of the poetry is as follows:

“ My prolonged statements on the son of Khaulah was not in opposition, from my side, to the pure lineage. But what was reported from the inheritor of Muhammad (peace be upon him), and what he said cannot be falsified. That the owner of the affair will be lost, not being seen and concealed, like the fearful one, watching (people’s movements). The wealth of the lost will be distributed, as if his loss was in the grave. When it was reported that the son of Khaulah was lost (in occultation), we accepted it and went on speaking on it. We said he is the Mahdi and the Qa’im, in whose justice all will live. If you say no, your statement is the truth, and what I have been instructed is inevitable, without any prejudice. I testify to my Lord, that your statement is the evidence on all the people, the obedient and the disobedient. The owner of the affair and the Qa’im, whom I longed for delightfully, will go into occultation inevitably, may Allah bless him while in occultation. He remains (in it) for some time and then appear at other times and he will rule over the East and the West. This is my religions belief in secret and in the open, I will not mind even if I am blamed on it.”

      Although Imam Sadiq, in an earlier report did not deny the possibility of his being the Qa’im as he did not emphasize it, Saduq reports from Ibn Abi Ja’far that he heard Sadiq saying: “ Woe onto the tyrants of the Arabs of a matter that has drawn closer.” He also reports from Sadir, and he from Abu Abdullah that he said: “ O Sadir, stay at your home, not leaving it and stay for days and nights. When it reaches you that Sufyan has appeared, come to us, even if on your feet.” (4) This reveals that Imam Sadiq was telling his companions of the imminence of his appearance. Muhammad bin Hassan Saffar however, reports in ‘Basair al-Darajat’ from Abu Basir that he one day came to Abu Abdullah and said to him:

-         “May I be your ransom, I would like to touch your chest.” (Abu Basir was a blind man). He replied him:

-         “ Do it”. He said: I torched his chest and his shoulders. He said, “Why this, O father of Muhammad?” Abu Basir said: “ May I be your ransom…I heard your father saying that the shoulders of the Qa’im are a bit down, spacious and broad between them.” Imam Sadiq then said:“O father of Muhammad, My father wore the shield of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and it did not fit him…. I also wore it and it was this and that…. It will be worn by the Qa'im, and it would be as it was with the Messenger of Allah tight and fit, as if he raised its two sides by two rings. The owner of this affair will not be one, over forty (40) years of age. (5)

Tusi reports in ‘Al-Ghaybah’ a dialogue conducted between Imam Sadiq and Abu Basir, who asked him “Has this affair a long period (before being accomplished) so we relax ourselves till it comes?” The Imam said to him: “ Yes, but you revealed the secret and spread it, so Allah increased (the period).” He reports another tradition, with more direct bearing and clarity, where the Imam Sadiq said: “This affair was in me, but Allah delayed it, and He will do what He wishes in my progeny after that.” (6) This shows that the hope of Mahdism was on Imam Sadiq during his time. Due to this, when he died and the circumstances were not ripe for him to achieve his desired hope (ambition) the one inherent in the hearts of the Shiites, some of his followers, some of those very close to him, denied and rejected the news of his death, insisting that he went into occultation, and that he will appear very soon. They said: He was the Awaited Mahdi. The leader of such people was the leader of Shiites in Basrah: Abdullah bin Nawus.

 

THE HOPE OF KADHIM BEING THE MAHDI

With the intensity of the Abbasid political pressure on Imam Musa bin Ja’far Kadhim, the hope of Shiites who believed in his Imamate, increased as to his declaration and revolt leading to a rebellion against the Abbasid rule. Most of the Shiites believed seriously that Musa was the Qa’im and the Mahdi. They reported many traditions from Baqir and Sadiq in identifying his person. They might have added to it many things from their sides, based on their eagerness, love and suffering.

When Imam Kadhim died after thirty-five years of waiting and hope, the general Musawite Shiite populace did not believe the story of his death. They insisted on believing in his occultation, and his being alive and confirming that he was the Awaited Mahdi, who will appear and fill the earth with justice and fairness as it has been filled with injustice and tyranny

RIDA DENIES THE LIKELIHOOD OF HIS BEING THE MAHDI

That hope of (the Mahdi) returned to the Shiites after about twenty (20) years. That was when the Abbasid caliph Ma’mun called on Imam Ali bin Musa Rida, in the year 200 A.H. to Khurasan, and he appointed his as the Crown Prince in the year 201 A. H. This revived the hope in the minds of the Shiites and led them to the belief in the possibility of Rida becoming the Awaited Mahdi.

Kulayni reports in ‘Al-Kafi’ that Ayub bin Nuh went to Imam Rida and said to him. “ I hope that you will be the owner of this affair, and that Allah may bring it to you without the use of sword. You have already received oath of allegiance, and money have been minted with your name (on it).” Imam Rida however shattered his expectations and rejected being the Mahdi. (7)

When the poet Da’bal al-Khuza’i came to Imam Rida and recited a well-known poem: “ Schools of verses not being recited, and the house of revelation without premises”, he pointed to the Mahdi in an ambiguous manner. He said: “ The Imam has emerged. It was necessary for him to emerge, based on the name of Allah and His blessings. He distinguishes for us between the truth and falsehood. He rewarded for favours and calamities.” He did not mention him by name.

The identification of Imam Mahdi with the twelfth Imam of the Ahl al-Bayt, as it is known by the Twelver-Imam Shiites today, took place in a later date long after the death of Imam Hassan Askari, and the claim of his having a son in secret, in the beginning of the fourth century of Hijrah approximately. This happened after the development of the theory of ‘divine’ Imamate and its transformation from infinite number to limiting them to only twelve (12), so that the sect will be a Twelver-Imam (sect).

Sheikh Saduq has mentioned in ‘Ikmal al-Din’, which he wrote in the middle of the fourth century of Hijrah, a big number of traditions from the Noble Prophet (peace be upon him), and from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them). Some of them point to the Qa’im or the Mahdi without specifying his name and the name of his father. Some of them emphasized and specified his position, as the twelfth (Imam), and that he is the son of Hassan Askari. As it came in another report that says that: Imam Rida asked the poet ‘Da’bal Al-Khuza’i’, after he has recited his poem in which he pointed to the Mahdi in an ambiguous manner. He said to him: “Do you know who will be that Imam? And when will he appear?” He replied: “ No, my master, except that I heard of the emergence of an Imam from among you (Ahl al- Bayt) who will purify the world of mischief and corruption, and fill it with justice as it was filled with injustice.” He said to him: “ O Da’bal, the Imam after me will be Muhammad, after Muhammad his son Ali, after Ali his son Hassan, and after Hassan his son, the Evidence, the Awaited Qa’im” in his Occultation whose obedience is mandatory at the time of his appearance.” (8)

These reports are weak traditions both in their chains of transmission and in their contents, for they cannot withstand academic investigation. We will discuss them in the chapter on the critique of the traditional (special) evidence, and its unsoundness will be established subsequently.

B – THE MAHDISM PHENOMENON IN ISLAMIC HISTORY

The several and frequent claims of being the Mahdi, extending to   tens of such claims here and there, are what further confirm the ambiguity associated with the identity of the Mahdi among the members of the Prophet’s household. This even led to each sect or group to have more than one Mahdi. This phenomenon shows that the term ‘Mahdi’ because synonymous with revolt, freedom and justice and its re-emergence again in corrupt circumstances shows that the Muslim world is degenerating, day in day out.

