The Qur’an uses the word Islam
(root – SLM) in noun and verb forms with the connotation of orienting,
submitting, surrendering, or committing oneself to God or to be at peace with
God.8 The Qur’an further declares:
“Indeed! Whoever commits (asslama)
his whole being [lit., face] to God, and does good deeds - will get his reward
from his Lord. There will be no fear upon them nor shall they grieve.” (2:112).
have been rendered as disbelievers or deniers as appropriate. The Qur’an also connotes kufr with canceling or effacing something (29:7, 47:2), being thankless or ungrateful (17:27, 76:24)."
- Ref: Glossary.
The Qur’an uses the word Islam (root – SLM) in noun and verb forms with the connotation of orienting, submitting, surrendering, or committing oneself to God or to be at peace with God. The Qur’an further declares:
“Indeed! Whoever commits (Asslama) his whole being [lit., face] to God, and does good deeds - will get his reward from his Lord. There will be no fear upon them nor shall they grieve.” (2:112).
“And who can be better in faith (din) than the one who orients (Asslama) his whole being [Lit., face] to God, and does good deeds, and follows the way of Abraham, the upright one, and God took Abraham as a friend” (4:125).
“And who is finer in speech than the one who invites to God, does good deeds and says: ‘I am of those who submit to God (Muslimun)’” (41:33).
In these verses, the Qur’an attributes the quality of doing good deeds to those who submit, or orient themselves to God (Asslama, Muslim).
....Thus Islam may be connoted with a faith system that calls for orienting oneself (Asslama) to God for the doing of good deeds, or serving humanity.
Re: Ch. 7, Essential Message of Islam
Since the Qur'an complements the notion of Taqwa with the doing of good deeds, a good Muslim (regardless of his religion) is also active in Taqwa. The twin fundamental notions, good deeds and Taqwa, 'Amal Aor Nafisi Zabtagi, karma and dharma are the crux of all religions and the basis of divine criteria of judgment and the Qur'an is replete with verses that assure the believers in God who are active in good deeds that they don't have to fear from Him and that those active in Taqwa will be rewarded with Paradise.
The Qur’an’s Broader Notion of Taqwa – An Irrefutable Testimony to Its Universalism
The Broader Notion Of Din Al-Islam Is Inclusive Of All Monotheistic Faiths.
The Quranic injunctions deal with both the secular (the temporal and the worldly) and the spiritual dimensions. People who fail to make this distinction fall prey to interpreting the injunctions one way.
The obverse of “who is a kafir in the Quran” is “Who is a Muslim in the Quran?” which provides the basic bench mark criteria for a person of any faith to be considered not a kafir. A Muslim also has to satisfy this criterion. His journey for trying to become a good Muslim in the Spiritual dimension can begin only after he satisfies this basic requirement.
The article “who is a Muslim” shows that the Quran is against all forms of coercive interference in the matter of faith. These are the secular values of the Quran and it defines kufr in the secular or temporal dimension which is common for both the “believer” and the “non-believer”. For the believer, in addition to Kufr in the temporal dimension, he has to guard against Kufr in the spiritual dimension besides practicing good deeds detailed in the Quran.
The other topic (who is a kafir?) is both important and relevant in the context of escalating Islamic extremism. The definition of “kafir”, (loosely translated in English as infidel) sets the tone of a Muslim’s relationship with the outside world. In Sunni theology, the word is loosely defined, but is commonly understood to include all those who are not the followers of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The Qu’ran forbids friendship with a kafir but there are other verses which enjoin treating those who are not enemies of the Muslims with kindness and justice. It is therefore, the choice that a Muslim makes, of either treating non-Muslims as kafir and therefore ‘enemy’ or as ‘not enemy’ that sets apart an extremist from a moderate. For the same reason, it is difficult for a moderate to refute the extremist ideology.
The Qu’ran has been mined to derive the precise meaning of Kafir and kufr (kufr is what makes a kafir or what a kafir does). It turns out that Sunni theology has erred grievously in treating a non-Muslim as kafir because the Quran does not do so. The Qu’ran uses the word in a faith neutral way. A correct understanding of the terms Kafir and Kufr would make these terms inapplicable based on the other persons faith or belief system. The effect is to render the rest of the world as ‘not enemy’ unless proved otherwise. For enemy also, the Quran advises utmost restraint. The article in 4 parts provides the necessary theological argument against treating ‘non-Muslims’ as enemy or as Kafir, which can end theological support to extremism.
