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Islamic Ideology (09 Aug 2012 NewAgeIslam.Com)



Islam and Kant’s Principle of Morality



By Naseer Ahmed, New Age Islam

9 August 2012

In his essay the ‘Supreme principle of morality’, Kant rejects the philosophy of Utilitarianism as a moral philosophy and speaks about the supreme principle of morality in which actions flow from a sense of duty or from reverence for the moral law, irrespective of the utility value or even negative utility.

We often think of freedom as simply consisting of being allowed to do what we want to do or absence of obstacles from doing what we want to do. For Kant, seeking pleasure and avoiding pain is not freedom but bondage to one’s animal instinct since the animals do the same.  Drinking when thirsty and eating when hungry is not choice but giving in to our creature needs. Freedom is absence of necessity.

For Kant, our rational capacity sets us apart from creatures with appetite and allows us to be autonomous. We are all rational, autonomous beings acting and choosing freely. To act freely and autonomously is not to choose the best means to an end but to choose the end itself. The end is important by itself. This man alone is capable of.

What gives an act its moral worth has to do with the motive, with the quality of the will or doing the right thing for the right reason. A good will isn’t good because of what it effects or accomplishes, it is good in itself. “Even if by utmost effort the good will accomplish nothing, it would still shine like a jewel for its own as something which has its full value in itself.” –Immanuel Kant

The Better Business Bureau’s slogan “Honesty is the best policy” is based on the recognition that it is also the most profitable since repeat business is what makes the business profitable, and a cheated or dissatisfied customer will not come back. It is a perfect example of action lacking moral worth. The business is rewarded for pursuing the policy in terms of its sales and profit. Doing the right thing for the wrong reason has no moral worth.

By acting autonomously, we become the instruments of a higher purpose and become as ends in ourselves. This capacity to act freely, to rise above self interest, inclination, prudence and to act from a sense of duty or reverence for the law is what gives human life a special dignity that deserves our respect. Rational beings are persons who have an absolute intrinsic value, they have dignity, they are worthy of reverence and respect. We need to therefore regard humans not as a means but as an end in themselves.

For Kant, suicide is on par with murder. Humanity that commands respect resides undifferentiated in all of us. We violate that dignity when we take a life for other than just purposes.  What we violate when we take a life is that we use a rational person, we use humanity as a means to satisfy our anger, greed or whatever, and so we fail to respect humanity as an end.

Kant’s respect for life is unlike love, sympathy, altruism, solidarity or fellow feeling or who they are in particular. Not killing for any of these reasons is only a means to an end and lacks moral worth.

We have a duty to preserve ourselves. If a person does not commit suicide in spite of an extremely miserable and painful existence and out of a sense of duty, there is moral worth in the person’s choice to live and in his struggle. If the old and the aged and those who are nothing but a burden on those on whom they are dependent are loved and cared for, there is moral worth in what they do for them.

As far as treatment of other people is concerned, it should be consistent with respect for their dignity.

If an action is good solely as a means to something else, the imperative is hypothetical. If the action is solely out of a sense of duty and reverence for the moral law, then the imperative is categorical.

Islamic principles of morality

Man is the best of God’s creation capable of exercising autonomous free will and a rational person capable of learning by reasoning. The exalted position of man is demonstrated by asking the Angels to prostrate to Adam. Freedom to choose and autonomy is established when Adam is free to eat any of the fruits in paradise except from one tree. There are no obstacles to his freedom.

Belief and acting out of reverence for God’s law or in submission to his Will, is the categorical imperative or the end in Islam and without belief, good works have no value in the hereafter. Man is however invited to belief on a rational basis. He is asked to consider the fact that the Quran invites him to only good things and prohibits him from harmful things and from shameful conduct. The conduct that he is invited to is in accordance with man’s position as the best of creations worthy of reverence.

All other creatures including Angels are lower in rank to man. Man is next to God and is meant to live with a dignity consistent with that position and worship none except God. By worshipping other objects including Angels or spirits or idols, a man abases himself to become the lowest of the low since even the beasts and inanimate objects do not worship anything except God (live in accordance with their nature given by God). Such a person is cast into hell.

There is no compulsion in religion in accordance with the principle of autonomous free will of man since truth has been made distinct from error. There is no obstacle to the freedom to choose how one wishes to live and what one wishes to believe in. The believers are prohibited from fighting peaceful disbelievers. God also promises disbelievers plenty in this life as long as they do not fight God or the believers or in brief, do not spread mischief and live otherwise a good life.