Most of the stories of Mahdism in the early Islamic generations were connected to revolutionary political movements that confront injustice and persecution and gathered around one of the leaders, mostly being one of the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them). When such movements fail and the Imam dies before he emerges (as a political leader), or is killed in the confrontation, or hides in obscure circumstances, his followers used to differ. Among them will be those who will submit to and accept the reality, and start searching for another new Imam and a new occasion for revolt. Some of them will not submit to the reality and will not accept defeat, and will be quick at believing in hearsays, which have it that, the revolting Imam has fled and has hidden himself and has gone into occultation. It is usually the simple-minded people who fixed their hopes on a person, exaggerating his attributes. So it becomes very difficult for them to change their minds, for that will mean a failure and total breakdown.

THE MAHDISM OF IMAM ALI

The supporters of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) who revolted against the Umayyad rule, and fought in the Battle of the Camel and fought Muawiyah in the Battle of Siffin, who also confronted the Kharijites in Nahrawan, were pinning their hopes in the rule of the Imam, during which they will enjoy justice and equity. Their hope in the Imam was very high. That was why some of them were shocked by the news of his assassination. They could not believe the news of his (untimely) death.

Shiite historians like Nubakhti, Ash’ari al-Qummi, Al-Kashi were saying that: ‘A group of Shiites did not accept the death of the Imam and they claimed that: ‘Ali was not killed nor did he die, and that he will never be killed, nor will be die, till he chases the Arabs with his stick and fill the earth with justice and equity, as it has been filled with injustice and tyranny.’ (9)

We can interpret this statement of the Mahdism of Imam Ali and his Occultation, as due to shock of the death, its sudden nature, as well as very high hope…This was because those people, were living very far away from Kufah could not bear the news of the Martyrdom of the Imam, after their hope in him, to establish universal justice on earth. This led to the acceptance of ideas contrary to the reality.

            THE MAHDISM OF IBN HANAFIYYAH

            After the massacre of Karbala Shiite fury gathered around the leadership of Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah, the brother of Imam Hussain for the purpose of revenge and retaliation for the martyrs of Karbala… When Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah died in obscure circumstances in the year 81 A.H, a group of his supporters –Kissanites-said that: ‘He did not die and that he was staying in the Ridwi mountains between Makkah and Madinah. They believed that he was the Imam, the Awaited Mahdi who was predicted by the Prophet (peace be upon him), who will fill the earth with justice and equity. (10).

            Sayyid Murtada Alam al-Huda interpreted the claims of the Kissanites on the Mahdism of Ibn Hanafiyyah as perplexity, which made them resort to it. (11)

            Perhaps perplexity and confusion was their lot, because they have pinned their hopes on Ibn Hanafiyyah to wrestle power from the Umayyads’ hands. They were disappointed when the desired goal was not achieved. His followers from among the Kissanite Shiites were forced to invent a doctrine on his Mahdism, and the perpetuation of his life and his occultation in their attempt to preserve the hope ignited in their hearts. Moreso that the Shiites in those days were aware of any predetermined particular personality as the ‘Awaited Mahdi’.

     THE MAHDISM OF ABU HASHIM

            Support for the belief in the Mahdism of Ibn Hanafiyyah declined with the emergence of Abu Hashim Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Hannafiyyah, as a new leader for the Shiites towards the close of the first century of Hijrah. Great hopes were pinned on him for attaining what his father was unable to attain… The crisis was repeated when Abu Hashim died without appearing (as the Mahdi)… This led to the belief of some Shiites in his hiding and occultation and saying that he was the Awaited Mahdi, and that he is alive and has not died. (12)

            As for those who admitted the death of Abu Hashim, they preserved their hopes in their hearts, by waiting for the emergence of one of the children of Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah in the future. They did not specify any particular person. (13)

THE MAHDISM OF AL-TAYYAR 

            The Shiites who formed the main opposition group to the Umayyad rule, immediately gathered around a new leader from the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. Abdullah bin Mu’awiyah bin Abdullah bin Jafar Al-Tayyar, who succeeded in establishing a Shiite state in Isfahan at the end of the Umayyad rule. He was, however defeated later, and was killed in obscure circumstances. Some of the Shiites could not bear the news of the collapse of the Shiite state. They claimed that Al-Tayyar was alive and has not died, and that he was staying in the Mountains of Isfahan, that he wouldl never die till he  hands over the reins of affairs to a man from Banu Hashim, of the children of Ali and Fatimahh. (14)

CONFINING MAHDISM TO THE FATIMIDE FAMILY

            The Shiite theory of Mahdism was not confined to the Fatimide family in the beginning, as the Kissanites-representing a stage in the development of Shiism-limited it to the household of Ali (Alawites), seeing possible in Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah and his children: or they limited it to them, but it extended to others outside their fold, like Abdullah bin Mu’awiyah bin Abdullah bin Ja’far al-Tayyar. It later developed and became confined only to the Fatimide family, in the children of Hassan and Hussain. At that time it was not confined to anyone of the two households. Due to this a group of Shiites believed in the Mahdism of Zayd bin Ali. And another group believed in the Mahdism of Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Hassan bin Hassan (Dhu al-Nafs al-Zakiyyah).

            As Zayd was killed after little while, his followers went to Dhu al-Nafs al-Zakiyyah, Abdullah bin Hassan, his father has named him Muhammad and predicted at the time of his birth that he will be the promised Mahdi, who was foretold by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and has said on himregarding him, “His name is like my name, and the name of his father is like the name of my father”, as was popularly known in that period.

THE MAHDISM OF DHU AL-NAFS AL-ZAKIYYAH

            Dhu al-Nafs Al-Zakiyyah hoped to rebel against the Umayyad rule, when the children of Hashim paid their allegiance to him at Abwa. Among them were, Ibrahim al-Imam, Saffah and Mansur. But it did not take long that the Abbasid rule was established, so those who paid allegiance to him deserted him, and another group of Shiites flocked around him. He left Madinah in the year 145 A.H and took over Makkah and Yemen, but he was killed after few months. Due to this a section of his followers were shocked and could not bear the news of the defeat, and did not believe the murder of the Mahdi, whose appearance they were waiting since very long time. They said that: ‘He was alive and did not die, nor was he killed, but was staying on the Mount of ‘Ilmiyyah’-between Makkah and Najd-till the time he will reappear. They held onto the Hadith of the prophet (peace be upon him), which says: “The Qa’im (Mahdi’s) name is like my name and his father’s name is like my father’s.” (15) 

            As there were no explicit, specific and well-known Hadiths, which explain the identity of the Mahdi, the followers of Dhu al-Nafs al-Zakiyyah have explained the Hadiths of Mahdism as referring to him, and have interpreted the Hadiths related to (the Mahdi) to also refer to him. They might have even fabricated some reports and attributed them to the Prophet (peace be upon him), in order to augment their theory and to support their Awaited Leader.

THE MAHDISM OF BAQIR

            Some reports state that: ‘A section of the Shiites believed in the Mahdism of Imam Muhammad bin Ali Baqir (peace be upon him) depending on a report which says that: ‘The prophet (peace be upon him) said to Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari: “ You will meet him, so say my ‘Salam’ to him.” (16)

Kulayni says in ‘Al-Kafi’: ‘Imam Baqir used to confine to his companions that the emergence (of the Mahdi) and his appearance were imminent, and he advised them to maintain it as a secret. Some of them abandon all they were doing waiting for the time of the blowing of (the siren)’. (17)

           THE MAHDISM OF SADIQ

            After the death of Imam Baqir and the defeat of Muhammad bin Abdullah Dhu al-Nafs al-Zakiyyah, and the triumph of the Abbasids, and the popularity of Imam Jafar bin Muhammad Sadiq (peace be upon him), reports became widespread on his Mahdism. (18)

