"The Quran does not speak about the corruption of the text of
previous scriptures. It speaks about the manner in which the followers
change the meaning of their scriptures. This is exactly what the Muslims
have done/are doing to their Book."
Time for Muslims to reflect on the thought.
"The Quran does not speak about the corruption of the text of previous scriptures. It speaks about the manner in which the followers change the meaning of their scriptures. This is exactly what the Muslims have done/are doing to their Book."
Corruption of the text
is preceded by corruption in our understanding. By that yardstick, the Quran is
a much misunderstood book because the scholars in the past have not stuck to
the meanings that the Quran itself gives to various key words it uses but gave
their own meanings or used dictionary meanings. It is fortunate that the
text remains in its original form which makes it easier to reach a correct
understanding and the fact that the Quran itself makes clear the meaning of key
words that it uses. Following the same process that a child follows to learn the
meaning of words we can arrive at the correct meaning of the oft used words in
the Quran without resorting to the dictionary.
While the Quran had to
rely on the existing words, it gave new meanings to many words and enriched the
Arabic language with refined usages of many of the words that it uses.
"Kufr", "kafaru", "Kafir" can be called terms.
What is a term?
“If a word is used in a
special sense and if it pertains to any discipline it is called a term.
When a science,
philosophy or thought is developed or when new ideas for social reforms are introduced,
the ordinary words prevalent are not sufficient and capable to express the
specifically developing units of thought for that particular discipline. As
such either new words are coined or the ordinary words are chosen and special meanings
are assigned to them. In other words a new status is given to the ordinary
words of the language. When a word becomes a term it loses its original dictionary
meaning and assumes a new meaning and a new status.”
The Quran uses the words words Kafaru
and kufr the way we use the words Sinner and Sin. Just as the sinner is
described by his sin, the kafaru is defined by his kufr. Kafaru cannot
therefore be given the fixed dictionary meaning of “Unbeliever” or its
This subject has been dealt in detail in
the articles cited in my previous comments.
The Quran does not speak about the corruption of the text of previous scriptures. It speaks about the manner in which the followers change the meaning of their scriptures. This is exactly what the Muslims have done/are doing to their Book.
Rational, this is not a debate and it is not debate that I am interested in. If I am not projecting what I truly know and believe to be the truth, I am risking my hereafter. While all the previous scholars have the excuse of being human and therefore prone to error, I have no excuse for going against all of them if I am wrong. I stand alone and at great risk unless I am 100% certain that I am right.
Very clearly 8:12 covers only those in battle with the Muslims. Who were they? They were those who persecuted the Muslims forcing them to migrate to Medina, driven them out of the Sacred Mosque, hindered them in various way in practicing their religion and were now fighting battles to annihilate them. They were oppressors and religious persecutors and that is what is all that is relevant in the verse and not their faith.
Against those who do not fight:
(60:8) Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just.
Therefore translating Kafara as "Oppressor" or as "Religious Persecutor" is more appropriate which not only removes all ambiguity but universalizes the message of the Quran.
The subject of mistranslation of this key term has been covered under my articles:
Who Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 1): 'Kafir,' 'Mushrik' and
'Idolater' are not synonyms
Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 2): Muslim– Non-Muslim Relationship
Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 3): Why Kufr Is A Relative Concept While Shirk,
Idol Worship Etc. Have Fixed Meanings
Who is a Kafir
in the Quran? (Part 4) Defining Kufr
The following article shows the effect of mistranslation of the verses 8:36 to 8:38
Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (pbuh) in the Qu’ran (Concluding
The meaning of the
verse "I will instill terror
into the hearts of the unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all
their finger-tips off."
Is plain and clear. I am
just asking you to discuss it in its proper context which is part 4 of the
It is not at all difficult to derive the message of tolerance, equality and universal brotherhood from the Quran but this would not suit our apostate friends who love to cite the sword verses which we consider to have no validity now.
you need not to go somewhere else to find the cause of phobia of Islam, the mother of books speak the language of terror.
The Story of the Prophetic mission of Muhammad (pbuh) from the Qu’ran (part 1): The early opposition
The Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (pbuh) From the Qu’ran (Part 2): The Clear Warning to the Meccan Pagans
The Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (Pbuh) In the Qu’ran (Part 3): Important Pointers from the Stories of the Prophets
The Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (Pbuh) In the Qu’ran (Part 4): The Medinian Period
What makes you avoid commenting on the articles above if you have anything worthwhile to say? The articles present a complete canvas for you to express your disagreement on any phase of the mission.
“There was no strength when the command to fight was
given. The number of Muslims who migrated to Mecca would have been around a
1000. Add to that a 1000 among the Ansars. This includes the women and
children, the old and the infirm.”- By Naseer Ahmed -
Moderate muslims conveniently forget to mention that Hazrat Muhammad went through three specific
stages depending on his circumstances, stages which Muslims implement till this
1 – Preach tolerance when outnumbered by unbelievers/No retaliation stage.