Who Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 1): 'Kafir,' 'Mushrik' and 'Idolater' are not synonyms
Who Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 2): Muslim– Non-Muslim Relationship
Who Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 3): Why Kufr Is A Relative Concept While Shirk, Idol Worship Etc. Have Fixed Meanings
Who is a Kafir in the Quran? (Part 4) Defining Kufr
The definition of Kafir has been derived
from the Quran and covered in my part 1 of my article “who is a Kafir in the
Quran?" This article is referred to in my article above as the "cited
article" but in the editing, the part which contained the reference was
deleted. The link to the article is below:
Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 1): 'Kafir,' 'Mushrik' and 'Idolater' are not
URL of Part 1: http://www.newageislam.com/islam-and-pluralism/by-observer-in-new-age-islam/who-is-a-kafir-in-the-quran?-(part-1)---kafir,---mushrik--and--idolater--are-not-synonyms/d/101509
Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 2): Muslim– Non-Muslim Relationship
URL of Part 2: http://www.newageislam.com/islam-and-pluralism/observer-in-new-age-islam/who-is-a-kafir-in-the-quran?-(part-2)--muslim–-non-muslim-relationship/d/101525
Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 3): Why Kufr Is A Relative Concept While Shirk,
Idol Worship Etc. Have Fixed Meanings
URL of Part 3: http://newageislam.com/islam-and-pluralism/observer-for-new-age-islam/who-is-a-kafir-in-the-quran?-(part-3)--why-kufr-is-a-relative-concept-while-shirk,-idol-worship-etc-have-fixed-meanings/d/101618
is a Kafir in the Quran? (Part 4) Defining Kufr
URL of Part 4: http://newageislam.com/islam-and-pluralism/observer-for-new-age-islam/who-is-a-kafir-in-the-quran?-(part-4)-defining-kufr/d/101695
2. Those who wage war against the Muslims for no other reason other than their faith.
3. Those who mock and ridicule the Prophet or Islam.
4. Those who do not honour their agreements or respect ties of kinship or the rights of others.
2. Those who wage war against others for no other reason other than their faith.
3. Those who mock and ridicule the religion of other People
Is it not a secular definition which is understandable by any reasonable person
It is reassuring to read the following
concluding paragraphs of the article that the Muslim deniers of the Qur'anic
revelation today hate to accept.
"Yes the extremists and countries like
Pakistan; Saudi Arabia etc. are violating these (Qur'anic) norms in a major
"Sunni (Islamic) theology over the
last 1400 years has been systematically corrupted to suit the ruler who in turn
allowed the scholars to have their way and find ways and means to exercise
illegitimate power and control over the lives of others."
The article referenced below attempts to
construct why and how the dynastic rulers and the nexus of clergy/ Ulema and
jurists subverted the Qur'anic message:
"The social, moral and ethical
paradigms of the Qur’an conflicted with the political ambitions of the rulers
and their craving for wealth, power, glory, lavish Haram life and distinctive
privileges. Thus, since early centuries of Islam, the dynastic rulers
manipulated and even coerced the Ulema to obfuscate the egalitarian,
humanistic, gender neutral and pluralistic message of the Qur’an."
..."Furthermore, as Islam entered new cultures and civilizations, it
encountered customs and juristic norms that contradicted the Qur’anic
paradigms. To accommodate them into Islam – a historical necessity for the era,
the doctors of law declared: “Any Qur’anic verse which contradicts the opinions
of ‘our masters’ will be construed as having been abrogated, or the rule of
preference will be applied thereto. It is better that the verse is interpreted
in such a way that it conforms to their opinion” . ... Over time, this
notion has been dogmatized in Islamic societies which conflate the Qur’anic
message with the Hadith and the Classical Sharia of Islam."
And Shed Of Its Literary Glory in Translation, the Qur'an Offers Clear Clues to
Exploring Its Core Commandments - Now Obscured, Corrupted and Distorted By
Secondary Theological Sources
The segment of Muslim Ulema, Muftis,
intellectual elite and so-called rationalists of this era who conflate the
secondary sources (notably Hadith) with the Qur'an may be counted as Kafirin in
the divine court as this writer in constantly warning through his commentaries
and articles. It is hoped that truth will finally efface falsehood and the
Religion of Islam will be largely be cleansed of the accretions, perversion and
corruption that has reached such a peak or low that the Head of the
monotheistic communities of the world, Barack Obama had to finally intervene -
shame upon Islamic theological scholarship.
The article is driven by an in-depth
research into the Qur'an and reflects the twilight of a much awaited pedagogic
study of the Qur'an to help cleanse Islam of the perversion as wittingly or
unwittingly mentioned by Obama in the recent violent extremism summit and
expounded in the following article:
The Twin Growing
Menace: Petrifaction And Radicalization In Islam And Islamophobia – Are They
Interconnected? How Best They Can Be Diffused? An SOS To The Muslim
Intelligentsia, Leadership And Ulema!