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Islamic Personalities

Khwaja Gharib Nawaz (RA): The Saint who Conquered Indian Peninsula
Dargah Ajmer Sharif

Indeed, Islam spread in India and Pakistan not by the force of conquest or the elaborate arguments of mullahs and Quazis but through the work of great Sufi sheikhs. The Sufi sheikhs of the 13th century were not merchants of faith. They were men drunk with the love of God, giving themselves no gain but the prospect of divine pleasure, serving humanity irrespective of creed or nationality and sharing their spiritual bounty with whoever would partake of it. Proselytizing was not their goal; it was a by-product of their selfless service. …

Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti – A Model For Sufi Islam
Dargah Ajmer Sharif

Sufi Islam, as pointed out by us repeatedly is most tolerant Islam which is highly compatible with multi-culturalism and pluralism. It flourished in India precisely for this reason. Hazrat Moinuddin Chishti, who was from Seistan, Iran also migrated to India via Central Asia after seeing Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in dream who asked him to go to India and spread the message of Islam. Hadith literature also tells us that the Prophet (PBUH) had great attraction for India and in one of the hadith he is reported to have said that I am getting cold breeze from India. ...

 

Aristotle and Imam Ghazali are two immortals of history who put their seal on European and Muslim philosophical scholarship through succeeding generations. The generations disappeared in the fold of time but their teachings continue to attract mankind. Still they remain difficult and controversial as in their own times.

Jinnah’s Liberalism
Yasser Latif Hamdani

Jinnah’s Liberalism
Yasser Latif Hamdani
To Jinnah, politics was a gentlemen’s game where rabble rousing using religious slogans was distasteful. Speaking to the central legislative assembly on February 7, 1935, Jinnah declared, “Religion should not be allowed to come into politics...Religion is merely a matter between man and God.”…

 

For some, Mansur al-Hallaj was a magician, a heretic and a lunatic, who publicly claimed to be one with the One and deserved to be executed for heresy. But to his sympathizers he was a Sufi saint, who was martyred almost 1,100 years ago, on March 26, 922, allegedly for his ecstatic utterance. As far as Hallaj crying out "ana'l-haqq" in public is concerned, notable Sufi masters held it was a result of his spiritual state that is incomprehensible to a layman. …

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: Pakistan’s Forgotten Quaid

Ghaffar Khan preached the gospel of non-violence. His philosophy of non-violence was deeply religious and found the inspiration in the person of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and his treatment of people, especially of those from Makkah after the city’s final conquest. Gandhi advocated Satyagraha, ‘experiments with the truth’; Ghaffar Khan advocated a radical transformation of the Pakhtuns, as peaceful, forward-looking people. (Photo: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan) … 

Over the centuries, many eminent non-Muslim scholars have rated Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) most highly and have given due recognition to his greatness. “I have always held the religion of Muhammad (PBUH) in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion, which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence, which can make itself appeal to every age. I have studied him — the wonderful man and in my opinion far from being an anti-Christ, he must be called the Saviour of Humanity. -- Hasan Kamoonpuri

Sheik Hussein (variably Nur Hussein) was a benevolent, virtuous, and religious missionary who lived in Bale around 1300[i] A.D. Nur Hussein, a comrade of Sof Omar -- another prominent religious disciple of the same era – is credited for introducing and spreading Islam in the region. Since his death, songs have been written to honor him. In fact, a distinct genre of hymn called Baahroo, recited both in his honor and as a prayer, has evolved. Today, a religious cult of sort exists around his life and deeds. It is difficult to enumerate the number of Sheik Hussein’s followers but his cult remained dominant among many similar practices in the region. -- Mohammed Ademo

  

 

Imagine if Hakim had translated Bhagavad Gita in the twenty first century Pakistan, where militant outfits preach hatred against India and Mumtaz Qadris are celebrated, he would have been branded as an infidel for promoting the sacred texts of 'Kafirs'. Such is the rot of our present. Given the parochial education system and the monopoly of televangalists on national television, Hakim's message and ideas can constitute footnotes of history. This is why I was pleasantly surprised to hear about the new website that his distinguished daughter Prof Rafia Hasan has created. Internet is already changing the way we function, think and see the world. Henceforth, the portal www.khalifaabdulhakim.com will provide free access to the published works of Hakim Sahib. Hopefully, this will allow young Pakistanis to read and refer to his works, especially the ones in Urdu which have been uploaded in a user-friendly format and enable effortless reading. Hakim's major works include 'The Metaphysics of Rumi', 'Islamic Ideology', and 'Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his Mission'. A key work in his rich legacy was "Islam and Communism" published in 1951. Hakim was an ardent proponent of "Islamic socialism" which was later politicised and used as a slogan in the 1970s. In post-war India (during the 1940s) and post-1947 Pakistan, this was an important voice. – Raza Rumi