Say: 'O unbelievers,
I serve not what you serve and you are not serving what I serve, nor am I
serving what you have served, neither are you serving what I serve To you your
religion, and to me my religion!' S. 109
Leave is given to those who
fight because they were wronged -- surely God is able to help them -- who were
expelled from their habitations without right, except that they say 'Our Lord
is God. S. 22:39
An acquittal, from God and His Messenger,
unto the idolaters with whom you made covenant: 'Journey freely in the land for
four months; and know that you cannot frustrate the will of God, and that God
degrades the unbelievers….. 9:1-29.
Naseer Ahmad Saheb says “There was no strength when the command to fight was
It was not offensive fighting. The muslims were allowed to fight to defend themselves
as they were, at that time , in stage 2.
My comment was
primarily focused on verse 9:5, known as “The Verse of Sword." Which Muslim terrorists cite to justify
their violent jihad.
As we thoroughly examine the Islamic source materials it becomes evident
that verse 9:5 is part of the theology of jihad and is meant to be both
offensive and defensive. It is directed against Pagans living both near to and
far away from hazrat Muhammad.
Understanding 9:5 in context
requires an examination of the passage in which it is found. This passage
consists of verses 29 to 41 verses or so
theological position regarding the use of violence to further its domain does
not rest upon one verse or passage. Rather the entire Quran, other Islamic
source materials, and hazrat Muhammad’s actions and lifestyle (Sunnah) must be
examined and evaluated to understand it.
Yusuf Ali’s Quran commentary, page 435, states
that verses 9:1 – 29 were revealed during the 10th month (Shawwal), of the year A.H. 9
(630/631 A.D.). It was proclaimed by Muhammad’s cousin, Ali, to the various
Muslim and non-Muslim pilgrims in Mecca to give Muhammad’s new policy a wide
hearing. He also states that the rest of the Sura (30 – 129) was spoken by
Muhammad months earlier, prior to the first 29 verses, and they sum up the
lessons of Muhammad’s earlier expedition to Tabuk. (Most scholars say that the
passage concerning the Tabuk raid was spoken following the raid). This means
that the chapter’s first passage (1-29) is chronologically the last passage
spoken by hazrat Muhammad. Other scholars present slightly differing opinions
on its passages, chronology, and themes. However, all Islamic scholars, both
Muslim and non-Muslim, agree that the first 29 verses or so were some of the
last Quranic verses spoken by hazrat Muhammad.
The introduction to
chapter 9 in Maulana Maududi’s Commentary states “that by the time chapter 9 was spoken one third of
the entire Arabian Peninsula had bent the knee to Islam. He says,
“Now let us
consider the historical background of the Sura. The series of events that have
been discussed in this Sura took place after the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiyah. By that time one-third of Arabia had come under the
sway of Islam which had established itself as a powerful well organized and
civilized Islamic State.” – Maulana Maududi
the Quran lacks internal contextual references we need non-quranic, but related
and authoritive references, to understand its meaning accurately. Some people
create theological positions based upon a "Quran only" type of
reasoning and they make the Quran dance: it says what they want it to say. We
must have more than opinion and conjecture. We must use the Quran and
contextual references to build a logical, rational, and substantial basis for
understanding 9:5. If each person is allowed to "interpret" the Quran
as he sees fit, while ignoring the historical and theological references, we
would have a meaningless pile of opinions built upon a foundation of cute, but
fact is the Qoran includes many abrogated verses. The early Qoran of the
Mecca period presented religious tolerance as a divine command simply because
Muslims had not yet acquired the physical power to compel conversion. But when
Islam became more powerful after the flight to Medina, the "verses of the
sword" were conveniently revealed to the Prophet, verses that sanction and
indeed command violence, historically Islam's preferred method of expansion.
Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (Pbuh) In the Qu’ran (Part 4): The
In the last named article, all the peaceful verses are discussed with the "sword" verses to show that there is no contradiction.
In his comment, KS also shows Medinian verses from Surah 2 and 5 under Meccan when these are Medinian.
The Meccan veres are covered under:
Story of the Prophetic mission of Muhammad (pbuh) from the Qu’ran (part 1): The
Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (pbuh) From the Qu’ran (Part 2): The
Clear Warning to the Meccan Pagans
Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (Pbuh) In the Qu’ran (Part 3):
Important Pointers from the Stories of the Prophets
From the earliest Meccan verses, the warnings to the disbelievers who oppose the Prophet are both clear and dire. The violent oppressors such as Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab and Walid ibn Mughiyrah are taken on directly. The description of heaven and hell are graphic and the fate and treatment of the rejecter of faith in the hereafter leaves no room for doubt. There is absolutely no sign of weakness.