Good actions of the disbelievers emanate from hypothetical imperatives and have no value in the hereafter. They have value in this world however, and man is rewarded according to the reason for their good behaviour. Good actions for the love of God or for reverence of the moral law of God or as submitting to the will of God alone have value in the hereafter and the believers are therefore rewarded in the hereafter with heaven.

Murder and suicide are equated with crime against all humanity and saving of a life is equated with saving of entire humanity.

Kant’s philosophy of supreme morality is considered to be the highest and also the most difficult to understand. We have seen above that Islam’s principles are consistent with it. As a matter of fact, Kant’s philosophy of supreme morality is Islam without divinity. The absence of divinity is what makes Kant’s philosophy difficult. People can easily comprehend utilitarianism but for what reason should they follow a philosophy which is higher than utilitarianism? The concept of the categorical imperative therefore makes little rational sense without divinity.

Naseer Ahmed is an Engineering graduate from IIT Kanpur and is an independent IT consultant after having served in both the Public and Private sector in responsible positions for over three decades. He is a frequent contributor to NewAgeIslam.com.

URL:http://newageislam.com/islamic-ideology/by-naseer-ahmed,-new-age-islam/islam-and-kant’s-principle-of-morality/d/8219

 




TOTAL COMMENTS:-   113


  • Harsh,

    Thanks for reading and your comments. 

     If you read my very first comment, I made it clear that according to the Quran Purity in worship and entitlement for heaven is not the prerogative of any particular community or followers of any particular faith. 

    So you could draw parallel between another religion and Kant's philosophy as well. Kant himself was a protestant Christian.

    Also, I mentioned that the divine moral code should be able to pass the criteria viz: maximum the good for all moral agents.



    By Naseer Ahmed - 2/19/2013 6:00:56 AM



  • Naseer AHmed I read it and I like it, though I don't quite agree with it. Islamic principle of morality and Kantian principle of morality are at two opposing poles. There may be some similarities but the differences far outweigh the similar points. frist ofall in Kantian morality there is no role model to emulate. a person is so good that he become his own role model, see the effects of the society. it was the time of justbefore  french revolution and people were thinking in terms of individuality and personal goodness, as a reaction to the hundreds fo years of  submissivness.all these ideas come as a reactoin to it. in islam,as much as i know, you have to copy the prophets, especially Muhammad, Jeusu, Moses and Abraham. for Kant morality is done for oneself and the fruits or rather no fruits will bear in this lifeonly, but in the islamic concept it is in the next life. your article is thought provoking, i agree and at times diffcult to udnerstand but I am sorry i dont toe with your ideas. but i think you can become a very good philosopher. it was a wonderful read. thank you for the link .
    By Harsh Chaturvedi - 2/19/2013 5:15:40 AM



  • Ahmed Sb, I see your point.

     


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/20/2012 12:23:21 AM



  • GM Sb,

    You are mixing up  “following a code absolutely” with “a uniform code for all”.  They are not the same. Please go through my previous comments.

    I suppose you are trying to tell the Hindus and Christians that they should not consider Muslims as living in sin because they marry their cousins. To my knowledge, no Christian or Hindu has commented so far. Nor has any Muslim commented on other communities


    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/19/2012 10:47:41 PM



  • If married Muslim cousins Julie and Mark were having marital sex, that would still be incest in the eyes of many Hindus and Christians. It is best not to be an absolutist while  living in pluralistic societies. If we consider our neighbors to be sinners for following their religious tenets, what kind of a community would we be?
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/19/2012 3:20:33 PM