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was a unique Islamic personality of great Islamic scholarship, patriotism and passion for communal harmony. However, it is highly regrettable that his services to the country have almost been forgotten. For Maulana patriotism was an Islamic duty as the Prophet (PBUH) is reported to have said that love of one’s country is part of one’s faith (iman). And this love of country demanded its freedom from foreign slavery and thus he considered it his duty to free his country from British slavery. Thus when he became President of the Congress in Ramgarh session of the Congress, he, in his presidential address concluded his speech by saying that “even if an angle descends from heaven with a gift of freedom for India from Allah I would not accept it until there is Hindu-Muslim unity as loss of India’s freedom is loss of India but loss of Hindu-Muslim unity is loss of entire humanity”. -- Asghar Ali Engineer (Photo: Maulana Abul Kalam Azad)

Charles Dickens’ immortal book A Tale of Two Cities begins with the following unforgettable words: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way”. The times we are living in today are strikingly similar to those described above by Dickens. A fierce battle is raging between forces of good and forces of evil. Pakistan’s recent history is a stark illustration of this struggle. In Pakistan’s troubled past there appears to have been much more darkness than light, though Pakistan is proudly proclaimed by many to have been Allama Iqbal’s ‘dream’. Unfortunately, very few Pakistanis understand the content of this ‘dream’, which was the outcome of a lifetime of deep thinking and feeling, study, creativity and prayer. Iqbal’s ‘dream’ was that Indian Muslims have a state in which they could preserve “the culture of Islam inspired by a specific ethical idea”. By ‘the culture of Islam’ Iqbal did not mean the actual cultural practices of Muslims, but an ideal value-system based upon the ethical principles enshrined in the Holy Quran and actualised by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). -- Dr Riffat Hassan

Although Qaddafi was widely despised, he was held in awe for his cunning—so much so that even after he abandoned Tripoli to the rebels many Libyans feared he was still capable of outwitting his enemies and returning to power. A former senior government official told me, “I feel like a man who was in a dark hole, who has come into the sunlight, and it’s hazy. . . . What will happen now?” He fretted about Qaddafi. “He’s a genius,” the former official said. “He’s like a fox. He’s a very dangerous man, and he still has tricks up his sleeve. I cannot be convinced he is gone until I see him dead.” Qaddafi had no formal education until he was ten years old, and his family sent him to school in Surt. They couldn’t afford to rent a room for him, so he slept in a mosque and hitchhiked home on weekends, sometimes catching a ride on a camel or a donkey. He went to secondary school in the Saharan city of Sabha, where he developed a lifelong admiration for Egypt’s leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser, an Army officer and a pan-Arabist, worked with a revolutionary group called the Free Officers to topple the monarch, King Farouk, in 1952. As President, he outraged the West by nationalizing the Suez Canal. Qaddafi got in trouble for defiantly holding up Nasser’s image in class, and was finally expelled for organizing protests. -- Jon Lee Anderson

Today marks the 194th birthday of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. In 1869, he travelled with his two sons to England, from where he sent dispatches about his experiences for publication in India. Those fascinating dispatches from England remained unavailable to general public until 1961, when Shaikh Muhammad Isma’il Panipati edited and published them from Lahore. Now, thanks to Dr. Asghar Abbas, the former Director of the Sir Syed Academy at the Aligarh Muslim University we have a new and different edition. It contains the text as it first appeared in the pages of the Gazette, to which he has added several previously unnoticed articles. It makes the new book the most complete collection of what Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote publicly about his experiences abroad. In February 1869 the Aligarh Institute Gazette, the weekly bilingual journal of what was established in 1864 at Ghazipur as the Scientific Society, excitedly informed its readers that “the Institute’s Life Honorary Secretary, Maulvi Syed Ahmad Khan Sahib Bahadur, Subordinate Judge (First Class) and Judge (Small Causes) at Benares, was definitely traveling to England in April 1869.” -- C.M. Naim (Photo: Picture taken in Benares in 1869, most probably on the occasion of his departure for London. Syed Ahmad Khan sits on the ground in the middle; standing on the left are: Syed Hamid; Chhajju; and Syed Mahmud. Seated on the chair to the right of SAK is Raja Jaikishan Das)