            Nubakhti reports that: ‘Some Shiites have reported from Imam Sadiq that he said: “If you see my head rolling to you from the mountain, you should not believe that, for I am your ‘Sahib’ (Mahdi).” And he also said: “If anyone informs you that he nursed me, washed my body (after death) and shrouded me, do not believe him, I am your companion (Sahib) and the companion of the sword.” (19) Hence a section of the supporters of Imam Sadiq denied admitting that he died. They also said that: “He is the Awaited Mahdi and that he is alive and did not die.” This group was known as the ‘Tawussites –attributed to Ajlan bin Tawus. (20) Among these group was Aban bin Uthman Al-Ahmar considered by al-Kashi to be one of the menof consensus (Ijma’), i.e. one of the closest people to Imam Sadiq. (21)

        THE MAHDISM OF ISMA’IL

            From the above, it seams that the various Mahdism theories were born with time and in different circumstances. They were more of hopes than dependence on clear and sound Hadiths. The belief in the Occultation evolves when an Imam dies before his appearance (as the Mahdi). The Shiites have never ever agreed on the Mahdism of a particular Imam previously, and ithas been the same from the beginning. At the time when some of them believed in the Mahdism of Imam Sadiq, some of them were fixing their hopes on the Mahdism of his son Isma’il. When Isma’il died during the lifetime of his father Imam Sadiq, his supporters denied his death, and invented a doctrine in his Occultation. They interpreted his funeral and burial by Imam Sadiq openly, as a drama aimed at concealing the fact that Isma’il has fled and has hid himself, as a preparation for his reappearance in the future! (22)

            It is well known that the Shiites differed after the death of Imam Sadiq into six (6) different sects. The Isma’ilites believed in the life of Ismail, as well as his Imamate, Mahdism and occultation. Some of them after their despair in his Mahdism turned to accept the Mahdism of his son Muhammad. They then transferred Mahdism to the children of Isma’il till the appearance of the last of them, at the close of the third (3rd) century when he established the Fatimide rule in North Africa.

        THE MAHDISM OF DIBAJ

Muhammad bin Jafar Sadiq (Al-Dibaj) who appeared in Makkah in the year 200 A.H., claimed that he was the Awaited Mahdi. He declared himself as the Caliph of the Muslims and took oath of allegiance from them, and was called the Leader of the faithful. (23)

            Therefore, we can say that the theory of Mahdism meant, emergence, revolt,… and was never specific in a particular person.The theory of occultation used to evolve whenever any awaited Imam fails or dies without achieving his goals.  

THE MAHDISM OF MUHAMMAD BIN ABDULLAH AL-AFTAH

            The only exceptional case, which was contrary to the above- mentioned rule at that time, was the theory of the Mahdism of ‘Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Jafar Sadiq’. This person was not born at all and did not exist. Some of the Fathite Shiites invented a story of his existence in secret, after the death of his father Abdullah Aftah, who was believed by those Shiites to be the Imam after his father Sadiq. Those Shiites were shocked when Aftah died without an issue to succeed him in the Imamate. They believed in the necessity of the continuation of the Imamate in the children and the grand children (of the Imam), i.e. being inherited vertically. Due to this they could not shift to the belief in the Imamate of the brother of Abdullah, Musa bin Jafar. They therefore invented the idea of the existence of a son for him in secret: They said that: “His name corresponds to the famous Prophetic Hadith: His name is my name, the name of his father is the name of my father.” (24)

            It cannot be ruled out that some people of vested interest and hypocrites from among the companions of the Imams might have fabricated this illusory story of the myth of the awaited Mahdi-Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Sadiq, so as to benefit from that financially, and claim being his deputy and receive money on his behalf. The stories on the existence of that illusory Mahdi were widespread in Yemen. And that he will appear, and fill the earth with justice and equity after it has filled with injustice and tyranny.

THE MAHDISM OF KADHIM

            With the Abbasid revolution and its deviation from its goals of reform and the spread of corruption in their rule, it was only natural that their opponents gathered around any great personality from the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. Imam Musa bin Ja’far Kadhim (peace be upon him) who was a symbol of piety, knowledge and devotion. The hope of his emergence and appearance (as the Mahdi) grew. In this way there were a lot of reports on the Mahdism of Imam Kadhim, and the belief that he was the Qa’im from the family of Muhammad (peace be upon him). Some of the Shiites went on reporting some narrations from Sadiq that: “It was inevitable that my son is the Qa’im (Mahdi) of this Ummah, and the Owner of the sword”. And “Musa is the Qa’im, and this is inevitable from Allah”. “Even if his head will roll to you from the mountains you should not believe, for he is the Qa’im” “The name of the Qa’im is the iron (knife) of the barber.” “As if I am seeing the black banner with a green patch on it lowered over the head of this person sitting” and the rest of such reports that lack consensus!

            When Rashid arrested Imam Kadhim, many of the Shiites considered that as the first or minor Occultation. When he killed him and threw his pure body on the bridge in Baghdad, they refused accepting that or believing it, and they said, ‘It was an Abbasid drama’ and they said also that: ‘Imam Kadhim has gone into his second Occultation, and that he fled from the prison and he was alive and did not and will not die till he controls the East and the West of the world, and fill the whole of it with justice as it was filled with injustice, and that he was the Qa’im and the Mahdi.” (25)

            Most of the children of the Imam claimed the same thing, so also most of his close companions like Al-Mufaddal bin Umar, Dawud al-Ruqa, Daris al-Kinani, Abu Basir, A’yun bin Abdul Rahman bin A’yun, Hadid al-Sabati and Hassan bin Qiyyama al-Sirafi. Ali bin Abi Hamiza wrote a book on the occultation. Similarly Ali bin Umar al- A’raj wrote another book on that.

            Those Shiites were known as the Waqifites i.e. those who accepted the Imamate of Imam Kadhim, and refused faith in Ali bin Musa Rida.

            Dawud al-Ruqa hesitated in admitting the Imamate of Rida, based on those agreed reports, which limited Mahdism to Kadhim and say that: “The seventh of us, is our Qa’im.” Imam Rida said to him, “The hope of the rising (appearance) of Kadhim depends on the will of Allah and it was not inevitable.” (26)

            The Waqifites continued in their faith in the Mahdism and the occultation of Imam Kadhim for a long time. But they decreased in number with the passage of time, till the death of the theory and the extinction of those who believe in it, especially when Imam Rida confirmed the death of his father and said to them: “Allah’s evidence on His creation will be only through the Imam that is alive, and is well-known. Glory be to Allah. The Messenger of Allah died and Musa bin Ja’far did not die? Yes, by Allah he has died, and his wealth has been distributed and his slavegirls have been married.” He suspected those who claim that he did not die, of lying and said: “They are disbelievers in what Allah the Exalted has revealed on Muhammad (peace be upon him). If Allah exalted were to extend the lifespan of anyone due to the need of the creation to him, He would have extended the lifespan of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).” (27)

THE MAHDISM OF MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM

            In the beginning of the third (3rd) century of Hijrah, in the year 219 A.H and during the days of the Caliphate of Mu’tasim, an Alawite rebellion took place in ‘Taliqan’ under the leadership of Muhammad bin Qasim. Mu’tasim however defeated and arrested him and carried him to Baghdad, detaining him in his place. He was able to run away and fled. The people differed on his affairs. Some of them said that: ‘He has died or fled’. Some of the Shiites said that: ‘He is alive and he will reappear and he is the Mahdi of this Ummah’. (28)

THE MAHDISM OF YAHYA BIN UMAR

            Another Alawite Imam, namely, Yahya bin Umar marched out from Kufah in the days of Musta’in. He directed Hussain bin Isma’il to him, and he killed him. But some of his companions did not accept the news that he was defeated, and said that: ‘He was not killed, he only hid himself, and went into occultation, and that he was the Mahdi and the Qa’im, who will reappear another time’. (29)