  • Premarital sex with cousins is fairly common. The following is a link to a published paper based on a study of those who attended a Clinic in Pondicherry for STD
    http://medind.nic.in/ibo/t08/i1/ibot08i1p18.pdf
    The incidence of sex with a relative as a percentage of all incidents of pre marital sex is 48%
    You would agree that the chances of a person having sex with a relative and acquiring STD is low.
    If we consider the  people who have pre marital sex and do not get STD or those who avoid the commercial sex worker and indulge in sex with friends and relatives only, then in this population, the percentage that has pre marital sex with a relative is 69%, 24% with friends and 9% with others (a neighbor for example). Since we do not have results of any study outside the Clinic, these percentages are arrived at by excluding the numbers relating to sex with commercial workers.
    Islam does not force anyone to marry a cousin nor does it encourage  it. I agree that Muslims should avoid marrying first cousins. In view of the statistics above however, tell me whether God's laws are wise or unwise? God knows the weaknesses of man and permits what needs to be permitted so that the law is not broken. 
    People glibly talk about Ijtehad. Examine any divine law and prove with a proper study that it needs to be changed before talking about changing it.
    Some of the ills of society are from not implementing the divine law. For example, the right of a woman to have the marriage annuled  irrespective of her husbands consent. The root cause of exploitation of women is denial of this right which is granted by the Quran.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/19/2012 12:44:49 PM



  • Respected Naseer Ahmed Sahib. Thank u very much for sparing some time.
    There is evidence that cousin marriage brings negative traits in generations. Muslims are permitted to have these marriages. They say that what is made halal (valid) by Allah can't be made haram (invalid).
    Julie And Mark if Muslims do sex with consent, certainly it is haram. But if they are married then there is no problem. Does marriage remove incest? In other societies it is easier to change but in Muslim society it is a remote dream. Any medical or social evidence is useless for Muslims because they demand that evidence should come from a Muslim only. Many Muslims avoid male Non-Muslim doctors for the treatment of their wives.
    In Islam what is set is set forever. The proof is that no Ijtihad taking place even there is great need in changed conditions. Who will start how it will be achieved? Pardon me if I asked the same question.
    Eid Mubarak


    By mohd yunus - 8/19/2012 8:32:17 AM



  • MY2 Sb,

    Your questions are good questions and I believe that these have been fully covered. I therefore request you to go through the discussions that have already taken place and ask any remaining doubts.

    Briefly:

    The moral code could be a divine code or arrived at rationally.

    It need not necessarily be the same for all people and could differ especially as it concerns only a community without affecting the other communities.

    The principle from which the code is derived is maximizing the good taking into account all the moral agents meaning all people.

    A balance is maintained between what is best and what is possible to observe without breaking the code. Breaking of the code leads to lack of respect for the code itself and a general collapse of the entire code. The code endeavours to achieve the maximum good which is not necessarily by having the best code, but a code that is both good and capable of being observed. Persons are at liberty to exceed the requirements of meeting the code as far as good is concerned.

    Nudity is internal to a community as long as they can keep themselves separate from the rest. Tribal communities may live in innocence in the nude but when these communities come into closer contact with other communities, they find it difficult to maintain their ways and there are fewer such tribes left. Tribal nudity is different from exposure to arouse and titillate.

    Once the code is accepted, upholding it should become an end in itself and not merely a means to an end. Acting out of a sense of duty ensures that the code is upheld in all situations irrespective of whether there is a chance of getting caught or not.

    Upholding a moral principle sets up a good example which may inspire the rest of humanity for good even though the person upholding the principle may lose a great deal doing so. Personal gain or loss is then no longer a consideration for a morally upright agent who acts only out of a sense of duty and this helps maximize good for all.


    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/19/2012 6:20:23 AM



  • Respected Naseer Ahmed Sahib.
    Please educate me on morality. What is morality? Is there any clear cut guideline?
    I think moral is moral whether it is sprouted from divine or secular source. Only thing to consider one thing moral or immoral is complex in nature.
    For example beef consumption and incest are taboo in Hindu society. Incest in Hindus cover many relations including cousins. Muslims have no problem in cousin marriage, even majority prefer it. What do you say is beef consumption moral or immoral?
    Beef consumption may not have sufficient weight. But incest is serious one issue. Is not marriage of cousins incest? what is your definition of incest?
    You may follow Islamic definition, but others don't follow it.
    For example our aim is to control the traffic.
    Now person A obey the traffic rule even in absence of traffic officer, but he believe in secular laws not in God's laws.
    Person B obeys traffic rule because he believes that God approves discipline.
    The result is moral. Equally good.
    Person C doesn't obey the traffic rule because he thinks that it is written nowhere in  divine books.  Who is moral now?
    Please avoid finding logical fallacies.
    Many tribes are living nude. What morality will you apply on them?
    I endorse the view of Mohammed Yunus(1) in his comments.
     I endorse morals(Golden Rules) sprouted from all sources with the aid of my intellect.
    Objective is to be moral. period
    By mohd yunus - 8/19/2012 2:24:59 AM