In recognition of his contributions, the government of Bangladesh honoured him by appointing him the first National Professor from among physicians in 1984. He was awarded Swadhinata Padak (1979); Gold Medal by Begum Zebunnesa and Kazi Mahbubullah Trust (1981); Gold Medal by Mahbub Ali Khan Memorial Trust (1985); Gold Medal by Comilla Foundation, Comilla (1986); Gold Medal by Khan Bahadur Ahsanullah Memorial Trust, Ahsania Mission, Dhaka (1989); Gold Medal by Islamic Foundation Bangladesh (1989). He used to tell the patients: "We are grateful to you for giving us the opportunity to serve." His humility was legendary and most genuine. Deep empathy and compassion were characteristics of his dealing with his patients, especially those who were poor and in pain. He also motivated other doctors to serve the patients with empathy. -- Muhammad Abdul Mazid (Photo: Dr Mohammad Ibrahim)

By far the most stylistically sophisticated poet of the twentieth century, Allama Muhammad Iqbal drew on the best resources of a liberal Western education. While in his early poetry he had spoken of a united and free India where the Hindus and Muslims could co-exist, this belief in syncretism and pluralism soon gave way to Unitarianism and Individualism. The simple lyricism and romantic nationalism of the early phase was replaced by a self-conscious prophetism tempered with a strong political and social undertone. Iqbal's letters, given in their original form in the appendices and referred to also in Atiya's narrative, completes the picture. In one letter he writes, 'Thank you for all your scolding', in another he appends unpublished poems for her comments, offers clarifications as to why he refused teaching jobs at Aligarh and Lahore, confides about intensely personal matters such as his arranged marriage and the grief it has caused him. -- Rakhshanda Jalil (Photo: Allama Muhammad Iqbal)

 

Unable to bear the grief following the death of his mentor Hazrat Nizamuddin, Khusrau died exactly six months later, in 1325 AD. Once Jalauddin Khalji sought an interview with Hazrat Nizamuddin but was politely refused, for the Sufi stayed away from emperors and politics. The sultan planned an unannounced surprise visit to the Sufis khanqah. Khusrau learnt of the sultans secret plan and informed his mentor. Hazrat Nizamuddin left for Baba Farid’s dargah at Ajodhan. The sultan took Khusrau to task for divulging royal secrets. Khusrau explained, “In disobeying the sultan I stand in danger of losing my life, but in being untrue to my master, I stood in danger of losing my faith.” Impressed by Khusrau’s devotion, the sultan let the incident pass. -- Sadia Dehlvi (Photo: Hazrat Amir Khusroo (RA)

This article provides an overview of Nobel Prize Nominee Allama Mashriqi’s unique contributions to the fields of science and mathematics. The article touches on his academic career prior to his entry into politics, including his meetings with prominent scientists of the time like Albert Einstein and Dr. S.A Voronov and induction into the prestigious Geographical Society (Paris), Asiatic Society, and Royal Society of Arts (London). Ultimately, the author argues thatMashriqi’s contributions to these fields need to be explored further in order to fully understand and learn from his thoughts. -- Nasim Yousaf (Photo: Allama Mashriqi)

SAHITYA Akademi of India has brought out a book on one of Urdu’s leading literary figures, Niaz Fatehpuri, who is also known as an outspoken rationalist ever ready to fight for the cause of reason, more particularly in the domain of religion.   They had already rejected Sir Syed’s rationalist interpretations of Islamic teachings and once again the clerics rose in defence of Islamic teachings as interpreted by them. They came out with fatwas of apostasy against Niaz. He got his courage from his beliefs in the basic teachings of Islam. It was only the clerics’ version that he had rejected. Ejaz has quoted a number of writers who insist that Niaz was deeply involved in religion: he studied it a lot and tried to gain access to the truth underlying the teachings. Niaz appeared well settled in India but in July 1962 he quietly left Lucknow and came to Karachi. Niaz never explained the reason for his belated decision to come to Pakistan. -- Intizar Husain (Photo: Niaz Fatehpuri)

 

There is a lovely story from the life of the Prophet Muhammad, remembering that a mysterious visitor came upon him and his companions. The visitor, later revealed to be the archangel Gabriel, proceeded to sit intimately next to Muhammad and quiz the Prophet. He asked Muhammad about three increasingly higher and deeper levels of religiosity, which the Prophet answered sequentially as Islam (wholehearted submission to God), Faith and, lastly, Loveliness (ihsan). This third quality the Prophet identified as worshipping God as if we could see the Divine, and if we cannot, to always remember that God nevertheless sees us. -- Omid Safi

 

