tan shows how struggles over the symbolic meaning of “Islam” have tangible, material consequences. In particular, her work demonstrates how the “state” is not a fixed entity, but something that is constantly evolving. By extension, through its instrumentalisation of “Islam,” the “state” is also responsible for making different aspects of “Islam” salient at different points in history. In other words, much of the meaning of “Islam” is also constructed by dynamic social forces. Thus, although anti-gay rhetoric in the name of contemporary Islam appears to be a universal phenomenon….