  • The meaning of an absolute morality is that one follows it under all conditions without ifs and buts. Morality is not what you can get away with, in which case it is a game of 'catch me if you can'.
    Different people will have different morals. The question is whether their standard is absolute - meaning an end by itself or means to an end. If it is only a means to an end, then  the end itself is endangered.
    For example, if we agree that Julie and Mark are 'right' by applying a flexible yardstick and agreeing that they have taken care of the reasons people commonly give out to say why incest is bad, then it is a matter of time before incest becomes common. So the question is really 'is incest harmful to society?'. If the answer is yes, then it is wrong under all conditions.
    For a Muslim, if Julie and Mark are cousins or unrelated, it would still be undesirable because it would  be adultery. Muslim society has not accepted consensual sex between adults as acceptable.
    Standards do change. For example slavery is unacceptable today. Moving towards a higher standard is not the problem when the ideal state is known and what is considered acceptable today is only a compromise because of a given situation and it's constraints.
    The problem is with standards that are broken on account of  human weaknesses. If these standards are not maintained as absolute standards, then human weakness will prevail and the standards will fall by the wayside with consequences to society.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/19/2012 1:21:50 AM



  • Respected Naseer Ahmed sahib What do you say about Abel and Qabeel sons of Adam episode mentioned even in Quran. Detailed  story is in Ahadith. Was not there incest? Please cast a light on this morality issue. I am new to moral issues. Please explain in simple manner. 
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin In the story of Julie and Mark related by Ahmed saheb, if they were cousins instead of sister and brother, and had sex, the reaction of Muslims and non-Muslims would be quite different. How shall we apply an absolute law of morality in such a case?
    I am with Ghulam Sahib. Please explain.
    By mohd yunus - 8/19/2012 1:21:14 AM



  • Janab Naseer Ahmed Sahib Please mention the appropriate thread for my benefit.

    By mohd yunus - 8/18/2012 11:37:09 PM



  • In the story of Julie and Mark related by Ahmed saheb, if they were cousins instead of sister and brother, and had sex, the reaction of Muslims and non-Muslims would be quite different. How shall we apply an absolute law of morality in such a case?
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/18/2012 2:51:28 PM



  • MY2 bhai,

    I am afraid that your comments are irrelevant to the topic. Please carry on your discussion in the appropriate thread.


    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/18/2012 4:08:22 AM



  • There was a comment on Morality being a matter of personal choice which remained unresponded because it was not central to the discussion. I have recently commented on it in another thread and am including it here also since the subject was touched upon.

    The case against Moral Relativism

    Consider the following story from Jonathan Haidt’s book ‘The Happiness Hypothesis’

    “Julie and Mark are sister and brother. They are travelling together in France on summer vacation from college. One night they are staying alone in a cabin near the beach. They decide that it would be interesting and fun if they tried making love. At the very least, it would be a new experience for each of them. Julie is already taking birth control pills, but Mark uses a condom, too, just to be safe. They both enjoying making love, but decide not to do it again. They keep that night as a special secret, which makes them feel even closer to each other.”

    Do you think it is acceptable for two consenting adults, who happen to be siblings, to make love? Haidt  goes on to argue that there is no valid moral argument against it since Julie is unlikely to conceive, their relationship is likely to become closer, the act is kept secret, and that they are unlikely to repeat it.

    Does not everything start in small and safe ways and eventually become an epidemic? The absolute law of morality therefore has value.

    The dangers of moral relativism are underestimated. Children outgrow their Oedipal, Electra, homosexual feelings and are helped in no small way by the sexual mores of society and social taboos surrounding incest and homosexuality. Remove the taboos and we already see homosexuality becoming far too common. This is not just a case of what was hidden earlier is now coming out in the open but a case of many who otherwise may have stayed away from it are indulging in it as it is no longer taboo.

    Philosopher Fredrick Nietzche declared that  God is dead.  If God is dead, then morality is a matter of personal choice. The root of a person’s denial of God is also the person’s moral depravity. It is far too uncomfortable for a morally depraved person to believe in God.

    If we combine moral relativism with positive tolerance then on what basis can we condemn anything?  The only principle left then is might is right and the only game in town is ‘catch me if you can’.


    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/18/2012 4:06:09 AM



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