THE MAHDISM OF MUHAMMAD BIN ALI HADI AND ASKARI

            The Imamate Shiites differed among themselves in the middle of the third century of Hijrah on the identity of the Awaited Imam Mahdi. A section of them said that: He is Muhammad bin Ali Hadi, who died suddenly in Dajil. They believed in his occultation, like that of Isma’il bin Ja’far. They did not believe his death. Another section of them claimed that Imam Hassan Askari was the Mahdi. A third section of them believed in the existence and the Mahdism of a son for him (Askari) in secret, namely, Imam Muhammad bin Hassan Askari. Yet others said that: ‘He (the Mahdi) is not specified, and that he will be one of the members of the Ahl al- Bayt, not by appointment, and that he will be born and will appear in future.” (30)

THE MAHDISM OF AN UNKNOWN QA’IM

            At last, two Shiite historians contemporaneous to the death of Imam Askari mentioned that: ‘A sect from the followers of the Imam said: “Hassan bin Ali has died, a confirmed death, and the Imamate has ceased till the time when Allah will raise a Qa’im from the family of Muhammad (peace be upon him) that have passed away. If He wills, He raises another person other than him, but from his forefathers. That is because the raising of the Qa’im and the appearance of the Mahdi is inevitable. The appearance of the Mahdi is on Allah. The reports came on the basis of that, so also sound narrations and a consensus of the Ummah. It is not possible to invalidate that. This is due to the fact that, the death of Hassan bin Ali has been confirmed, as his not leaving an issue has also been confirmed. So the Imamate has ceased, as he has no issue. Since it is not possible except in the children  (of the Imam). It cannot go to the uncle or cousin or brother after Hassan and Hussain. The Imamate has thus ceased till the raising of the Qa’im from among them. If he appears and emerges (as the Mahdi) (his affairs) will continue till the Hour of judgment. (31)

            All these several and conflicting claims of Mahdism movements express and show the ambiguity and vagueness of the concept of Imam Mahdi, and the likelihood of his being any of the Imams from the Ahl al-Bayt. That is the one who will appear with the sword, and establish the state and rule of truth. All the Shiite sects believed that he is from this Hashimite family, or that house of Alawites or Fatimide or Hassanite or Hussainite or Musawite house. And that he is this or that person. If the identity of the Mahdi has been determined before, , since the time of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) or the time of the previous eleven Imams, the Muslims would not have differed, nor would the Shiites, nor the Imamate Shiites, not the supporters of Imam Hassan Askari in determining the identity of the Mahdi. Some of them would not have believed ‘Imam Hassan Askari’ himself to be the Mahdi.

            We conclude from all these that: The identity of the Mahdi was vague and not specific or determined in the time of Ahl al-Bayt. That the belief of his being the son of Hassan Askari evolved after supposing his existence in secret, and in an attempt to explain his absence from sight, and the non announcement of his birth by his father, on the basis of considering occultation as (an essential) attribute of the Mahdi.

REFERENCES

  1. Saduq: Ikmal al-Din, p. 183
  2. Kulayni: Al-Kafi, vol. 1 p. 536
  3. ibid. Vol. 1 p. 341, Numani: Al-Ghaybah p. 187
  4. Saduq: Ikamal al-Din, p. 35
  5. ibid. p. 189
  6. ibid. p. 263
  7. Al-Kafi. Vol. 1 p. 341, Saduq: Ikmal al-Din, p. 370
  8. Saduq: Ikmal al-Din, p. 373
  9. Nubakhti: Firaq al-Shi’ah,p. 22, Saad bin Abdullah al-Ashari al-Qummi: Al-Maqalat was al-Firaq . p. 20 Al-Kashi: Marifah al-Naqilin an al-A’imah al-Sadiqin. P. 101
  10. Nubakhti: Firaq al- Shiah p. 34 al-Ashari: Al-Maqalat. P. 27
  11. Al- Shafi, p. 184
  12. Nubakhti: Firaq al-Shiah. P. 34, al- Ashari: Al-Maqalat
  13. as in 12
  14. Nubakhti: Firaq al-Shiah . p. 35, Al-Ashari: Al-Maqalat p. 35
  15. Nubakhti: Firaq al-Shiah. P. 62, Al-Ashari: Al-Maqalat. P. 76
  16. Al-Isfirayini: Al-Farq bain al-Firaq. P. 60
  17. Kulayni: Raudah Al-Kafi. P. 245
  18. Kulayni: Al-Kafi : Al-Raudah. P. 290
  19. Nubakhti: op. cit. p. 67
  20. ibid., Al-Ashari. P. 79
  21. Al-Kashi: Ikhtiyar Ma’rifah al-Rijal
  22. Nubakhti p. 68, Al-Ashari, p. 80
  23. As in 22
  24. Al-Ashari p. 88
  25. Nubakhti, p. 80, Al-Ashari, p. 89
  26. Al-Nuri al-Tabrisi Khatimah Mustadrak Wasait al-Shiah vol. 3 p. 595
  27. Al-Kashi: Ma’rifat al-Rijal. P. 379
  28. Al-Isfahani: Maqatil al-Talibiyyin p. 577 Al-Isfirayini: Al-Farq bayn al-Firaq p. 31
  29. Al-Kamil of Ibn Al-Athir, vol. 7,p. 43, Muruj al-Dhahab of Mas’udi, vol. 4, p. 147
  30. See Nubakhti: Firaq al-Shi’ah ,m p. 93,96,98 and 105, Al-Ashari al-Qummi: Al-Maqalat wa al-Firaq,p.101, 106, 107,108.
  31. Nubakhti: Firaq al-Shiah, p105, Al-Ashari: Al-Maqalat. P. 108

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URL: http://www.newageislam.com/NewAgeIslamIslamAndSectarianism_1.aspx?ArticleID=1178

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The Truth of Imam Mehdi

A Shia viewpoint:

The full text is available here:

http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/mahdi/imam_mahdi.pdf

 

Introduction

http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/mahdi/en/index.php


The doctrine of the Mahdi (Messiah) is not only shared by Muslims of all denominations, but is also held by non Muslims. All those with faith cling to the day when all of the harm, suffering that plague the earth will be removed and replaced by a pious man that shall implement justice across the globe, bring stability to the nations and peace and tranquillity to all men. 

If we look at the history of Islam from the death of the Prophet (s) till today we see all manner of charlatan have sought to mislead the masses by proclaiming themselves to be a Prophet or the Awaited Saviour Imam Mahdi (as). All Muslims are in agreement that the doctrine of Prophethood had come to an end with the death of Prophet Muhammad (s). Muslims whatever their Sect have never rejected the doctrine of Imam Mahdi (as), rather both agree in the correctness of this doctrine. Both are in agreement that this individual shall be responsible for spreading truth and justice upon the earth. Hadeeth literature also proves that one that denies the existence of the Imam (as) is a Kaafir. If a difference of opinion exists it is over the identity of Imam Mahdi (as). The majority Ahle Sunnah opinion believes that he (as) shall be born at a later date, and appears when Allah (swt) commands him to appear. The Shi’a believe that he was the last of the 12th Imams (as) and is in occultation, and shall appear when Allah (swt) wants him to appear. For us the need for of an Imam for all generations at all times is an absolute necessity. We believe that Allah (swt) would not leave the believers without an Imam (as) upon the earth, and we believe that the very lifespan of this earth is linked to his lifespan. When his lifespan expires, the earth will likewise come to an end. The earth depends on him (as) and when the veil of occultation is raised by Allah (swt) it will be through him that an earth destroyed by bloodshed and misery will be uprooted and restored to beauty and splendour, with the Kingdom of God on the earth. To this effect we have explicit authentic Shi’a traditions affirming what our Imam (as) shall attain when he reappears:

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hannan ibn Sadir from Ma‘ruf ibn Kharrabudh from abu Ja'far (a.s.) who has said the following. "We are only like the stars in the heavens. Whenever one star disappears (from sight) another one comes in view until you will point out with your fingers and make a gesture with your necks. Allah will cause your star to disappear from your sight. The descendants of ‘Abd al-Muttalib will all look similar as such that one would not know which is which. When your star will reappear then you must give thanks to Allah." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 895, Ch. 80, h 8
Allamah al-Majlesi said: 'Muwathak Hasan' [ Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p45] 