Slowly, we are forgetting (or are being made to forget) our national heroes, our history and our culture. I wonder what percentage of our young generation knows about Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali. Tipu Sultan was a good administrator as well as a good warrior. He had inflicted serious damages and casualties on the British in the First and Second Mysore Wars and had shattered the myth of their invincibility. (Portrailt of Tipu Sultan) -- Dr A Q Khan

It is extremely difficult for the Muslims of today to imagine and much less to endure the hardships that the Prophet and his companions underwent. In the ninth year of his mission, the Prophet — having been persecuted and terrorized by his people in Makkah — headed for Taif, home to the Banu Thaqif tribe. There he went to preach his message but was treated rudely by the tribal elders, who told him to clear off and even sent street urchins after him to beat him and pelt him with stones. -- KHALED ALMAEENA

It is extremely difficult for the Muslims of today to imagine and much less to endure the hardships that the Prophet and his companions underwent. In the ninth year of his mission, the Prophet — having been persecuted and terrorized by his people in Makkah — headed for Taif, home to the Banu Thaqif tribe. There he went to preach his message but was treated rudely by the tribal elders, who told him to clear off and even sent street urchins after him to beat him and pelt him with stones. He bled profusely causing his entire body to be covered with blood and his sandals to become clogged to his feet. He headed away from the town and took respite near a rock and made a heart-rending invocation to God Almighty beseeching mercy for the people who had persecuted him a few moments earlier.

It is said that the heavens were moved by the Prophet's prayer and the Archangel Gabriel came and said that God Almighty is aware of what has passed and that he has deputed an angel in charge of the mountains. The angel in charge of the mountains then came forward and offered to bring the mountains overlooking Taif to collide with each other to destroy the inhabitants. However, being a mountain of mercy himself and the mercy of the worlds, the Prophet refused. Note the conduct of our noble Prophet. … In spite of suffering so much at the hands of the Taif mob, the Prophet did not curse or seek revenge, even when the opportunity arose. Instead, he pleaded for mercy. -- Khaled Almaeena

A columnist friend recently asked me to do a write-up on what he described as the Pashtun political dynasties and, specifically, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan’s family. At the time it did not appear to be a difficult proposition to take up and I agreed. However, when I eventually got to the task at hand, it seemed like a herculean undertaking. It is formidable not because one could not or should not write about the Pashtun polity and role of clans in it but because it would be a serious injustice to the proudest son that Pashtun lands have ever produced to lump him together with any other Pashtun leader that came before or after him, including those related to him by blood. -- Dr Mohammad Taqi

Photo: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, popularly known as Badshah Khan or Sarhadi Gandhi with Mahatma Gandhi

 

Dataganj Bakhsh was a prominent writer and poet with his works being published in collections (Deewan). His Kashful Mahjub is his masterpiece on Sufism. … He derived the title “Hajweri” from his locality in Ghazani. … He visited India at the behest of his instructor and leader. One day he saw his mentor in a dream. He asked him to visit Lahore as he was given the charge of the city. He replied that Hazrat Khwaja Hasan Zanjani (RA) was already present in Lahore, so it was unnecessary. His mentor insisted that he travel to Lahore at the earliest without further arguments. He reached Lahore at night, and so stayed outside the city. When he entered the city in morning, he saw a funeral procession. On investigation, he discovered that it was the dead body of Hazrat Khwaja Hasan Zanjani (RA) being taken for burial.  Hazrat Zanjani had died the previous night. According to traditions, Dataganj Bakhsh led the last prayers for Hazrat Zanjani. Thus he realised the secret behind his mentor’s order to go to Lahore. -- Rauf Ramish

(Translated from Urdu by Raihan Nezami, NewAgeIslam.com)

 

Denied due acknowledgement in his lifetime, maverick poet Asadullah Khan Ghalib (1797-1869) had predicted that the world would acknowledge his greatness posthumously. The newest chapter in lengthening the memory of Ghalib was added on December 26 — a day ahead of his 213th birth anniversary — when his fans installed a beautiful bust of him at his restored haveli (mansion) in old Delhi's Gali Qasim Jaan. If the event warmed up the frozen December evening in the walled city — the fans, holding candles, marched to the memorial from crowded Chandni Chowk — the birth of the bust itself is no less exciting....

The sculptor says the toughest part was to capture Ghalib's droopy eyes and his pleasant smile. "Ghalib had a great sense of humour. He knew how to turn a tense moment into an agreeable one. This was difficult but I captured it in the bust," says Rampure, a JJ School of Arts graduate who initially worked in Mumbai but subsequently moved to Pune, from where he shifted to his hometown Solapur in 2007. -- Mohammed Wajihuddin

Photo: Mirza Ghalib

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