There is no command to fight in Mecca because fighting would have meant a civil war. Fighting is permissible only to a ruler with a territory under his control using people residing in his territory whom he can protect. Such a condition did not exist in Mecca.
There was no strength when the command to fight was given. The number of Muslims who migrated to Mecca would have been around a 1000. Add to that a 1000 among the Ansars. This includes the women and children, the old and the infirm. When all the Muslims who could fight turned out at Badr, they numbered only about 300. The Meccans came with an army of 1000 because they know that the Muslim number was very small. The population of Mecca was around a 100,000. After suffering a defeat at Badr, the Meccans attacked later with much larger armies in the Battle of Uhud and the battle of the trench.
It is the word of the Quran that inspired this small number to stand up against the might of the Meccans and ultimately defeat them. It was a victory of the oppressed over their oppressors despite all the odds against them. The verses of the Quran that inspired them to fight are precious that can inspire all those who are oppressed and are on the right side of justice to stand up against any tyrant or oppressor and bring him low.
These verses will never aid the oppressors or those who are on the wrong side of justice even though they misuse them. These oppressors are able to function only because there are none to oppose them.
As shown in the article cited first above, fighting is permissible only against the religious persecutors and oppressors and not for any other reason.
Slay the idolaters wherever you find them
I will instill terror into the
hearts of the unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their
Fight them, and Allah will punish
them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them,
heal the breasts of Believers
Fight those who do not believe in
God and the last day... and fight People of the Book, who do not accept the
religion of truth (Islam) until they pay tribute by hand, being
Whoso desires another religion
than Islam, it shall not be accepted of him; in the next world he shall be
among the losers."
And as for those who disbelieve
and reject Our Signs, they are the people of Hell"
Fight them on until there is no
more tumult and religion becomes that of Allah
Before him is Hell; and he shall
be made to drink boiling water.
But as for those who disbelieve,
garments of fire will be cut out for them; boiling fluid will be poured down
on their heads,
Whereby that which is in their bellies, and their skins too, will be melted;
And for them are hooked rods of iron.
When you meet the unbelievers,
strike off their heads; then when you have made wide slaughter among them,
carefully tie up the remaining captives.
I will instill terror into the
hearts of the unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their
finger-tips off them
Against them make ready your
strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike
terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies.
I have reproduced the above
Medinian later verses in order to mae the clear.
There are many contradictory verses in the Quran that can be quite
confusing. This ambiguity allows Muslims to have their personalized
"divine guidance" based on their own preferences. Those who like
tolerance or want to present Islam as a tolerant religion can quote parts of
the Quran that advocates tolerance, while the hardliners, the fundamentalists
and even the terrorists can quote those parts of the Quran that foments hate
and killing of the disbelievers. Therefore ironically everyone can find what he
is looking for in that book. And they call this the "miracle" of
Let us compare both sides of Quran:
In Surah 73: In Surah 2:256 God tells Mohammad not to impose
Islam by force, "There is no compulsion in religion", but in verse 2:193
He tells his messenger to kill whoever rejects Islam, "Fight them until
there is no persecution and the religion is God's". In Surah 29:45 God
tells Mohammad to speak nicely to people of the Book (Christians and Jews),
"Argue with people of the book, other than evil doers, only by means of
what are better! and say, we believe in what has been sent down to us and sent
down to you. Our God is the same as your God, and we are surrendered to
Him." But in Surah 9:29 Allah tells him to fight the people of the Book,
"Fight those who do not believe in God and the last day... and fight
People of the Book, who do not accept the religion of truth (Islam) until they
pay tribute by hand, being inferior".
Hazrat Muhammad gives no justification for this discrepancy
in the Quran and the change in Allah's mood from peaceful to militant and
conciliatory to confrontational. Muslim apologists in the West present the
kinder verses of the Quran or what is known as the Early Revelation. While
Islamic scholars, when have only Muslims as their audience, say that those
softer verses of the Quran were abrogated and supplanted by harsher ones. The reason
given is, asMaulana Maududi puts it, "Mohammad became strong enough to
move from the stage of weakness to the stage of Jihad".
Here is a comparison between some early verses hazrat Muhammad wrote in Mecca while he was weak
and some that he wrote in Medina after becoming powerful.
Speak good to men...
Slay the idolaters wherever you
Therefore be patient with what
they say, and celebrate (constantly) the praises of thy Lord,
We well know what the infidels
say: but you are not to compel them
Those who believe (in the Qur'an),
those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians and the Christians,-
any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness,- on them
shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
To you be your religion, and to me
If it had been thy Lord's Will,
they would all have believed, all who are on earth! Wilt thou then compel
mankind against their will to believe!