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from from his father from ibn abu "Umayr from abu Ayyub al-Khazzaz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following. "I heard abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) say, "The person in charge of this task (Leadership with Divine Authority) will disappear from public sight you must not reject it." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 897, Ch. 80, h 10
Allamah al-Majlesi said: 'Hasan' [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p46] 

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from abu Ayyub al-Khazzaz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following. "When you would hear about the disappearance of your companion (Leader with Divine Authority) from public sight do not reject it." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 902, Ch. 80, h 15
Allamah al-Majlesi said: 'Sahih' [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p50] 

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Ali ibn abu Hamza from abu Basir from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. "It is necessary for the person in charge of this task (Leadership with Divine Authority) to disappear from the public sight and in his disappearance form public sight he must remain away from public. How good is Tayba, the city of Madina, for dwelling and living with thirty people is not frightening isolation." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 903, Ch. 80, h 16
Allamah al-majlesi said: 'Muwathak' [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p50] 

Through the same chain of narrators it is narrated from al-Washsha’ from Ali ibn al-Hassan from Aban ibn Taghlib who has said the following. "How would it be with you when a lagre scale attack would take place between the two mosques. Thereafter, knowledge will become obscure as the snake goes in to its hiding place. The Shi‘a (Muslims) will hold differences and one group will call the group liars and one group will spit onto the faces of the another." I then said, "May Allah take my soul in service for your cause, there will be nothing good in such conditions." The Imam (a.s.) said, "All goodness will be there." He said it three times. 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 904, Ch. 80, h 17
Allamah al-majlesi said: ‘Sahih’ [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p51] 

Through the same chain of narrators it is narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from his father, Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Bukayr from Zurara who has said the following. " Al-Qa’im (the one who will rise with Divine Authority) will disappear before he will rise with divine power. He will suffer fear. The Imam (a.s.) pointed to his midsection, meaning thereby being murdered." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 905, Ch. 80, h 18
Allamah al-majlesi said: 'Muwathak as Sahih' [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p52] 

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from ibn Mahbub from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following. "Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said, Al-Qa’im ((the one who will rise with Divine Authority) will have two disappearances. One of them will be for a short time and the other for a longer time. No one would know his place during the shorter disappearance except the special persons from his Shi‘a. During his longer disappearance no one will see him except very special persons from his friends." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 906, Ch. 80, h 19
Allamah al-majlesi said: 'Muwathak' [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p52] 

A number of our people has narrated from Sa‘d ibn ‘Abdallah from Ayyub ibn Nuh who has said the following. "I said to abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.), ’Isma‘il hope that you will become the incharge of this task (Leadership with Divine Authority). Allah will drive it to your control with the sword now that the pledge of allegiance is offered to you and currency coins are printed in your name." The Imam (a.s.) said, "There has been no one from us with whom letters had been exchanged, being pointed out with the gesture of fingers, questions asked and properties delivered to him but that he was murdered or died in his bed. (It will be as such) until Allah will raise for this task (Leadership with Divine Authority) a young boy from us whose birth place and upbringing would be unknown (to people) but not his ancestors." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 912, Ch. 80, h 25
Allamah al-Majlesi said: 'Mursal as Sahih' [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p56] 

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. "Al-Qa’im (the one who will rise with Divine Authority) will rise and he will not be obliged to any one under any covenant, agreement or oath of allegiance." 
Usool al-Kafi, Vol 1, Kitab al-Hujjat, H 914, Ch. 80, h 27
Allamah al-Majlesi said: ‘Sahih’ [Mirat al-Uqool, v4 p58] 

One would assume that a topic wherein both Sects are agreed on would not attract much need for disputes, unfortunately the followers of Mu’awiyah have still deemed it essential that this is also exploited to the Sunni masses as further evidence of the deviancy of the Shi’a. To enable this all manner of Nawasib has entered the arena desperate to incite hatred and violence against the Shi’a. The article ‘the myth of the Shi’I Mahdi’ is one such example, wherein the author has sought to mock and refute the Shi’a stance on Imam Mahdi (as). Azam Tariq then sought to take that hatred a stage further by especially citing those traditions that would appear the most extreme and disturbing to the Sunni masses, enabled through his usual method of tampering with Shi’a texts to create maximum hostility.

In this article we shall seek to evidence the existence of Imam Mahdi (as) through reliance of Qur’anic verses, Hadeeth literature and Sunni texts. Thereafter we shall address the lies of Azam Tariq, and conclude with the spiritual aspect of our Imam (as).

Source: ansar.org

 

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/NewAgeIslamIslamAndSectarianism_1.aspx?ArticleID=1178

 

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COMMENTS
Aamir Mughal

Imam Mahdi is very much part of the Subject you have started but which Imam Mahdi will be the Genuine one i.e. Shia or Sunni [So much for the so-called United Muslim Ummah]? I am providing the Hadiths of Sunni Mahdi and Shia Mahdi and I would request you to please try to unite this so-called "United Muslim Ummah" on single Imam Mahdi because when Muslims would be "OCCUPYING" the World under the so-called Banner of Islam near the Last Hour [Qayamat] the last Muslim would want is the divison amongst Muslim on Sectarian Lines, therefore please settle this quesion of Shia Mahdi or Sunni Mahdi. Now More Hadiths. Because both Sunnis and Shias are stick to their version of Hadiths and each group say their Mahdi is Genuine. Would you like to tell who is genuine?

Sunni Imam Mahdi and Hadiths:

1 - Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: "At the end of the time of my ummah, the Mahdi will appear. Allaah will grant him rain, the earth will bring forth its fruits, he will give a lot of money, cattle will increase and the ummah will become great. He will rule for seven or eight years. (Mustadrak al-Haakim, 4/557-558; he said: this is a hadeeth whose isnaad is saheeh, although it was not reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim. Al-Dhahabi agreed with him, and al-Albaani said: this is a saheeh sanad, and its men are thiqaat (trustworthy), Silsilat al-ahaadeeth al-saheehah, vol. 2, p. 336, hadeeth 771)


2. ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "The Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: ‘The Mahdi is one of us, a member of my family. Allaah will guide him in a single night.’" (Musnad Ahmad, 2/58, hadeeth 645, edited by Ahmad al-Shaakir, who said: its isnaad is saheeh; Sunan Ibn Maajah, 2/1367. This hadeeth was also classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer, 6735). Ibn Katheer said: "This means that Allaah will forgive him, grant him help, inspire him and guide him, when he was not like this before." (Al-Nihaayah, al-Fitan wa’l-Malaahim, 1/29; edited by Taha Zayni).

3. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri said: "The Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: ‘The Mahdi is of my lineage, with a high forehead and a long, thin, curved nose. He will fill the earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and he will rule for seven years.’" (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitaab al-Mahdi, 11/375, hadeeth 4265; Mustadrak al-Haakim, 4/557; he said: this is a saheeh hadeeth according to the conditions of Muslim, although it was not reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim. See also Saheeh al-Jaami, 6736).

4. Umm Salamah said: "I heard the Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) say: ‘The Mahdi is of my lineage and family, from the descendants of Faatimah.’" (Sunan Abu Dawud, 11/373; Sunan Ibn Maajah. 2/1368. Al-Albaani said that it is saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami, 6734)

5. Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "The Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: ‘‘Eesaa ibn Maryam will descend, and their leader the Mahdi will say, "Come and lead us in prayer," but he will say, "No, one of them should lead them as an honour to this ummah from Allaah."’" The version narrated by Muslim says: "… Then ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam (Peace be upon him) will descend and their leader will say, ‘Come and lead us in prayer,’ but he will say, ‘No, some of you are leaders over others as an honour from Allaah to this ummah.’" (Reported by Muslim, 225)

6. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "The Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: "He is one of us, behind whom ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam will pray." (Reported by Abi Na’eem in Akhbaar al-Mahdi. Al-Albaani said it is saheeh; see al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer, 5/219, hadeeth 5796).

7. ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood reported that the Prophet (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: "The world will not come to an end until the Arabs are ruled by a man from my family whose name will be the same as mine." (Musnad Ahmad, 5/199, hadeeth 3573. Another version says: "… whose name is the same as mine and whose father’s name is the same as my father’s." Sunan Abi Dawud, 11/370).

SHIA IMAM MAHDI AND HADITHS:

Al-Kulyani reports in his work al-Kafi, volume no.1, p.397-398:

a)Narrated Ali ibn Ibraheem -from his father-from ibn Abi Umair-from Mansour-from Fadhl al Aour-from Abi Ubaidah who reported: “During the times of Imam Jaffar[as] we used to go around like herds without a caretaker. We met with Salim ibn Abi Hafs who asked me: ”Oh Abu Ubaidullah, who is your Imam?” I replied:” My Imams are from the household of the prophet”. He then stated: “You have perished and so have I for both of us have heared Abu Jafar[as] saying: “One who dies without recognizing his Imam, he dies a death of Jahiliyyah.” Then I affirmed what he said. It was before that three or somewhat close to it(time span) when I entered upon Abu Abdullah[as] and God granted me knowledge. Then I said to Abu Abdullah[as]: “Salim said such and such.” He replied: “Oh Abu Obaidah nobody here will die until he is succeeded by some one who does the same thing as his, and adopts the similar manners of his predecessor, and calls to the same
thing as his predecessor did. Oh Abu Ubaidah, it was permitted that whatever was given to David was also provided for Sulaiman.” Then he added: “Oh Abu Ubaidah when the Qaem of the household of the prophet appears, he will rule according to rule of David and Solomon.”

b) Muhammad ibn Yahya-Ahmad ibn Muhammad-Muhammad ibn Sinaan-Abaan who reported: “I heard Abu Abdullah[as] saying: “The world will not fade away unless a person from us appears who will rule according to the rule of the family of David and he will not ask his house. He will give every one his right.

c) Ahmad--Ahmad ibn Muhammad--Ibn Mahboob--Hisham ibn Salim--Ammar as Saabati who reported: “I asked Abu Abdullah [as] : “On what will you rule if you are made the rulers.” He replied: “By the rule of Allah and the rule of David. And if we are confronted by a situation which we cannot solve, Gabriel (Ruh al Quds) will reveal it to us.”

d) Muhammad ibn Ahmad--Muhammad ibn Khalid--Nazr ibn Suwaid--Yahya al Halabi--Imran ibn Oueiyn--Jaeed al Hamdani--Ali ibn al-Hussein[as] said: “I asked him by which law will you rule?” He said: “By the rule of David, and if there is something which we are unaware of, Gabriel(Ruh al Quds) will reveal it to us.”

e) Ahmad ibn Mahran[ra]--Muhammad ibn Ali--Ibn Mahboob--Hishaam bin Salim--Ammar as Saabati reported: I asked Imam Abu Abdullah[as] :“What is the status of the Aimmah.” He replied : “It is similar to the status of Dhul Qarnain, Ushegh, and Asef the companion of prophet Sulaiman.” Then I asked: “By what will you rule?” He replied: “By the rule of God, by the rule of David, and by the rule of the Prophet Muhammad[saw] and by the revealation of Gabriel.

2)Mahdi Al-Muntazar will speak in Hebrew:

Reported to us Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Saeed al Uqdah who said: Narrated to us Ali ibn al-Hasan at-Taymali who said: narrated to us al-Hasan and Muhammad the sons of Ali ibnu Yusuf, from Sa’daan ibnu Muslim, from rajaal, from alMufadhaal ibn Umar who said:

Abu Abdullah[as] reported: “When the Imam Mahdi calls out, he will supplicate to God in Hebrew.”[ Shiite source: Al-Ghaybaa of an Numani, p.326]

3)The Jews will be the followers of Imam Mahdi:

Sheikh alMufeed has reported in his Al-Irshaad from alMufadhaal ibnu Umar that Imam Abu Abdullah[as] has reported: “There will appear along with Imam Mahdi in Kufa, 27 people from the tribe of Moses, and seven from the people of the cave, and Yushegh ibn Nun, and Sulaiman, and Abu Dujjana al-Ansari, and Miqdad, and Malik Usthur who all be his(imam Mahdi’s helpers).” [Al-Irshaad of al-mufeed at Tusi p.402]


---Will rule according to the system of the family of David, and by a new Quran that is unavailable in our hands. And if someone asks where is the Laws of David, he will find the answer to be the Talmud without any doubt. And for this reason the Mahdi of the Rafidhis will take an oath on a new book as it is stated by an-Nu’mani in his work al-Ghayba, p.107: “Abu Jafar[as] said: “ By God, as if I am seeing him between the Rukn and Maqaam taking an oath of allegiance with a new order, with a new book, and a new leadership from the heavens.”

---His language will be Hebrew

---His followers will be of the Jews, for he is the king of the Jews and he himself is the Dajjal or the Jewish Anti Christ about whom the Prophet has described.

More strong Proofs that show Mahdi of the Shiites is the Jewish Dajjal:

---When the Dajjal appears the Diaspora of the Jews will flock and gather in Jewish holy city of Jerusalem. Similarly when the Mahdi of the Shiites appear , all the Shiites any where will flock to him and gather in the Shiite holy city of Kufa.

---When the Dajjal appears the dead Jews will be resurrected from their graves by him and they would join the ranks of the Dajjal. Similarly when the Mahdi of the Rafidhis appears he will resurrect the dead of the Shiites and they would join his ranks.

---When the Dajjal appears he will resurrect the enemies of the Jews and will punish them. When the Mahdi of the Shiites appear he will resurrect the prophet’s companions and will punish them.

---The Dajjal will place on trial every one who oppressed the Jews. The Mahdi of the Shiites will place on trial every one who oppressed the Shiites.

---The Dajjal will kill 1/3 of the world population. Likewise the Mahdi of the Shiites will kill 1/3 of the world population.

---During the time of the Jewish Dajjal the earth will be filled with bounties for the Jews, the mountains will turn into milk and honey for the Jews. When the Mahdi of the Rafidhis appear a river of milk and a river of water will burst for the Shiites.

And the points that prove the association of Mahdi with the Jews is:

a)When the Mahdi appears he will call out to God in Hebrew.

b)He will rule by the system of the family of David.

Here are the evidences:

---It has been reported in Bihaarul Anwar that one of the Muwali of Abul Hassan[as] stated: I asked Abul Hassan about the verse : “Ayna ma takunu Ya’ti bikumullahu Jamee’aan”. He said: “This is verse is pointing out to our Qaem when he appears, God will gather our Shiites from different corners of the world.”

---Al-Amaali has reported from Abu Abdullah[as] that he was asked for how long will the Qaem rule? He replied : “Seven years who days will be stretched.....during this period God will raise the flesh and bodies of the believers(Shiites) from the graves.” almufadhaal ibnu Umar has reported: “we were discussing about Qaem, and whoever dies he is awaited by our fellows. Abu Abdullah[as] has said to us: “When he (Qaem) appears a believer will be approached in his grave and will be told: oh so and so, your fellow (the Qaem) has appeared, if you wish to join his ranks then do so, and if you wish you can remain in the mercy of your lord(in other words you can remain in your grave).”

---Al-Majlisi has reported from Abu Abdullah[as] who stated: “do you know with whom will the Qaem start with?” the answer was negative. Then he replied: “He will dig out the two culprits(Abu Bakr and Umar) burn their bodies and then let the wind to blow their ashes.