There is no compulsion in religion
Pardon thou, with a gracious
and insult not (Revile not) those
whom they call upon besides Allah, lest they of out spite revile Allah in
their ignorance. Thus we made alluring to each people its own doings. In the
end they return to their Lord, and we shall then tell them the truth of all
that they did
O Lord, these are people who do
not believe,' Bear with them and wish them 'peace.' In the end they shall
know their folly.
If Allah had so willed, He would
have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath
given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues
Tell those who believe, to forgive
those who do not look forward to the Days of Allah: It is for Him to
recompense (for good or ill) each People according to what they have earned.
is a long list of such contradictory verses in the Quran which can not be
covered in a short comment. This dichotomy is explained by some Muslim scholars
as we see in the following.
Dr. M. Khan the translator of Sahih Bukhari and the Quran into English writes:
"Allah revealed in Sura Bara'at
(Repentance, IX) (the order to discard (all) obligations (covenants, etc), and
commanded the Muslims to fight against all the Pagans as well as against the
people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians) if they do not embrace Islam, till
they pay the Jizia with willing submission and feel themselves subdued (as it
is revealed in 9:29). So the Muslims were not permitted to abandon "the
fighting" against them (Pagans, Jews and Christians) and to reconcile with
them and to suspend hostilities against them for an unlimited period while they
are strong and have the ability to fight against them. So at first "the fighting"
was forbidden, then it was permitted, and after that it was made obligatory
"(Introduction to English translation of Sahih Bukhari, p.xxiv.)
Dr. Khan continues:
The "Mujahideen who fight against the enemies of Allah in order that the
worship should be all for Allah (alone and not for any other deity) and that
the word is Allah's (ie. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and His
religion Islam) should be upper most."
So first it was "There is no compulsion in religion" (Q.
2:265) and then
"O who believe! shall I direct you to a commerce that
which will save you from a painful torment? That you believe in Allah and His
Apostle (Mohammad), and that you strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah
with your wealth and your lives. That will be better for you, if you but knew.
If you do so He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into gardens of
Eternity - that is the great success" (Q. 61:10-12)
Dr. Sobhy as-Saleh, a contemporary
academic, does not see in Q. 2:256 and Q. 9:73 a case of abrogation but a case
of delaying or postponing the command to fight the infidels. To support his
view he quoted Imam Suyuti the author of Itqan Fi 'Ulum al- Qur'an who wrote:
"The command to fight the infidels was delayed until the muslims became
strong, but when they were weak they
were commanded to endure and be patient. [ Sobhy as_Saleh, Mabaheth Fi 'Ulum
al- Qur'an, Dar al-'Ilm Lel-Malayeen, Beirut , 1983, p. 269.]
Dr. Sobhy, in a footnote, commends the opinion of
the famous scholar, Zarkashi who said:
"Allah the most high and wise revealed to
Mohammad in his weak condition what suited the situation, because of his mercy
to him and his followers. For if He gave them the command to fight while they
were weak it would have been embarrassing and most difficult, but when the most
high made Islam victorious He commanded him with what suited the situation,
that is asking the people of the Book to become Muslims or to pay the levied
tax, and the infidels to become Muslims or face death. These two options, to
fight or to have peace return according to the strength or the weakness of the
Muslims."(ibid p. 270)
The following article of mine explains
two verses of the Quran; first, (Kill them wherever you find them) (2:91) and
then the so-called “sword verse” (kill the polytheists wherever you find them)
Them Wherever You Find Them (2:191)': What Quran Actually Means By This
Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (Pbuh) In the Qu’ran (Part 4): The
The first 3 parts cover the Meccan period and part 4 the Medinian period alongwith Surah Al-Kafirun from the Meccan period to show that "To you (peaceful rejecter) be your way and to me mine" was never violated by any of the prophets and is an eternal principle or sunnat of Allah.
Some of the most beautiful verses on secular justice, forgiveness, overlooking the faults, repelling evil with good, showing restraint, never transgressing the limits, never acting on unconfirmed rumours or based on prejudice are found in the Medinian Surahs including "Let there be no compulsion in religion".
It is impossible to imagine the Medinian part of the Quran being revealed during the Meccan period and vice verse and quite simply, the Quran is incomplete without either part.
In part 4, I have discussed the Meccan verses with the "sword" verses to show that there is no contradiction and therefore the question of abrogation does not arise.
The Medinian part becomes necessary because of the Meccan part and the Meccan part is necessary for the Medinian part to unfold. Without either part, the deen is incomplete.
Mahmoud Taha's teachings may be important with regard to this topic. He believed that the "original, uncorrupted form" of Islam was the Mecca Qur'an. It accorded, (among other things), equal status to people – whether women or men, Muslim or non-Muslim.