---Al-Mufeed reports from Abu Abdullah[as] that he said: “When the Qaem of the household of the Prophet appears he will grab hold of 500 members of the Quraish and will chop their necks off. He will do the same procedure with another 500. this action will be repeated 7 times.

---al-Majlisi has stated a narration reported from Jaffar ibn Muhammad who reported from his father who heard from his grandfather that : “when the Mahdi appears in Makkah and intends to go to Kufa, an announcer will call out: “That none of you should carry with himself food or drink and should carry only the stone of Moses...when they place the front side of the stone on the ground, it will let go an ever flowing river of milk and water, which will quench the thirst and hunger.

---Al-Ihsaaii has reported that Abu Abdullah[as] said : “The matter will not happen(victory of Qaem) until a third of the people are gone.” He was asked: “when a third of humanity is gone then what will be left?” Abu Abdullah[as] answered: “Arent you pleased that the remainder are you?”

Aamir Mughal

Regarding Imam Mahdi's Birth:

"QUOTE"

Courtesy Dr Shabbir Ahmed

http://www.galaxydastak.com/?page_id=11605

http://ourbeacon.com/wp-content/uploads/admin2/2007/08/true-history.pdf

THIS DRAMA IS TAKING PLACE IN 873 CE, 241 YEARS AFTER THE PROPHET (632)


1. “I am Lady Maleka, daughter of the son of Kaiser, the King of Rome. My mother’s name is Shamoun who is from the genealogy of Jesus Christ. [Jesus Christ was her ancestor!] Some time back, Prophet Muhammad met my great-grandfather, Jesus Christ son of Mary. The Prophet asked the hand of Jesus’ daughter (me, Maleka) to be given in marriage to his son, Hasan Askari [d 874 CE. Hasan Askari was the eleventh Imam of the Twelve Imami or Athna 'Ashri Shias] Jesus Christ agreed. The ceremonial address (Khutba) of our wedding was recited by Prophet Muhammad [241 yrs after he passed on] I had become emaciated hiding my love for Hasan Askari. The Prophet’s daughter, Fatimah [d 632 CE] came one day, hugged me and made me her daughterin-law [in the 9th century] Ever since then not a night has passed without us drinking the honey of our love and consummating our marriage!”

2. “I am Lady Maleka, also called Narjis. I am the daughter of the King of Rome. A few days ago, Ali (son-in-law of the Prophet) came [212 years after his martyrdom!] He said to me, “Narjis! Glad tidings to you of a son that will be the King of the East and the West! The news spread like wild fire that the wife of Imam Hasan Askari was going to be the mother of the Master of Times (Imam Mahdi). One day Hasan Askari said, “Mahdi is going to be born today.” A woman from the household said, “There are no visible signs of Narjis being pregnant”. Ali said, “We saints and prophets are born from the thighs of our mothers so that we are not soiled.” Imam Hasan [d 670] also came. Those present saw a splendid radiance in Narjis. Hasan saw that the Master of Times had been born and ever since his birth, had been in prostration facing the Qibla in Makkah. The newborn was pointing his index finger at the sky and reciting Kalima. Virgin Mary was in attendance with a thousand houris (heavenly beauties). The observant ones observed that the Imam Mahdi was already circumcised. They sought Allah’s blessings for all Imams. There was illumination all around. The palace was flocked by white birds. Ali commanded a bird to take the baby away and to bring it back in 40 days. [Please remind yourself that the events are taking place 212 years after Imam Ali's passing away in 661. Mythology is such fun! Now follows an even more weird account] After 40 days the bird brought back the baby who was now two years old! Then the bird took the baby away and brought it back in 40 days. Imam Mahdi by then had grown into a man. [We are not told how he grew up into a man in 80 days and how a bird picked up a grown up man by its beak! We are also not told where the palace was located!]

3. Imam Mahdi, the Imam-in-Waiting, the Imam-in-Occultation, is the Master of Powers. He is the Imam of the World of the Unseen. It is not appropriate even to mention his name in absentia. [This advice is hardly ever heeded]

4. The Imam read all scriptures of the past prophets in their native tongues, Scriptures of Adam, Idrees, Noah, Hud, Saleh, Abraham, Moses, David, Christ, and the Quran of Prophet Muhammad.

5. Soon after birth, the Imam sneezed. The next night he enunciated a firm tenet that whoever sneezed, would not die for three days. [Science or insult to human intelligence?]

6. The angels clamored, “Who will avenge Husain, O Allah?” “I will, through the Established One”, answered God. [How will He avenge? Please wait for the next chapter]

7. The Words in the Quran, “Who can bring back water if Allah takes it away?” in effect pertain to the Master of Powers i.e. who can bring him back if Allah takes him away.

8. Imam Mahdi is from the seed of the Kaiser of Rome from the mother’s side and of Muhammad (the exalted) from the father’s side. [We are not told how from Kaiser. And, didn’t he, if at all he was born, descend from Abu Talib and Hazrat Ali? [Hazrat Fatima was the daughter of Muhammad (S) and the wife of Ali r. a. but genealogies are traced through paternity]

9. The Quran of Ali is with the Established Imam. When he comes, even the wild animals will become friends to each other. Because of his splendor, the whole world will be lit up. Hence, there will be no sun during the day and no moon at night! [The sun and the moon will retire!]

10. He will ride the thuder and make a round of the seven heavens and the seven earths. [He will not be electrocuted] Shady clouds will always keep him cool. [But there will be no sun!] Swords for his use will descend from the heavens.

11. Countless palaces and treasuries are at his disposal. Those who have had a visit with him in the past centuries speak of the unparalleled magnificence of his palace. [No one knows where any of those palaces is]

12. He performs Hajj every year but no one can recognize him [Cannot recognize the one whose splendor lights up the whole world!]

13. At every Eid when people rejoice, God refreshes the sorrow of Muhammad’s progeny, since their due right, the world supremacy, is in the possession of others. [It is in the White House these days]

14. Hazrat Ali mourns to this day. He has been seen reading the Book of Jafar [for over 1300 years] Jafar is the “Science” of dreams, calamities and disasters.

15. Whenever a Mu’min (Shia believer) falls ill, the Amir (Commander) of the Mumins, Ali, is also taken ill. [Among the believers, hundreds of thousands must be ailing at any given time. When does the Amir get well?]

16. Whoever waits for the Imam of the Times, will be seated in his glorious tent. The best action of a believer is to wait for the Imam. [The palace has now become a tent!]

17. A sure panacea: On a piece of paper write a message for the Imam of the Times. Place it in a grave or throw it into a deep well. The message is sure to reach him and the problems will be instantly resolved.

18. Among the 73 sects of Muslims, only those waiting for the Mahdi will go to Paradise.

[There are strong historical records that the 11th imam Hasan Askari had died in his youth leaving behind no children. On that account, Askari's real brother Ja'far bin Naqi had grabbed all his inheritance through due course of law. Ref. Shama'-e-Haqeeqat by Qazi Muhammad Ali]

Reminder: All criticism of the author in this book is directed to the historians, and not at all to the honorable personalities of Islam - The exalted Prophet, Sahaba Kiraam, Hazraat Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain, all of whom inspire our reverence and respect.

Imam Mahdi bin Hasan Askari, was born in the year 255 or 256 A.H. [if he was born at all! Shi'a scholars are unable to decide which year it really was!] In 260 AH at the age of about five years, and just ten days before the demise of his father, he disappeared and hid in the nearby cave called Samara or Saraman Rai. With him he took away the entire Quran consisting of 40 (not 30) parts and 17000 (not 6200+) verses. He also took with him all the Scriptures of the prophets of old, the Book of Ali, the Book of Fatima, the Science of Jafar, all miracles of the prophets, the staff of Moses, the shirt of Adam, and the ring of Solomon. He will reappear before the Dooms Day. He will exhume and resurrect Abu Bakr and Umar from their graves. In the course of one day and night he will execute both of them a thousand times after bringing them back to life each time. According to some accounts, he will dispense the same prescription to Uthman. (Hablullah No.6, P.32)

He will stone to death the mother of believers, Ayesha for adultery.

[Hold your breath!] The first one to tender submission to Imam Mahdi will be Prophet Muhammad. (Basair Darajat P. 213)

The Mahdi will resurrect people and send them off to heaven or hell. (Miratul Anwaar P.68)

The Occult Imam Mahdi will appear and bring forth a new Book and a new Faith (Faslul- Khitab P. 283 and Anwaar Na’mania by Syed Naimatullah Muhaddis Aljazairee).

Only Mahdi will bring the genuine Quran. For the time being, fill in with the present one. (Faslul Khatab, ref. Hazrat Ali)

Mahdi will battle with Gog and Magog (Ref. Many books of Ahadith, Masnad-e-Ahmad, Al-Kafi, etc) Who are Gog and Magog? Muslims have been labeling many different peoples as Gog Magog. Many Jews and Christians consider Russia, China and the Muslims as Gog Magog!

Ahsanul Maqal states that Imam Mahdi son of Hasan Askari will appear at the very end of this world. He will be around only for seven years. He will uphold equity and justice and then there will be the Great World War, Armageddon. [So, that will be it. He that was so anxiously awaited for centuries came and heralded the end of the world! Happy waiting! - to the waiters]

http://ourbeacon.com/wp-content/uploads/admin2/2007/08/true-history.pdf

"UNQUOTE"

Duties of Alleged Mahdi!

When Imam Mehdi come he will be nude and the first person who Bay’ah him is Mohammad (saw). (Haq-ul-Yaqeen, page 347 Mullah Baqar Malisi).

Mullah Baqir Majlisi writes in Haqqul Yaqeen: “When Imam Mahdi arrives, Aisha will be resurrected so that she may be given a prescribed punishment and that Fatima be vindicated.” (Haqqul Yaqeen: 347)

When Imam Mehdi comes he will hang Abu Bakr and Umar at the holy grave of Hazrat Muhammad. (Majma-ul-ma’arif, page #49)

Ali will come back to life. [Hayatul Quloob (urdu translation) by Basharat Husain, part 1, page 204, Imamiyah kutub khana Edition, Lahore]

Before Qiyaamah all the Ambiya (A.S) will be back to life and assist Ali (A.S.). [Zamimah Maqbool by Maqbool Husain Dehlvi, page 46, Maqbool press Edition, Dehli].

People mourn on the grave of Hussein (A.S.) because he was murdered and the angels were unable to assist him. But when Mehdi comes and people will return to life, the angels will help Mehdi. [Aqida-e-Raj’ah Ash shafi by Zafar Husain, part 2, page 196, chapter 60, Shameem book depot Edition, Nazimabad Karachi, New Edition]

When Imam Mehdi comes he will make alive Hazrat Aa'ishah from death and whip her. (Tafseer Saafi, line 16 page 108).

Real Quran that is compiled by Hazrat Ali will come with Imam Mehdi. (Anwar-ul-Nomania, page 60).

When Imam Mehdi comes he will hang Hazrat Abu Bakr  and Umar at the holy grave of Hazrat Mohammad (saw). (Majma-ul-ma’arif, page 49).

wajid Rizvi

Mr. Basha

After reading the very first paragraph regarding the Kilma, I realized that your research is purly based on hearsay. If you had done your research you would not have written what you wrote about the Kilma. I did not bother to read the rest of the article after the first paragraph, realizing your work is unfinished. 

 

If you want to know the facts, read the Azan section on the Ayatollah Agha Sistani web site.

Regards,

Wajid Hussain Rizvi  

 

traveler

CONTD***

You say none of the preceding Imam was leaving his heir/imam declared?...

this is not new theory..muslims have used similar plea to sideline Ali in past saying" PROPHET DID NOT DECLARE ALI AS HIS HEIR".. they tremble at mention of a deserted arabian oasis called GHADEER...

they forget the words of prophet at the bigening of KHAYBAR battle..."TODAY I WILL DISPATCH SOMEONE WHO SHALL CONQUER THE FORTE OF KHAYBER AND WHO WILL BE MY HEIR"

THEY FORGET ALI RISING  THREE TIMES  saying " ANA YA RASOOLALLAH "!!! During DAAWATE DUL ASHIRA ( the banquet Prophet hosted to proclaim his prophethood and catagorically mentioning today whosoever will accept me will be my heir...

My dear friend Jamshed sahab.. Even an average worthless Muslim like me or you is encouraged to make WILL... ( wasiyat).. Is it believable by any measure that PROPHET and later IMAMS forgot such an important duty???!!!...

The fact is they never forgot but Muslims chose to forget...

traveler

CONTD ***

There can be many debates on your writeup

1- you narrate a hadith stating that prophet said omar was fit enough to be a prophet after me in case i was not final... well..well...  what will you say about a hadith ( as per SUNNI sources) where the prphet is stating about ali " YOU ARE LIKE HAROON ( ARON) TO MOSES (ME), BUT THE ONLY THING IS THERE WON'T BE A PROPHET AFTER ME..

incidently these two ahadith appear almost equivalent credentials for both the personalities ..now you are dragging me to say something i hate to say... PIRACY & DUPLICACY donot go a long way.... donot force others to comeup with explanations which could be harsh for you and others... i will just give a small hint only...

SEARCH THE WHOLE QURAN AND SEE IN WHAT SHADES/ CONTEXT ALI IS DESCRIBED AND IN WHAT OMAR IS DESCRIBED... YOU WILL HAVE AN ANSWER..  " AND DONOT SPEAK LOUD IN PRESENCE OF THE PROPHET VERILY THE UGLIEST VOICE IS THAT OF A DONKEY''  is it Quran or anything else?.. and I don't need to remind you for whom?.. for the other party i will require days together to comment the positive shades in which quran addresses his person.. the one least example is "ALLAH "and NOT THE PROPHET calling ALI " NAFS" of rasool..at the time of prophet taking Ahl ul Bayet for MUBAHILA with christian priests of Najran.. ( Soorae- aale Imran)

there is another hadeeth from sahi bukhari in which some people complain to prophet  about ALI... and prophet cATAGORICALLY SAYS... HAQ IS WITH ALI... it is not ALI IS WITH HAQ... the sentence ensures all coming generations of Muslims to be crystal clear that in whatever direction Ali moves...haq simply follows... pity on those so called muslims who forget against whom Ali was fighting in SIFFIN? and for what?... politics my dear jamshed sahab is a dirty cup A KALYAN SINGH IN PRESENT TIMES READY TO JOIN FORCES who broke Babri masjid... does this remind of the huge army of Kalyan singhs in the ranks of Islam... no wonder a MAHDI WILL BE NEEDED to redeem the honour for Islam is not any intermediate religion , this is a FINAL DEEN from the gold almighty.. could naudobillah God should be so careless to leave his cherished ummah in to hands of those who forget the relationship of Ali and Haq?...

and this will be redeemed by a Mahdi..from the family of Prophet.. from the sons of Ali and fatima.... ( Sunni sources sgain- Shias no use mentioning here).. did you forget?.. God promised Abrahm that he will raise guides and ( incidently the term QORAN USES is IMAM...Lolsss). from his progeny?.. who are you to object?... and if you choose to ..be prepared the day you meet your lord...

Knowledge is supposed to mellow/ soften us but if it causes arrogance then my friend ARROGANCE AND IGNOANCE go together... and Ibless welcomes such learned men to his club.. no entry fee !!

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